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WBJ 

'R649b 

1843 




THE 

BOOK OF HEALTH, 

OR 

THOMSONIAN THEOflY AND PRACTICE OF MEDICINE, 
INCLUDING THE LATEST VIEWS OF 

PH7SI0L0G7,PATH0L0a7, AND 

T'HSHAPETJTiaS; 

BY ! ^.'^'' 

T. K. HOBEHTSOIT} T. P., 

'iL 
Licentiate of the N. Y. S. Thomsonian Medical Society, 
and Lecturer on Medical Science. 

ALSO, 
DESCRIPTIONS OF DISEASE, MEDICAL PR 

AND 

Jflateria Med 




BY 

SILAS -TVZLCOZ, T. 

Licentiate of the Vt. S. Thomsonian Medical Society. 
DESIGNED FOR EVERY BODY. 



BENNINGTON 



PRINTED BY 
J. I, C. ic A. S. C . C O O K t 

1843. 



W13J 



Entered acrording to Act of Congress, in 
the year of our Lord, 1843, 

By S. Wilcox and F. K. Robeutson, 

lu the Clerk's Office of the District Court 
of the State of Vermont 



'• All men ought to be acquainted with the medical art." 
— Hyppocratese. 

" I would ask wherein lies the difference between the 
medical practitioner and the nurse at the sick bed?" — Ma- 

JENDIE. 

" It is time to take the cure of pestilential fevers out of 
the hands of physicians, and place it in the hands of the 
people." — Rubu. 

"I will endeavor to instruct them all within my power" 
'♦**'• Aid Nature."— Thomson, 




TO DR. SAMUEL THOMSOx\, 

The American Medical Revolutionist ; in 
consideration of his demonstration that poi- 
sons and blood letting are totally unnecessa- 
ry in the cure of disease ; in consideration of 
his simple, safe and most effectual system of 
medicine ; and the vigor and talent with 
which he has brouglit it before the world in 
opposition to the Regular Faculty ; in con- 
sideration of the amount of misery it has re- 
lieved, the pleasure it has given, and the 
length of life it has already added to existence, 
this work is most respectfully dedicated by 

THE AUTHORS 



To TTIK FaRMKR, the MeCHXIC, and the NoX-ProFEJ:- 

SICNAL Reader in General. Thi^ work is designed for 
you. It has been taught, and believed that common people — 
nature's real nobility — have not a proper right to study 
medicine. That is utterly false. Would you be slaves ? 
No ! Arouse, then, to your sense of reason and hu- 
manity, and take the charge of your o\\-n bodies. Your 
abilities are equal, yea, better, for the task, than the facul- 
ty. Dr. Rush says to suppose the talents of those who can 
learn to preserve health, by the cultivation of grain, and 
the baking of bread, are not equal to the task of restoring 
health, is to question the goodness of the Deity. Your- 
selves do know that rejecting the physician has sometimes 
saved life and limb. Wo know it has hundreds. 

Be your own physicians ! No one can supply your 
place. It will not only save your lives, but your money. 
With the practical part of this work you will be pleased.— 
If the theoretical part seems more difficult we hope you will 
not pass it over, nor condemn it ns too " high flown." 

We have endeavored to make the language explain it- 
self Besides, you will remember that all the words we 
use may be found in Webster's Dictionary. 

When, we enter upon a netv subject, we miist employ 
new terms. Copiousness of language is strictly necessary 
to definite expressions. We once joined the crusade a- 
gainst " tecnicalities ;" but now, with the cuUivation of i- 
deas, wc find it ne©cssary to cultivate language. 



PREFACE. 



Most authors, in bringing their new works before the 
world, are in the habit of offering some apology, in which 
they are prone to disavow all pecuniary motives ; while 
their readers are equally as prone to assign money as 
their first object. 

Should the author of these pages meet with a like accu- 
sation, he will most impenitently plead guilty. 

If the reader thinks this a had apology, he must think 
It a bad thing to have been, a number of years engaged, 
under great embarrassments, in the study of medicine. To 
have practiced in a number of places with no pecuniary 
profit ; and to have withheld himself from fully entering 
into " a circle of practice," with the design of pursuing, 
more independently, the study of the science. A bad thing 
to have discovered, and deeply felt, the necessity of the 
more general diffusion oi medical knoivledgc as it now is. 
To have devoted himself to this cause in hazard of for- 
tune — may be in hazard of reputation. To have prosecu- 
ted this object by commencing a career of public lectur- 
ing. To have felt the necessity of leaving his ideas with 
the people in some more permanent form than the fleeting 
remembrance of impressions on the liquid air ; and to have 
wished for some pecuniary reward, to enable him to honor- 
ably carry on his project. 

However, it is hoped when the reader has perused flie 
volume, and compared its great value to vitality, with it.? 
small price to the pMr#e,he will consider the first object ou!\ 



PREFACE 7 

the taszs, improvoment of knowledge, the superstructure 
and if he please, benevolence the dovie. 

It may be inferred, from the above remarks, that the 
author is not " old and experienced." He frankly acknwl- 
edges, thai comparatively it is a fact ; but he trusts that 
this defect is more than compensated by being associated 
in the practical part of this work, with JDr. Sifas Wilcox, 
for ten years an extensive practitioner in Vermont, and six 
in the tomi of Bennington and its vicinity. 

Previous to our arriving in this place, we had heard, 
from different persons, some very animated accounts of the 
success of the practice here, and its adoption by the majori- 
ty, and the most influential of the people,which we thought 
to be too good to be true; but we find upon examination 
that Thomson's eternal rules have prevailed to an extent 
unparalleled within our knowledge. 

Tliis town embraces three large villages, and contains a- 
bout 4,000 inhabitants. 

When Dr. Wilcox commenced, there were in his im- 
mediate village, East Bennington, ^ue regular physicians 
in practice. They are now all gone, excepting one. At 
first, besides the regulars, the people kept two Thomsonian 
physicians constantly employed ; now, one will suffice in 
ordinary times. This singular state of things has two 
grand causes. Firstly, the abandonment of the regulars, 
and their poisons in the name of medicines. Secondly, 
the spread of Thomsonian knowledge among the people 
For the pains taken in supplying the community Avith books, 
papers, and verbal information, Dr. W. is deserving of 
much honor. 

No less than a dozen families, in thevillage ofEast Ben- 
nington, have books giving a full and complete account 
of the Thomsonian Theory and Practice. They do much 
of their own practice. The most intelligent and wealthy 
have embraced it. When a friend is taken sick he is wait- 
ed upon, by his neighbors with the kindest solicitude. — ■ 
Not in fassive sympatMj, but with actual benevolence. 

If the patient is not decided with respect to the medicine, 
•they do not sneak away and leave a regular to take the re- 
sporuiihility ; but kindly and firmly press him to receive 
the blessings of a Tiatural practice. 



8 PREFACE. 

Very much the same state of things exist in tlic adjom- 
ing town, Shaftsbury. 

The whole presents, comparatively, a happy picture of 
the diffusion of true medical knowledge. But much yet 
remains to be done. 

It is to further this work that the present volume is of- 
fered ; and the authors fondly hope that the people will re- 
ceive it as a botanist would an exotic from the gardens of 
Paradise ; unless it should fail to correspond with its noble 
object ; than from a land of the purest liberty and most gen- 
eral intelligence ; than from Bennington, of heroic memo- 
ry, where the wilderness of medical error is almost clear- 
ed away, the writer knows no place where a worlAikethis 
could more fittingly emenate. No soil more congenial to 
nourish a plant with branches blooming with physiological 
hope, and dropping with the balm of health. 

This work, although inteHded as a complete guide to the 
practice, is not designed, completely, to take the place of 
any other on the same subject ; but in a measure to fill a 
place occupied by none. 

Now that the Thomsonian Practice is fast going into the 
hands of the most learned class they will naturally de- 
mand, if it is founded in nature, that it be illustrated by the 
sciences. To do this is an important object of the following 
pages. 

We intend to show many reasons, dra-\Mi from physiolo- 
gy and the other sciences, tending to explain the nature of 
disease, strongly indicating the use of Thomsonian reme- 
dies, and explaining their mode of operation. 

We do not, however, expect to solve all the questions a- 
rising out of medical subjects ; but we know we can many ; 
solutions too, of great importance ; for errors in theory 
lead to errors in practice. 

Thomson says, " Clearly to understand the laws of life 
and motion, the radical principles of animalization, is of in- 
finite moment." 

Notwithstanding Abercrombie, and others, have writtea 
S9 much about the uncertainty of medical soience, yet wc 
hope to be pardpnedfor saying, positirely, we, know. The 
shade of Bacon should not deter us ; for the life of a pa- 
tient is no subject for guess work. We have lono- since 



PREFACE. 9 

ceased to say wo believe in tlie Thomson ian system. It is 
not a matter of belief but of knowledge. We would as soon 
tallf of bclievino- the multiplication table, or that twice two 
are four. On the contrary, the old school have advanced 
very little into the prgvinco of demonstration. With them 
the word belief is an appropriate term ; and it often requires 
as much credulity as to believe that two from four leaves 
six. 

The more we study the sciences, the more philosophic 
meaning we discover in the simple sayings and doings of 
the illustrious Thomson. It is true, that many of his terms 
are not in accordance with their general usage in science, 
yet we can easily perceive, in comparing them with each 
other, and with their application in practice, that he had a 
clear and accurate conception of the most important laws of 
life, disease and medicine. We shall endeavor to bring out 
these ideas in the most perspicuous language, and by the 
most demonstrable illustrations of science ; and although 
this work is designed for the family shelf, yet we trust it shall 
not be the less appropriate in the professor's library. 

Although this work is intended to contain all the reasons, 
and medicines which the present state of knowledge fur- 
nishes, and makes necessary in ordinary cases, yet it is not 
designed to intercept sales of other popular works in the 
Thomsonian market ; but to increase them. 

It is hoped that this little volume will pioneer the way 
into many families whose ability and intelligence will not 
leave them contented until they have filled up their medical 
libraries Avith such works as the following : — 

The Tho:\isonian Materia — medica, and Botanic Fam- 
ily Physician — an elegant volume of 800 pages — Samuel 
Thomson's last edition of his celebrated book — Edited by 
John Thomson. This work contains a very complete sys- 
tem of anatomy, an outline of botany, and a description of 
medical plants illustrated by most spendid colored draw- 
ings. The possession of this work, from a legal agent, con- 
stitutes the Family Right— Price % 1 2,00. 

The American Vegetable Practice, by Morris Matt- 
son — with beautiful plates, and containing much informa- 
tion not found in our other works — Price $7,00. 

A Treatise on the Botanic Theory and Practice of Medi- 



10 PREFACE 

Gine, by A. N. Worthy, M. D, professor ol' the thoory and 
practice of medicine in the Southern Botanico Medical Col- 
We This work contains an excellent diagnosis and a 
minute description of most varieties of disease incident to 
man. It will probably be our standard on this subject lor 
many years — Price $5,00. 

And anew work just expected from the press on the 
Thomsonian Practice, by J. W. Comfort, M. D.,— Price 
S3,00. ^ ^. ^ 

Bennington, May 1st, 1843. 



PART FIRST. 



CHAP. 1. 

IMPORTANCE OF THE DIFFUSION OF MEDICAL 
KNOWLEDGE. 

Lite is sweet. Existence ! It is a boon that well bc- 
romes the qifts of God. While now I lift my pen to write 
of life and health, my heart and very blood exults in being, 
and dances joyously in the wild and mellow beams of an 
April's morning- sun. The music of the newly arriven 
birds — the robin's cheerful notes, and the blue bird's warb- 
ling melody, are to me the vehicles on which my gratitude 
is ascending to the Giver of life, and all its senses perceive. 
Each passing neighbor's cheerful countenance, and the 
children gamboling on the frost forsaken walk, all speak 
the love of life. 

It is a precious souvenir from Heaven. A goblet on 
which is richly cha.?cd figures easily worn — of workman- 
ship that no art can imitate, yet frail and easily rent. A 
prototype of the Caledonians galvanic cup and ale, in whick 
we can taste itself and all other happiness. 

It is the part of wisdom, and the authors' earnest desire 
ihat all should keep this gift with grateful care ; or else 
corroding canker, for the time, may embitter the draught ; 
or else some careless jar may make a fissure, and then no 
more shall happiness fill to the brim the cup of life ; ah, yes, 
or else some reckless transgression may dash it into a thoa- 
?and fragments of utter worthlef5sne8P. 



t2 IMPORTANCE OF THE DIFFUSION 

Sfc liow all the world are striving, uith pleasure, to run 
the goblet over; ignorant of its structure; thoughtless of 
the conditions of the gift ; regardless of the laws of health. 

See yonder farmer — mechanic — merchant; each with 
all the eagerness of his soul is striving for the various fruits 
Avhich fill the cup with the mingled wine of life, while oft, 
with strangest want of heed, the goblet itself is cracked, or 
crushed forever in the strife. 

Behold the pastor, given to tutor the highest feelings of 
happiness ; behold the magistrate, given to protect the fruits 
Avith which they are fed ; yes, behold the physician, given 
to preserve the very cup in which they are mingled, and 
see how each have" violated the interest every m:in should 
have inthenecture of his own goblet of life. The scien- 
ces of religion and govenmient have long since been Avrest- 
ed from the hands of potentates and princes and given to- 
the people ; while the science of life, that vv'hich is the very 
basis of the others, has been withheld from them. 

The strangeness, and the resulting misery of this error, 
should cause phylosophers to wonder and poets to weep. 

So little has been lenrned, by society in general, respect- 
ing the phylosophy of life, so little do they think that health 
depends strictly upon conditions, so nmch they seem to have 
trusted upon the predeterminations of fate, or the blind ac- 
cidents of chance, that there seems to have been even more 
than an apathy upon the subject of health. It would seem 
that in the pursuit of pleasure the people have been en- 
deavoring to see how far they can venture down the whirl- 
pool of disease without being irretrievably caught by its 
eddying force, drawn down into the vortex and dashed at 
last upon the rocks of death. 

America! hearken, think, speak and proclaim that 
these things shall be so no longer. It is a cause of vital 
importance. It is no less than a question between life and 
death. No question between wealth or poverty, fame or ob- 
scurity can compare with it. Attend to the laws of life ! So 
great is the call, and so much is to be done, that the farm- 
er should leave his plough in the field, the mechanic drop 
his tools and the merchant forsake his counter, and fly to 
the records or councils of the learned and experienced, that 



OF iMEDICAL KNOWLEDGE. Ui 

they uui y return to their avocations with secure or improv- 
ing health ; and then, with a sound body, take moral mpana" 
to enjoy a good old age and a happy future. 

Every man should be his own phiisidan. 

It must be conceded by all, that in a complete and gen- 
eral view, the knowledge of preventing diseases is the most 
important part of the science of medicine ; as much more 
important,as it is easier to prevent disease than to cure it. — 
And shall this be confined alone to the physicians ? Can 
every man have a physician at his elbow to point out to 
him in what condition of body he may be safely exposed to 
inclement weather, and how long it may be continued, when 
the air he breathes is piire or deleterious, when he is in 
contact with poisonous substances, where that median lino 
of wi^om is, where the indulgence of the appetites', and 
health, and all the pleasures of society together meet, how 
he may understand the nature of disease in its incipient 
stages and thwart it in the beginning ? Certainly not. — 
He must have the knowledge of these things himself — 
And if every man should know the most important part of 
the science of medicine Avhy not know the least important 
part — the means of curing disease. If those means arc 
founded upon the laws of life, it follows of course if he 
knows one he must know the general principles of the oth- 
ers ; and to this we have the testimony of Thomson " That 
which will prevent disease Avill also cure it." 

What ! every man be a physician. We do not say so. 
Saying that every farmer should be an agriculturist, is not 
saying that every farmer should be his own laborer, and 
do all his own work ; and saying that every man should 
be his own physician, is not saying that every man should 
be his own practitioner and nurse ; but every man ought 
to know how his own work should be done, especially that 
which so nearly concerns him as the preservation of heakh, 
and the removal of disease. As well have every man be 
his own miller, tailor, and shoemaker, says one. Not a 
very correct comparison ; however there is no philosophic 
principle in either of these trades that should not be known 
by every body ; although it is not necessary that they 
should know every particular application, of these princi- 



14 IMPORTANCE OF THE DIFFUSION 

pics, any more than a man in studying mathematics shoulol 
Know the particular mode in which every problem has been 
wrought since the days of Euclid. 

The laws of equality have ordained that it is not incom- 
patible with the interests of society, for all, who are capa- 
'ble, to study and understand the sciences. The world for 
the last hundred years has been fast approximating this priv- 
ilege. 

Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Geography, Mathema- 
tics, &c., have been generally diffused. But strange to say 
that medical science, that which should have been the first 
of them all, has been the last. Let the time soon come 
•when the last shall be first. Let medical knowledge be 
'diffused. Let it even be taught in common schools. It is 
not im^iroper for the school-room ; nor will it burthen the 
scholar's mind with too many studies. Fifty years ago, 
objections might have been raised against Geography as 
a branch of common learning, especially before figures ; 
but now we find it introduced and taking that place with 
■the greatest success. 

From the author's own experience in teaching, he can 
«ay that its difficulties do not arise so much from introdu- 
cing too many studies within the period of youth, as con- 
fining them to the accomplishment of one before they leave 
it. The latter course must overtask the mind, if any thing. 
No philosopher with all his wisdom and age ever perfectly 
understood any science. 

Newton after he had discovered the laws that govern the 
Solar System, and analyzed the light of the sun, says he 
felt himsL'lf but a little child gathering pebbles on the shore . 
of the great ocean of science." Before fifteen years of age' 
every youth should be instructed in the rudiments of all the 
important sciences ; advancing in each with the increase 
of their powers. 

Do not startle and protest, reader ; here is respectable 
testimony. 

Dr. Combe, author of the "Constitution of Man," in a 
letter to Dr. Lee, of New York, concerning a work on 
physiology, which he was about to publish for elementary 
ichools, writes thus : — '• I take the liberty to urge very 
.*arneetly upon your attention, not only the advantage, bm 



OF MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE. lb 

the ?ieces.S2/.y ol introducing instruction in anatomy and, 
physiology into popular oducation. 

The groat laws of health cannot bo undorstood, nor their 
importance appreciated without this knowledge. I do not 
mean that you should teach your cliildren all the minute 
details of thrse sciences, which would be necessary, if you 
intended them for the practice of medicine or surgery fajl 
that I desire is, that the structure of the leading organs of 
the body should be explained so far as to rende'r the /z/«c- 
?fo//5 of them intelligible ; and that on this knowledge be 
founded a clear and practical elucidation of the Zaw.? 0/ 
health. I can certify from observation, that this instruc- 
tion may be communicated to children of fen years and 
upwards, with great success. The structure addresses their 
observing facuUies, and an explanation of their functions is 
as interesting to them as a romantic story." 

On this subject, Dr. Rush, the most distinguished Amer- 
ican medical writer of the old school, holds the following 
language : — '• The essential principles of life are very few, 
they are moreover very simple. All the morbid effects of 
heat and cold, of eating and -drinking, and of the exercises 
of the body and mind, may be taught with as much ease as 
the multiplication table. Let us strip our profession of ev- 
ry thing that looks like mystery and imposition, and clothe 
medical knowledge in a dress so simple and intelligible A 

that it may become a part of academical education in all m 
our seminaries of learning." I 

Such is the language of the most of those original med- 
ical writers, who have in the Avords of Rush " Emancipa- 
ted themselves from the tyranny of the schools of physic." 

It is true that within the past hundred years, some rea- 
sonable and benevolent physicians have attempted to dif- 
fuse medical knowledge among the people ; but little has 
been effected. Why ? when we say poison and lancet, 
the reader needs no other hint. 

Recently much good has been done in this department, 
under the ostensible names of physiology and dietetic regi- 
men,with Gall, Spurzeheim, the Combes', Graham, Alcott 
and others at their head. 

But there is a work, more particularly medical, which, 
strikes our attention, emenating from the old school bj 



\ 



10 IMPORTANCE OF THE DIFFUSION' 

Wm. Buchan, of Scotland, '• Designed for private stu- 
dents." This work went throngh twenty-two editions in 
Eng-Iand, and was translated into all the principal lan- 
guages of Europe. The author says in his introduction. 
•• Men of every occupation and condition in life might a- 
vail themselves of a degree of Medical knowledge." 

What think you reader ! v/hcn regular physicians 
come forward, advocating the diffusion of medical knowl- 
edge with such medicines as Mercury, Antimony, Lead, 
Copper, Opium and the Lancet ? What may not the 
Thomsonians say about the diffusion of their system, 
which emenated from a man taught only in the school of 
Nature, and depends upon a Materia Medica of the most 
harmless, yet efficient vegetables ? 

We trust that this question is about to be answered in 
demonstrations already proved : but out of it may arise an- 
other. 

Will the diffusion of medical knowledge destroy the 
medical profession as a class ? It is not probable. But 
like fire unon gold, it must greatly improve their qualifica- 
tions. They can no longer impose their '" hollow- 
hearted quackery" upon the people. They are enlight- 
ened. They must be able and accomplished in their pro- 
fession, or forsake it. Again the greater amount of mind 
brought to bear upon medical science, will greatly en- 
large the field of discovery, and thus tend to give us a 
medical profession of the most exalted class. On the 
other hand if the physicians should be banished, and the 
diffusion of medical knowledge be the cause of it, be it 
SO, so be Jt. 

Are these happy projpecfs at hand, or can we onlv 
contemplate them in the distant horizon of the future. — 
In the midst of civil and religious libertj^ the people have 
suffered in medical slavery. It should be an article in 
the declared rights of every intelligent freeman, that he 
will swallow no medicine without knowing: its composi- 
tion. But how very different is the present state of soci- 
ety. We have often been pained to see with what ob- 
sequeous obedience many people think they must take 
medicine from our hands, blind to causes and dumb to 
questions. 



OF MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE I7 

For a poison to think he crui rie\er prescribe for him- 
self or family, but must send for a physician upon every 
trifling occasion, and swallow down his pills and drops of 
simple hrf-ad, or deadly arsenic, as the case maybe and has 
been, without knowing- any thing of their nature, is to be 
a crouching slave to a most contemptible medical tyranny. 

It should have been considered that if the science ever 
approximated to perfection, it would prescribe definite rules 
for the practice ; which rules might be learned by the peo- 
ple without their going into all its intricacies. 

We are privileged with this'approximation, in the works 
of Thomson, and the Thomsonians. 

It was the fix vorite object of the great originator of this 
system to give his knowledge to the people. He says "Af- 
ter thirty years' study and repeated mccessful trials of the 
medicinal vegetables of our 0A\-n country, in all the diseases 
incident to our climate ; I can with well grounded assu- 
rance reccommend my system of practice to the public." — 
Again, '• As fast as my children arrived at the years of dis- 
cretion, I instructed them how to relieve themselves, and 
they have enjoyed good health ever since. If parents 
would adopt the same plan, and depend more upon them- 
selves and less upon the doctors, they would avoid much 
sickness in their families, as well as save the expenses at- 
tending the employment of regular phj^'sicians whose charg- 
es are a grevious burthen upon the people." And to this 
end he says '• I will endeavor to instruct them all in my 
power." In his oAvn verse (for he is sometimes poetic) he 
expresses the same idea : 

'• We wish every family apart 
To understand the healing art, 
Without so many fonns and rules 
Coined and practiced by the schools." 

The facts of all sciences come first and their philosophy 
follows after. The true art of healing is only a systemis- 
ed plan of nursing ; and the true philosophy of medicine, 
is only an illustration of facts learned in the first place by 
experience. 

Bnchan says, " Very few valuable discoveries have beea 



18 IMPOHTANCE OF TilE DIFFCSK )S 

made by physicians: They have in general brrn cilhor 
the eftpct of chance or necessity" 

In philosophy the effect caii never be made \o rule the 
cause ; why then has science been made to proscribe ex- 
perience ? w hy have laws been enacte<l fininjE: and out- 
lawing all nnlicenced practitioners ? Was it really to pre- 
vent quackery ? Buchan says, " The most effectual way 
to destroy quackery in any art or science, is to diffuse the 
knowledge of it among mankind." Legislate to make the 
people believe that none but the learned and licensed can 
attend upon the sick, and you legislate to make them igno- 
rant. Every blockhead who can buy his way through 
college wilfget a diploma, and how can the people know 
the difference ? To prevent quackery, you take the very 
means to create it. There is a swaggering, white Indian 
doetor in Troy, N. Y., who can always tell at sight what 
ails his patients. In describing the case of one, he said 
" his lungs were sound, but his lights were A-ery much ef- 
fected." Ha! ha! ha! Where are the lights, said a by- 
stander ' " Right here," said he clapping his hands upon 
his abdomen. Entering an office one day he chanced to 
discover a phrenological bust, which was a new thing to 
him ; and examining the bumps, he says-' I have a num- 
ber of patients with such bunches on their heads as these. 
This shows how they are diseased." In fart it appears that 
he could not read ; and yet this quack is called into, so cal- 
led, intelligent families ; and he is said to make more mon- 
€y than any physician in the city. That this pretender 
should be able to oust the regulars, is no wonder. But 
was he ever known to impose upon a well informed Thom- 
sonian family ? No ! 

Now that the Thomsonians are fast triumphing over the 
regulars, forming societies, granting diplomas, and even 
chartered by some of the States, and as human nature is ev- 
er the same, so when the regulars are gone, it may be ex- 
pected that the Thomsonians will step into their tracks, so 
far as craft is concerned, and endeavor to keep the practice 
in their ovm hands. But let the intelligence of the people 
forbid it. No man has any moral right to withhold the 
truths of Go'd's nature from his suffering fellow crea- 
turei. If an author should have pay for his xvorks : — if 



OF MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE 19 

Thomson should have pay for his justly granted patent, 
that is another thing ; but the knowledge must be spread. 

We are sorry to see, that in some measure, there is a con- 
trary spirit ahead, even among the Thomsonians, At tte 
time that the Thomsons' were getting out their large \vork 
I heard one of our physicians say that he hoped their price 
would be one hundred dollars, so that every Tom, Dick, 
and Harry about the country could not have them. How- 
ever, as to the soundness of his opinion, we will merely say 
that he onco gravely told some people while examining a 
young man iu epilepsy that there ^vas no action in the du- 
cidca (mcaiiing decidua, if any thing, no part of the male.) 

Let sucli Tliomsonians beware. Dr. L. M, Whiting, a 
regular, says that " Those men who still prefer darkness, 
and persist in quackery, shall be scathed ^vith the light- 
nings of public indignation." 

Those physicians who endeavor to <' conceal their art," 
are wickedly foolish ; and especially, if Thomsonians. 
they " stand in their own light." 

Spreading their knowledge, will secure them confidence, 
increase their practice, and preserve them from competition 
from their own school. Where their patients are igno- 
rant of their medicines, a little apparent danger may cans'»- 
them to send for a regular. But when they are supplied 
with well read books and papers, the physiciaH may de- 
pend upon their patronage. It is true that thig will enable 
many families to administer to themselves in ordinary cases, 
yet what the ph3'siciau loses in this way will be more than 
compensated in'the number of his patients, at first ; and if 
at length it should very much diminish, every young phy- 
sician should foresee, that eight or ten years ' of constant 
practice will make him tired of it ; and then he will be hap- 
py to have the people take the burthen of the practice upon 
themselves. 

But above all this, shall a physician have the moral 
hardihood to venture one single step in a course which 
may sacrifice the lives of his patients to the lining of his 
pocket ? '• Thou shalt not covet." •• Thou shall not kill." 



cHap. II 
BRIEF VIEW OF THO^/iSGN'S LIFE AND CAUSE 

After things, that of events, are most interesting to out 
minds. There is no thing on earth so great as man ; ancf 
no events more interesting than the histories of great men. 

The standard of true greatness, is the joint amount of 
good done, and difficulty overcome. 

While governed by this rule, and looking over thr 
histories of physicians, Avhcther of ancient or modern times, 
we find none that claims out aueutionbeforc SAMfKi, Thom- 
son. 

It seems that his father was one of those hardy and en- 
terprising pioneers, who, infatuated with the love of im- 
proving the borders of the wilderness, have so much 
distinguished Americans. 

He removed from Mass,achr>setts. with his young family 
into the newest settlements of New Hampshire ; and there, 
about one year afterwards.in the town of Alstead, on the 0th 
ofFebruary, 1760, Samuel Thomson was born. It would 
seem, according to the common view, he has had to 
contend against almost every possible disadvantage to a life 
of science. 

His parents poor — m the wilderness ihrec miles from the 
nearest settlement — called at four to the occupations of the 
farm — spent his youth in clearing the forest, and subduing 
the earth — attending school but one month. A? nineteen'^ 



r>KiEr nF.W OF 21 

'*vith his fat"hcr plunging ao;aia into the wilderness on Onion 
JRiver, Vermont-— yet through all these privations lo intel- 
lect, wc discover the gleaming of a transcendant genius, 
which at length broku forth, and shone above all the lights 
©f science in the western hemisphere. 

That specific talent for medical botany, which beamed 
"whh imwaning splendor at throe score and ten, peeped out 
with a precocious lii^ht at the early ago offimv. It was. 
then, when one day in the fields in pursuit ot the cows, that 
he discovered, and made an experiment upon the sensible 
qualities of the far hmed LoLelia. An experiment which 
ha often repeated upon his companions ; until his natural 
•impulse for operating upon living bodies led him to discov- 
er it was a most powerful means of removing disease. At 
the age of eight, he says •• I had at that time a very good 
knowledge of the principal roots and herbs to be found in 
that part of the country, v/ith their names and modical uses; 
and the neighbors were in the habit of getting me to go 
witk them to show- them such roots and herbs as the doctors 
ordered to be made use of in syrups, &c. ; and by way of 
sport they used to call me doctor." It was fortunate for 
Thomson's enquiring mind, that in early life he was privi- 
leged with the society of one of those noble and benevo- 
lent women, .so oftendespised ; a doctress in roots and herbs, 
to whom the family was JTiuch attached, there being no oth- 
er physician within ten miles. This was Mrs. Benton, who 
with a bosom flowing with the. '• milk of human kindness," 
used to take little Thomson with her into the fields and 
woods, and teach him the names of plants and their medi- 
cal uses. Let her name go down to posterity embalmed 
with honor — remembered as the one who sowed the seeds 
of medical observation in that most congenial soil, from 
which has .sprung the noble system that extends its branch- 
es especially, and most invitingly to the female. Let every 
member of the sex imitate her example. Feviales arc nat- 
ural physicians. May all mothers educate their sons in 
the wisdom of preserving health, and their daughters in 
the angelic art of relieving the afflicted. 

At the age of sixteen Thomson's medical knowledge 
had attracted so much attention that his parents talked oi 
sending him to live with a root doctor. Although he wa* 



22 THOMSONS HFC AND CAUSE 

naturally industrious, yet the petit up iires of genius tilled 
him with ail indefinable ambition : and made him ill at 
case in his occupation. " I took a great dislike" says he 
'• to working on a farm, and never could be reconciled to 
it." When the prospect of becoming a physician, had giv- 
en an object to his vague and smothered ambition, he was 
filled witii delight — but only to be disappointed ; for soon 
after his parents said he had not learning enough, besides 
they could not spare him. Thi.s, in his own language, 
made him •' very unhappy," and depressed his mind with 
a feeling, which they only, \vho have experienced it can 
remember, but never tell. 

By industry the family had acquired a small property, 
and at the age of twenty-two we find Thom.son wath a farm 
and family of his own. 

Some one of his family were often sick, and to avoid go- 
ing a distance for medical aid. he rented a house Avhich he 
had to a physician. This gave him a good opportunity to 
ascertain his manner of practice, and the value of regular 
physicians ; and he says " I found from sad experience that 
they made much more sickness than they cured." In fact 
he says '-there was not a month in the year but what I had 
some one sick in my family ; so the doctor paid his rent 
and keeping very easily." 

Thomson had been all the while collecting his fevorite 
Icnowledge, and his house was well supplied with vegeta- 
ble medicines, although he had no design of becoming a 
physician. But it so happened that some of his family 
were five times given up as incurable ; and he, by his sim- 
ple means each time succeeded in restoring them. In one 
instance the physician had left his little daughter to die of 
the scarlet fever. 

Thomson then took the case in his own hands, and as if 
acting by intuition, he took the child upon his lap, cov- 
ered her and himself with a blanket, while he directed his 
wife to make a steam of vinegar beneath them, and he kept 
up the internal heat with warming drinks. In this way 
he soon relieved the little sufierer ; and continuing in it a- 
feoutawcek, cured her ; although the canker had mad". 
?uch inroads as to destroy the sight of one eye. 

Such was the commcncrmont of steaming in the Thoru^ 



mUKV VIEW OF 2;-J 

wnian Prartico. Lilcowis^ it was in his own familv that 
he tested the nature of. Lobelia. Established the use of 
rtimuiants, as a triumphant means of curing fever ; and of 
astringents in removin<r the canker, or apthe from 'the ali- 
mentary canal : and demonstrated the entire inutility of 
poisons. 

These mstances of success in his own family, soon began 
to bq noticed by his neighbors, and those who could get no 
reheffrom the physicians appealed to him. This called 
his attention so much from his farm, that at last he resolved 
to give it up and adopt medicine as a profession. 

The first two patients which he was called to attend, of 
which he has given us a history, presents a complete pic- 
ture of his ensuing life. Successful in curing, yet titled 
with contempt, paid with ingratitude, and perplexed with 
the ignorance of his patients respecting the conditions on 
which health is to be obtained. But nothing was able to 
discourage him. It seems that obstructions in his way, on- 
ly enabled him to ascend upon a higher road to glory, 

At this stage of life, he says, " After I had determined 
to make a business of medical practice, I found it necessa- 
ry to fix upon some system or plan, for my future govern- 
ment in the treatment of disease " This his capacious mind 
furnished him at once ; and he struck out a system, which 
the experience of fifty years has only served to confirm. 

Like the immortal Linneus, who invented a system of 
botany that should govern all future discoveries within 
that kingdom, he says, " I deemed it necessary, not only 
as my own guide, but that whatever discoveries I should 
make in my practice, they might be so adapted to my plan, 
that my whole syst.evi might be easily taught to others 
and -preserved for the benefit of the worlds 

In the language of his enterprising son Cyrus " We 
must have no theory that cannot be carried out." This 
theory applies to all diseases Avithout exception. 

When Thomson arose, Cullen's authority was at the 
head of medical science. How great the difierence be- 
tween these two physicians ! Thomson's theory always 
^corroborated and never contradicted his practice' Not so 
with Cullen's. He held that all fevers were preceded by 
debility ; yet bled to cure them. Thomson held that they 



^4 TflOMSON'S LIFE AXD CAUSE 

wero caused bv a dificifiicy of heat or vital force, and in-' 
crrascd this power to cure them. 

It is testified that " Cullen was feeble and hesitating at 
the bod-sido of the sick." Thomsou snys of himself, " I 
:im convinced that I possess a gift in healing, because of 
the extraordinary succes.? I have met with. 

Look at his theory, and who will deny, that although 
simple, it does not correspond with nature ? " I fotyid" 
says he " That all animal bodies were formed of four ele- 
ments. The earth and water constitute the solids ; and air 
and fire, or heat are the cause of life and motion. That 
cold or lessening the power of heat is the cause of all dis- 
ease : that to restore heat to its natural state was the only 
way that health could be produced ; and that, after restor- 
ing the natural heat by clenring the system of all obstruc- 
tions, and causing :i natural perspiration, the stomach 
would digest the food taken into it, by which means the 
whole body is nourishod and invigorated, and heat or na- 
ture is enabled to hold her supremacy." 

Let no scientific pretender interpose here his objections 
upon ultimate elejnmts, as has been very gravely done in- 
the Legislature of New York. When we deal with or- 
ganic bodies, we must deal with proxim.ate (dements. — 
This division of animal elements is practical, ancient and 
common sense. 

When we consider that repeated bleeding, expectoration, 
and other evacuations, thin the blood and prepare the way 
for their continuance, producing lassitude debility, and 
death ; and that this is all ended by a diminution of the sol- 
ids', and an increase of the fluids, in proportion ; or in 
more analytic words of our author, a diminution of the 
earth, and increases the water, how can wc blame him 
for saying that " a state of perfect health arises from a 
due balance of the four elements ; but if it is by any 
means destroyed, the body is more or less disordered. 

When we consider a lifeless body and find that the earth, 
and water, and air, are there, but that the heat is gone, 
how can we blame him for saying, that to our agency at 
least, "Heat is life and cold is death?" 

With this theory and a new and unheard of system of 
medicine, Thomson went forth in the practice of healing 



BRIEF VIEW or 25 

against the world. lathe year 1805, we find him iu full 
practice in his native and neighboring towns, when a fearful 
epidemic prevailed supposed to be the yellow fever ; the reg- 
ulars lost about one half of their patients and he lost none. 
After this he continued his practice in the various chron- 
ic diseases of the country — Consumption, bleeding at the 
lungs, fevers, dysentary, dropsies, cancers, fits, &c., seem- 
ed to jdeld before his skill as by a new and majic power ; 
m fact he was afterward thought to be a wizard. 

In 1S06 we find him entering the city of New York, 
with the true spirit of Hypocrates, to investigate the nature 
of the yellow fever ; and ][ie found it to yield before his 
remedies like any other disease. 

On returning again to his home he found his character 
defamed by the slanders of a neighboring physician. At- 
tempting a defence, be was foiled by intrigue and perjury; 
and wounded in his feelings, he resolved to give up his un- 
grateful neighbors to their fashionable doctor ; upon which 
he tells the following serious story: 

"A curse seemed to follow them and bis practice ; for 
the spotted fever broke out in this place soon after, and the 
doctor took charge of those who had sided with him a- 
gainst me, and if he hadbeen a butcher and used the knife 
there could not have been more destruction among them. 
Two men who swore falsely in big favor, and by whose 
means he got his cause were among his fii'st victims ; and 
of the whole that he attended about nine tenths died. He 
lost sixty patients in the town of Alstead, in a short time. 

1 attended the funeral of a young man, one of his pa- . 
tients, who hadbeen sick but twenty-four hours, and but 
twelve under the operation of his medicine. He was as 
black as a blackberry, and swelled so as to be difficult to 
.screw down the lid of the coffin: When I went into the 
room where the coffin was the doctor followed me, and 
gave directions to have the coffin secured so as to prevent 
the corps from being seen ; then began to insult me to at- 
tract the attention of the people. He said to me, I under- 
stand Sir that you have a patent to cure such disorders as 
that, pointing to the corps. 

I said no, and intimated at the same time what I thought 
of him. He put on an air of great importance and said to 



26 THOMSON'S LIFE AND CAUSE. 

me, what can you know about medicine ? You have no 
learning-. You cannot parse a sentence in grammar. 1 
told him that I did not know that grammar was made use 
of in medicine, but if a portion of it is so much like the op- 
eraton of ratsbane as appears in this corps, I should never 
wish to know the use of it. This unexpected application 
of the meaning of what he said, displeased the medical gen- 
tlaman very much, and finding that many of the people 
present had the same opinion that I had, irritated him so 
much that he threatened to horse whip me ; but I told him 
he might do what he pleased, providing he did not poison 
me with his grammar." 

Those only, who have experienced the sorrows com- 
mon to original genius, can im.agine what were the feelings 
of Thomson, as he turned away from the ridicule, and base 
ingratitude of the people of his native towm, among whom 
he had practiced five years without losing a single patient, 
to seek for occupation amid the cool indifference of unenvy- 
mg strangers. 

After collecting a supply of medicines on Plumb Iskind 
at the mouth of the Merrimack River, we next find him 
attending the wife of a Mr. Osgood, at Salisbury, Mass , 
who was given over to die of a lung fever by Dr. French. 
Thomson performed a cure in about twenty-four hours, 
which gained him much credit with the people, and laid a 
lasting enmity between him and Dr. French. 

At this time also we find him making the first pupil prac- 
titioner, Mr. Hale, an intelligent man, a chemist and pre- 
parer of mineral medicines. But he renounced them and 
soon found himself usefully employed in Thomson's prac- 
tice. 

This miaht well be considered as a hopeful presaging 
of the tribute that science was to pay to his system in after 
;years. 

Next we find him introducing the practice at Jerico, Vt. 
On the following autumn a mortal disease afflicted this 
town, in the form of dysentary. Out of twenty -two pa- 
tients, the physicians had lost twenty. The people were 
alarmed; and holding a consultation, concluded to send' 
for Thomson, who was then at home in New Hampshire. 

He soon arrived, and conferring with the select men, who- 



BRIEF VIEW OF gy 

Tiad the charge of the sick, was furnished with two assis- 
tants, and in the course of three days commenced practice 
upen thirty patients ; all of whom recovered excepting two, 
who were dying when he first saw them. 

What a triumphant victory was here ! Taking the 
name of the town as a hint, one cannot help associating it 
with the spying out and eventual triumph of Joshua at Jer- 
ico of old. 

After this he practiced with his usual success in several 
places, and then returned to Salisbury ; and although he 
was often called to introduce the practice in other places, 
yet he made this place a sort of home, and practiced with 
such success upon the incurable patients of the regulars 
that they became alarmed ; and Dr. French takmg the 
lead resolved to destroy him. 

After attempting to decoy Thomson to his house, and 
failing, he next publicly swore that he would blow out his 
brains if he came into his neighborhood ; at the same time 
saying that he was a murderer and he could prove it. To 
defend his character, Thomson caused an action to be 
brought against this tiger-like doctor for his threats, which 
resulted in his being bound over to keep the peace ; and, 
another for defamation, in which perjury and the mflucnce 
of the doctors prevailed against Thomson. 

The council of French enquired of the judge if Thom- 
son was not liable to arrest; to which he answered in the 
affirmative. This paved the way more completely for the 
malice of Dr. French, who afterwards procured an indict- 
ment for willful muider against Thomson. Soon after the 
above mentioned trial, he had the misfortune to lose a pa- 
tient, under the following circumstances: 

He \vas called to attend a young man Mr. Lovett, who 
was in a fever with very unfavorable symptoms. 

Thomson improved him so much in two days that he 
went out, exposed himself and was taken much worse. 

Thomson was again called, but he soon found he was 
past cure; and then two regulars were called, who attend- 
ed about twelve hours, when he died. For this he was ar- 
rested as a murderer, put in irons, carried to Newbury- 
port jail, confined in a dungeon, cold filthy, and filled with 
vermin, without a fire in the month of November., and 



28 THOMSON'S LIFE AND CAUSE. 

without the prospect of a trial for nearly a year. Thom- 
son had established the fame of his practice in the cities ol" 
Portsmouth, Newburyport, Salem, and the adjoining- vil- 
lages, so that many powerful friends rushed to his resciie ; 
but among these there was none more distinguished than 
the grateful and the indefatigable Judge Rice, whom he 
had cured of a dangerous fever, This gentleman procur- 
ed a special session of the court and assisted Thomson in 
his trial by which he was honorably acquitted, after hav- 
ing been about one month in prison. 

In a subsequent prosecution of Dr. French for abuse 
and slander while he v/as a prisoner, the defendant went a- 
bout and took depositions wherever Thomson had lost a pa- 
tient, but found only eight, Lovett included ; these he 
brought forward in the trial as charges of murder ; and al- 
though Thomson proved that they were incurable when 
he first saw them, or given up by the doctors to die, yet 
the court gave the testimony against him, and French was 
permitted to call him a murderer. 

Such is the value of courts to an enterprising genius 
when he must wage his way against the interests of a pop- 
ular profession ; and such the ingratitude of the world to 
one of its greatest benefactors. 

In these troubles, Thomson lost in five years as many 
thousand dollars. But nothing could discourage his on- 
ward way. I 

Passing over, as we do, many of the minor events of 
his history, we have next to notice the conduct of one of 
his first agents. He had established an office and a flour- 
ishing practice in Eastport, into which he put a young 
man whom he had raised from poverty and sickness. He 
was to have half of the profits, but not content with this, he 
usurped the whole ; and also offered the knowledge of his 
system to all who would buy of him. 

At the same time there was a petition sent to the legisla- 
mre to prevent quackery, in which Thomson was named. 

These difficulties at length induced him to- go to Wash- 
ington and obtain a patent for his discoveries ; which h« 
accomplished in 1813. 

This added a new stimulus to his enterprise ; and under 
the patent, the sale of rights began to spread the knowledge 



BRIEF VIEW OF 29 

of his system throughout the United States. An instance 
of their utility with another astonishing triumpli of the 
practice occured in 1816. 

Thonason went to Cape Cod to collect medicines, and 
found the people dying for want of them. The spotted fe- 
ver or, cold plague, as it was called, had broken out and 
was very mortal. The small village of Eastham lost for- 
ty-six in three months. Thomson cured a number — sold 
the right to two men, and offered them the right of the 
whole to-\vn for the price of twenty — but it was not 
accepted ; as the fever was declining. He then returned 
home, but was Soon after recalled with the greatest haste ; 
for the disease had broken out with redoubled violence. 

He soon found eaough to buy the twenty rights, gave 
them instruction in public lectures ; and with the people to 
assist, Thomson and the first two right holders attendwi 
thirty-four cases ; and lost but one ; while the regulars lost 
eleven out of twelve. These facts are attested by the min- 
isters, the select men, justices of the peace, and post mas- 
ters. 

But it was simply done ; ignorant people could under- 
stand it, and the regulars have uniformly despised it. — ■ 
[There are a few noble exceptions.] Thomson in turn, 
with the design of preserving hiss\-stem in its purity, has 
forbidden his agents to sell his rights and books to reg- 
ulars, or their students. 

Thus, from a two-fold necessity, this system had to go in- 
to the hands of comparatively ignorant men. 

Many of these, in the course of time and experience, be- 
came distinguished physicians ; and forming into societies 
in the various states, established fixed rules for the educa- 
tion of students; these in turn have contributed to advance 
the standard of medical knowledge among them ; and e- 
venUially we shall have a profession with as great and va- 
ried attainments, as the regulars. It is now a very com- 
mon saying, made to our better class of practitioners. — 
" Your system, I believe, is a very good one, but it has 
been injured by every one going into it who did not under 
stand the human system." They condemn the ignorance 
of our early practitioners. Let them carry out their prin 
ciples. . Not one' seventh of our physicians, have so ex 



bO THOMSON'S LIFE AND CAUSE. 

tensive a knowledge of anatomy, chemistry. &c., as tlie 
regulars. Say to these two thousand practitioners, stop 
your labors, and go to college. What would be the con- 
sequence ? Thousands must die, while they are getting an 
addition to their knowledge, not worth so much as a pen- 
ny to a dollar, compared to what they already know. 

Whoever considers the necessity of the immediate difJu- 
sion of this system among the people, its early circumstan- 
ces, that the ignorance of its practitioners could not have 
been otherwise, and the history of its progress, should bo 
struck forever dumb to the utterance of the stale, and stere- 
otyped slang against patent doctors and right holders. 

Those Thomsonian practitioners, too. who look with 
sneers and contempt upon this class of pioneers, should be 
regarded as ungrateful as the tiger which snaps at the 
hand that gives him food ; for it is upon their shoulders 
that they have arisen, and been sustained in their practice. 

But the knowledge of this system must eventually be- 
come public property ; and thus the basis of a most exal- 
ted medical science ; no thanks, however, to those who 
would keep the practice in their own hands. 

Already have more than one hundred regulais embrac- 
ed it. About a dozen periodicals are published in its sup- 
port. It numbers two colleges, one in Ohio and one in 
Georgia. According to the estimate of Dr. Waterhousc 
Thomson has lived to see three millions of his own coun- 
trymen bless the day that he was born. He has lived, too, 
to see his system carried into the old hemisphere, and. in 
gold medals, receive the compliments of the kings of Eu- 
rope. 

He who shall attempt to rob him of his hard earned hon- 
ors, must submit his own name to be " scathed with light- 
nings of public indignation" by the people of coming ao-es. 

What if it should appear that the vapor bath had been 
used before in the remote parts of Europe ? What if it 
should be proved that lobelia had been previously used by 
certain Indian tribes ? What if cayenne had been mention- 
fd in some medical works ? if Thomson learned these 
things by his own experience, are the discovries any the 
less his ? Echo only answers . 

To have been no more than the discoverer of the emetic 



BRIEF VIEW OF 31 

virtues of Lobelia, should have distinguished his name: 

To have only laid tlie basis of the system for others to 
complete, should have made him great : 

Or completing it, to have left it for others to demonstrate 
and make popular, should have made him immortal : 

But to have discovered the elements of a materia medica, 
to have formed them into a system, governed it by a theory, 
holding all in his own hands, with a strength and perse- 
vereance common only to giant intellect, and bringing it to 
bear with overwhelming success against the world of per- 
verted, and perverting regulars, has placed the name of 
Thomson on one of the loftiest and most unapproachable- 
pinnacles oi fame. 

Opinions of the learned. — Dr. AVaterhouse, for twenty 
years professor of the theory and practice of medicine, in 
the University of Cambridge.Mass., regarded in Europe as 
a philosopher, and a member of many distinguished socie- 
ties ; in a letter to Dr. Samuel Thomson writes thus ; " I 
remain firm in the opinion that you were the discoverer of 
the remarkable medical virtues of the Lobelia Injlata ; that 
yourself were the originator of the compound process, very 
extensively known under the title of their Thomsonian Prac- 
tice or system. I mean the uniting the vapor bath vvith^ 
the cleansing of the whole alimentary canal. 

I value it on this account. It fleets ifi three or four 
days, what regular physicians vsed to occupy as many 
weeks to accomplish. Your discovery is highly valuable, 
and on this account it was that I spoke so freely and strong- 
ly in commendation of the new practice ; and was not a- 
shamed to hail you as a reformer. 

Again, in a letter to Dr, John Thomson, he writes thus ; 
— " Had not the theory and practice of your father been 
founded in Truth and "Nature it could not have maintain- 
ed its reputation thus far, but would, long sirice, have been 
swept into nonentity. Yet amidst opposition, and even 
persecution, Dr. Samuel Thomson has had the solid satis- 
faction of knowing that Time has increased his reputa-r 
/to7t, and imparted firmness to a practice hitherto unheard 
of among us. I pronounce him a public benefactor." 

Thomas Hearsy, for forty years a regular practitioner ; 
mrgeon in the United Staters army during the last war : 



32 THOMSON'S LIFE AND CAUSE. 

elected surgeon extraordinary to the Petersburgh Volun- 
teers, and Major Stodard's Artillery; one of the founders 
of the Western Medical Society of Pennsylvania, and last- 
ly a distinguished Thomsonian author and editor, in a let- 
ter to Dr, John Thomson, writes thus ; — 

" My practice has been extensive — my experience and 
opportunity for observation has seldom been exceeded-: but 
I venture to pledge myself upon all I hold sacred in the 
profession, that in mj?- estimation the discovries of your 
honored father have a decided preference, and stand unri- 
valled by all that hears the stamp of anciext or modern 
skill /" 

Thomson still lives ; residing in Boston. Peace, to the 
evening of his life ; and may FIeaven grant him a happy 

MORROW. 



CHAP. III. 
NATURE OF SCIENCE, AND ITS ERRORS IN MEDICINE. 

Man was made to reason. Through all his life, hit 
knowledge is slowly acquired by experience ; while on 
their first days of existence, that of the lower animals, is in- 
herited by instinct. 

He knows not the use of his hands, or feet, until obser- 
vation has taught it ; he has no idea of distance until ex- 
periment has proved it ; and this is the beginning of sci- 
ence. Related to all things of which he can form ideas, 
he has especial faculties ; yet, at first uneducated, and sub- 
ject to the force of circumstances ; which, to preserve his 
dignity, he must, in turn, subject. 

If man did not learn by experience, he would not be lia- 
ble to error, and, therefore, could not reason ; all things 
would be to him but truth unknown, and error could not 
be suggested. 

To distinguish between truth and error, then, is the 
Avork of reason ; the element of reason, then, is observa- 
tion ; and obsrvation, then, is the foundation of all hu- 
man KNOWLEDGE. As a consequence of this order of 
things, man, made in. the image of Him who can do " What 
ever He Avill," has the power to abuse and pervert all the 
faculties of his soul, alL, the powers of his body, and all 
things within the circle of his influence. 

The greater the good of any blessing, the greater will be 



3^ NATURE OF SCIENCE, AlsU 

tlie curse of its perversion. Of all the departments of 
man's mind whieh we may seperately consider, perliaps 
there is not so great a subject of perversion as his reason. 
It seems that it must take six thousand years to teach him 
its fundarnental principles. 

Intellect is a compound set of faculties perceptive and 
reflective, acting and reacting upon each other. 

In perception, he is liable to adopt false facts ; and in re- 
flection he is prone to immagine false relations. He is ei- 
ther too indolent, too self-conceited; or, perhaps, more prop- 
erly, too ignorant, to pay that careful and circumspecting 
attention to the subject matter of reason, which is necessary 
for drawing conclusions according to the relations of cause 
and effect. 

All that he does calls for improvement and perfection ; 
and above all things oeservatton should be rendered per' 
feet hij demonstrating experiment. 

But, unfortunately, such has been too little the case ; he 
has drawn the conclusions first, and then warped facts to 
them. 

Such was the fate of science in the brightest days of Gre- 
cian and Roman glory. 

Aristottle gave the most prominent example of with- 
drawing from the field of observation, and cogitating phi- 
losophy in the closet of intellectual fancy. The example 
was redily followed ; and the inventing of hypotheses, and 
the wresting of facts, became the curse of science. Even 
after the revival of learning from the dark ages, the me- 
teor light, which gleamed from the works of Aristottle, be- 
came the guide of the schools ; until the telescope genius 
of Gallileo showed bjr the sun light of facts, that those hy- 
pothetical creations were more false than the mirage of the 
desert until the giant mind of Bacon, the philosopher of 
philosophers, had taught the world the conclusive methods 
of inductive reasoning ; yes, and in some measure down 
to the present time ; for the world is slow to learn. 

Excepting religion, there is no department of science so 
great as that of medicine ; and none so greatly perverted. 

In inost barbarous nations the sick have been Ted to place 
the most credulous reliance upon the charms of an amulet, 
or the.phnntastic cerrmonies o^ n jugg-ler. 



ITS ERRORS IN MEDICINE. 3o 

In the early ages of Egypt and Greece llic hi story of 
medicine is so becloudetl with fables and the doctrins of 
mag-ic, that little satisfactory knowledge can be gleaned 
from it 

It is true that the age of Hyppocratcs is a bright page- 
in the history of the science. 

He introduced neAV and simple remedies into practice. — 
Why Avas he not a quack ? When the, plague was sweep- 
ing away the people of Athens, he entered the city like a 
conqueror. To purify the air, he caused fires to be built 
in the streets and lanes. With the warm bath, he dispel- 
led the disease from the sick, by the pores of the skin. — 
The convalesent he nourished with the rich v,-ines of Nax- 
os ; and thus banished the plague from Athens. 

This was natural ; this \ras simple ; this was great ! Hyp- 
pocratcs may be considered a paralel with Bacon in saying 
that "It is not in the works of philosophers, nor in the 
dust of schools, that we are to learn the difficult art of in- 
terrogating nature ; and the still more difficult art of a- 
waiting her answers" — a paralel with Thomson, in say- 
ing that " Nature is heat ;" and that " Experience iilone 
is less dangerous than theory without experience." 

But Hyppocrates was more a creature of genius than 
of science; for his pages contain many absurdities which 
characterize the Aristotelian Philosophy. 

All who succeeded were the deciples of Hyppocrates, 
until the time of Galen, who greatly extended, botanic 
knowledge. But soon after the Roman Empire was brok- 
en. The barbarous pagans overran its western kingdoms ; 
and the mad Mahomedans, those of the east. 

The arts were trampled underfoot, and the sciences well 
nigh forgotten. 

All things were perverted. Religion lost its purity , 
and was deeply dyed with paganism. Government was 
lurnsd to tyranny and anarchy. The art of curing disease 
was lost in the wide spread work of destroying life. In 
the language of the elegant Robinson " Through a long 
and dreary night of a thousand years ; in those awful 
scenes of broil and battle, there was no time to die of dis- 
ease." 

When the light of learning began again to dawn, and 



86 NATURE OF SCIENCE, AND 

the arts of peace called again to the studv of medicine, it 
was only to receive still further degrees of perversion. 

It was in this age, that physicians left the study of the 
laws of the living man, to pry into the structure of the 
dead body. 

The former, 'physiology, the basis of the practice of 
medicine ; the latter, anatomy, the basis of the art of sur' 
gery. A little understanding of human nature will easily 
show, how it was, that students, going from the colleges, 
with their minds impressed with the scents of dissection 
and the splendid instruments of surgery, would, at the bed- 
side of the sick, be induced to be mechanical, yea, murder- 
ous, rather than natural and nurse like. 

It was in this age that Paracelsus arose,with his mercury, 
antimony, and other chemical poisons, a reckless experi- 
ment, a swaggering impostor, an intemperate vagabond, 
whom the Medical Dictionary says was a " Material ser- 
rice to medicine." 

It was in this age \hat the physicians left the medicines 
prepared with our food in the laberatory of nature, pre- 
tending to receive better from the hands of the sickly mi- 
ner; or to search for a catholicon amid the transmutations of 
the alchemist. 

And, then, the art of relieving the effect instead of re- 
moving the cause, was reduced to a science " falsely So 
called." Then physicians began to take away " The 
blood which is life,*' according to Sacred Writ, to save 
from death. 

It was in this age, that finally, all medicines, whether 
vegetable or mineral became declared to be poisons. It 
was from this dark age of misery and death in all its for it- s 
that we have received the rudiments of that system of mc-d- 
icine, which claims to be regular and scientific. 

Let no one deem this an inviduous view of the past ; 
for while evil remains, the march of intellect must be on- 
ward ; and if so, then each succeeding age must look back 
and derive wisdom from the errors of the past. 

It is true, that m the seventeenth century, Gallileo and 
Bacon had introduced a neiv era in the nature of science - 
yet, its patrimony was principally expended upon the rae- 
chanical department; while physiology and pathology were 



ITS ERRORS IN MEDICINE, 37 

Irl't to find a residence in the airy castles of hypothesis. — 
This no assertion ; Liebig-, a late german writer, speaking- 
on this very subject, says, " The most exact anatomical 
knowledge of the structure of the tiseures cannot teach us 
their uses ; and from the microscopical examination of the 
most minute reticulations of the vessels, we can learn no 
more of their functions, than we had learned concerning 
vision from counting the surfeceson the eye of the fly." 

Again he says " With all its discoveries, modern chem- 
istry has performed but slender services to physiology and 
pathology. * * » physiology took no share in the 
advancement of chemistry, because, for a long time, she 
received none from it. " 

The great Jefl^erson, speaking on the same subject, says, 
'= From the scanty field of what is known, the adventu- 
rous physician lanches into the boundless regions of what 
is miknown. • * » j have lived to see the deciplcs of 
Hoffman, Boerhaavc Stahl, Cullen and Brown, succeed 
one another like the shifting figures of a magic lantern." — • 
These, for several ages, successively overturned each other; 
each promising itself immortality, and showing the last to 
be but " The baseless fabric of a vision." 

The differencis between the theories of these authors; 
and many others are to irrevelant to our great subject to. be 
noticed here ; excepting that there is an even tenor of A- 
ristotelian error which runs through them all, taking for 
granted that poisons, depletive and antiphilogistic methods, 
were the proper remedies for diseases ; which was never 
proved. From Paracelsus of the sixteenth century down 
to the distinguished Liebig of the present moment, these 
unfoimded assumptions have been the stumbling block of 
the faculty. What ! says one, include Liebig. He w^rites 
especially against hypothesis 

Does he not say that "Medicine, after the fashion of 
the Aristotelian philosophy, has formed certain conceptions 
with regard to nutrition and sanguinification ; but these 
theories being founded on observation destitute of the con- 
ditions most essential for drawing just conclusions, cannot 
be received as expressions of truth." It is true, but he 
puts into our hands a weapon against himself ; for he re- 
commends, bleeding ! yes, blisters, seatons, nnd thf anti- 



38 NATURE OF SCIENCE, AND 

ptiilogistic treatment in general, as the best that could be 
devised in a certain class ofdisease ; which has been dem- 
onstrated to be highly erroneous by long repeated experi- 
ments this side of the Atlantic. 

* If an intellect like Liebig's should be so subject to er- 
ror, we too, cannot expect to escape, in every degree, from 
the deception of false facts, or even from false conclu- 
sions. 

This brings a question of tne utmost importance to 
every physician — to every person — the very starting 
point of Truth and Error ! ! 

Why is it that medical science has received so little 
benefit from inductive reasoning ? Ins in hypothesis, the 

ASSUMPTION OF A MULTITUDE OF INDEPENDENT PRINCIPLES j 
AND THEN IT IS IN FACT THE ALMOST ENTIRE IMPOSSIBILITY OF 
UNIFORMITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF ITS EXPERIMENTS ! AnD, 
ALSO, THE MULTIPLICITY OF CAUSES AND EFFECTS OPERA- 
TING TOGETHER IN A MANNER so OBSCURE AS TO RENDER 
IT EXTREMELY DIFFICULT TO DISCOVER THEIR RELATIONS ; tO 

say nothing of causes unknown. 

When demonstrations are difficult, error will be specious. 
Although we have an intuitive sense of causes, we have 
not an instinctive knowledge of them. 

Observation, only, can teach them. Without a previ- 
ous knowledge of light, the rising of the sun for the first 
time should not be sufficient to convince us that it is the 
cause of day. Nothing bot repetition of an effect up- 
on TKE continued APPLICATIONS OF A CAUSE, INSOLATED 
FROM ALL OTHERS, CAN ESTABLISH THE RELATIONS BETWEEN 

THEM. To the physician who has assumed many inde- 
pendent principles of disease, these laws of philosophy can 
present but little hope ; but to him who seeks for the gen- 
eral principles .of nature, their application will be very suc- 
cessful. 

These things should make physicians of the first class 
highly prudential in advancing their opinions and pre- 
scriptions ; not only for regard to truth, but because upon 
their subject often pcnds the fate of life. 



* The errors of Liebig will be more critically examined 
in our chapter on pathology. 



ITS ERRORS IN MEDICINE. 39 

Fallaz ezpe-rient'ia, cxclaimad Hyppocratcs of his pre- 
decessors. Fallax cxpericntia, exclaimed Paracelsus. 

Fallax experie/itia, exclaimed Brown. 

From Toth of fabled day, to Liebig in the present age 
of science, this false experience in medicine has abounded 
and been acknowledged by its best authors. Abercrom- 
hie, author of " Intellect Powers," says, " The difficulties 
and sources of uncertainty which meet us at every stage of 
our investigations, are so numerous and so great, that those 
who have had the most extensive opportunities of observa- 
tion, will be the first to acknowledge that our pretended 
Experience must, in general, sink into analog}-, even our 
analogy, too often into conjecture." 

Dr. Dodd says that "medicine has never known th« 
fertilizing influences of inductive logic." 

Dr. Harrison says that " reason and common sense are 
never brought to bear upon it." Lieutand " give it all up 
and begin anew." Dr. Watevhouse calls it "learned 
quackery." Dr. Chapman "absurdity, contradiction and 
falsehood." Dr. L. M. Whiting, " a perfect chaos, desti- 
tute of hardly one solitary, well established fact." De 
Alembert a " striking in the dark." Abercrambic' "the 
art of conjecture and the science of guessing." And to 
crown all, it has become a by word that this proud science 

is "a r.LORIOUS UNCERTAINTY." 

And what are the effects ? One professor says that "ev- 
ry young physician kills his way into practice." Chap^- 
man calls it " murderous quackery ;" and Good says " it 

HA8 DESTROYED MORE LIVES THAN SWORD, FAMINE AND 
PESTILENCE." 

If partial views of it, as Dr. Brown says, are "alto- 
gether uncertain." If in " new cases" as Dr. Abercrom- 
bie says, " it is doubtfut whether we act from experience." 
If, as professor Jackson says " Experience cannot exist 
IN medicine, why then could they not have applied induc- 
tive science in an abstract way — compared aggregates — 
the length of the lives of the sick who are attended by phy- 
sicians with those who are not. It is already done ; and 
the statistics of France have told the world that " The 

DOCTORS KILL MORE THAN THEY CURE." 

Ah, says the reader, this illy comports with ofloring a 



40 NATURE OF SCIENCE, AND 

work to the public on medical practice. Humanity calls 
loudly for its suppression — that physicians be banished ; as 
they once were from Rome for five hundred years. 

But remember, reader, this appalling view of science k 
"regular science" from '-regular authors." The cas* 
lie.«! now before us, widely, widely altered. The regular* 
had always operated in the negative; they had taken away 
light thai da?/:ness might be the less hWiding ; they had 
taken away heat that cold might be the less freezing. — 
Like the ancients who thought the torrid zone uninhabita- 
ble, they never dared to venture beyond their imaginary 
clime. 

But the Thomsonians. despite the heat, have gone bold- 
ly over ; and have operated on the -positive^ with opposite 
demonstrations. The sick are not killed, but cured. Med- 
icine is no longer " a glorious uncertainty," but -'a fixed 
science.' We cannot be mistaken as to the cause by which 
the natural difficulties of the science have been wrought to 
such a climax of doubt, intricacy and paradox, when av« 
consider the erroneous course its professors have taken. 

When we consider that Abercrombie doubted whether 
we could act from experience in new cases, we discover 
at once the total want of a general guiding prmciple, we 
discover the efTect, or conclusion of that false system of 
facts, which descriminated and divided disease into hund- 
reds of kinds, with the supposition that each must be treat- 
ed differently, as though they had different causes. 

It is manifest that the adoption of such a principle as 
this must involve the practitioner in a wilderness of uncer- 
tainty. 

But this principle seems not to have been doubted un- 
til the time of Brown ; nor successfully abandoned until 
the time of Thomson. 

Agahi when we consider their paradoxical adoption of 
poisons in the name of medicines, and that Hooper says 
soonafter the time of Paracelsus, the abuse of them became 
so great physicians fell into the opposite extreme of ineffi- 
ient doses, and that again they had fallen back into a medi- 
um ground where he supposed the truth of the subject 
lay, and when we consider, that whether the doses were 
large, small or medium, they were poisons still, we shall 



ITS ERRORS IN MEDICINE. 41 

then see that thus they would be "Ever learning and nev- 
er able to come to the knowledge of the truth." 

Again, when we consider tliat the legitimate phenomena 
of disease is debility and decay ; that the phenomena of fe- 
ver, pain and spasm, are, to speak with a figure, efforts of 
Nature to overcome disease ; and that it is against the lat- 
ter physicians have principally directed their efforts; that 
they have operated upon the effect instead of the cause.; we 
shall in view of the error derive a salutary view of the 
truth. 

When we consider that quelling the efforts of nature des- 
troys the appearance of disease, that bleeding will reduce 
the' pressure upon the vessels and pain in many cases, that 
sedatives and narcotics which reduce the activity of the 
vessels will also reduce pain, and that poisons which pro- 
duce debility Avill reduce feve-, will be followed by cold- 
ness and even death, we shall then discover how physi- 
cians have been begiiiled into error, and were induced to 
persecute the laws of life, thinking they did the God of 
Nature service. 

From the starting point of truth and error before mention- 
ed,aided by the natural difficulties of the science, physicians 
have gone on in a course of barbarous anahjzation with- 
out ever returning on the road of generalization to the 
practical grounds of certainty. This passion for minute 
distinctions, doating, detached and whimsical in many cases, 
began with Galen and reached its climax with Cullen. 

Brown the deciple of Cullen endeavored to extricate 
himself from this wilderness of error ; and at a single blow 
he reduced all diseases to two classes ; sthenic, and asthenic, 
or diseases of excess and deficiency of action, which were 
to be treated by opposite methods. It is plain from the 
facts upon which this theory is founded that there are in- 
termediate states of disease in which it must have puzzled 
Brown himselfto tell the class to which they belonged; 
and yet these cases are far from constituting health, which 
shows conclusively, that there is not even two, but only one 
general principle : and that the distinctions of Brown were 
founded on the difference of degree. Moreover it is plain 
that there can be no excess of action unless it be too great 
voluntary exercise, which is only an exciting cause of dis- 



*li XATCRK OF .SC'IKNCK. AXH 

ease, of v,-hicli there are to many to be numbered, but their 
(Effect, or the genera! principle ofdisease; is always deficien- 
cy of action. 

' From this general principle, or focus as it were, we may 
diverge out to a great varietv of exciting causes, on one 
hand, and to a great variety of cftccts on the animal system, 
on the other. 

Brown's theory had one redeeming quality. Ho whs 
induced to place the majority of his diseases in the asthen- 
tic class, and consequently to recommend stimulants. 

But what a list of medicines of this class had the fak-i 
experience of ages accumulated. 

With such miserable apologies for stimulants as brandy, 
wine, and opiiun. it is no wonder that his system should 
prove so much a failure. But notwithstanding it was quite 
an improvement ; and we can discover traces of his reason- 
ing among most of the modern schools. Out of the truth 
and falsehood of the Brunonian theory, Rush undertook to- 
frame a system more reconcilable with reason. From re- 
j3ections,probably similar to what we have gi\-en, he resolv- 
ed that Di-EASKis A hmt r but this, with his two opposite 
modes of practice, only served to complete a paradox. — 
How did his improvements succeed? He used Calomel^ 
Jalap, Blood-letting, cold drinks, and low diet upon the yel- 
low fever in Philadelphia, and Cobbett states that he lost at 
least sixty patients out of every hundred : and how can it 
he doubted: since he lost four out of six in his own family. 
Brown promulgated his system about the time Thomson 
was born. 

The next radical improvement was attempted bythe^ 
Hahnemann of Germany. 

While Thomson in America, untrammelled with /a/sc 
lear?thig, was striking out a new but certain couiseinthe 
almost untrodden field of nature. Hahnemann, in endeav- 
oring to reconcile the discordant theories of European 
writers, and establish some systematic principles of materia 
medica, at length struck upon a path of hypothesis, and 
facts misapplied, perfectly characteristic of the terre i?icog- 
nitzo in which it commenced. One of the most striking^ 
features of this system, is, giving medicine in infinitesmal 
dosei?. A grain of mercury is minglwl and commingled 



ITS ERRORS IX MEDICLVE. 43 

Tvith sugar of milk until a grain of the compound will 
contain only iimilUoiith or a billionth part of a grain of 
mercury. It is a universal law that .szze or quantity, all 
tisa equal, is a measure of poicer. If there is any prin- 
cipal in mcdicme which can contradict this, \ye hav« it yet 
to learn by an experience perfectly new. However, since 
poisons arc not mcdicmos, Homcepathy must be considered 
a great negative improvement ; and is a plain reason for 
its success Avhere medical truth is little known. It lets 
more patients live. Another feature which the Homcc- 
pathians are fond of presenting, on account of some plausi- 
bility, is, that any medici?ie proper for a particular dis- 
ca^sc shoxdd produce the symptovis of that disease in a 
hcalty state. It is now established that all the active. 
symptoms of disease are but the phenomena of eflects, 01 
secondary causes, which tend to result in their removal ; or 
to epeak with a figure, v/hich we shall hereafter use, '• Ef- 
forts of Nature" to overcome some difilculty. 

If the body is in an inactive or diseased state, and we 
give such medicines as arc calculated to remove it, such as 
-Stimulants, and tonics we shall in many instances increase 
the symptoms of disease, or visableeflbrts of Nature, which 
must continue, whether apparent or not, until the disease is 
gone. This corresponds with the doctrine of Hahnem- 
ann, v.'--... 

Again, if a healthy person be exposed td'coid or poi.'^- 
ons they meet with the reacting cflbrts of Nature and dis- 
ease appears. This, too, corresponds with the doctrine of 
Hahnemann. Wc see then, that his rule admits, alike, of 
natural or deleterious agents. It is a Avide mistake, for it 
is perfectly ambiguous. 

Within a few years another class of medical reformers 
liave sprung up in Germany, whose materia medica con 
sists solely;of pure water. This practice had been pursued 
to some extent in this country, but not so well systemized 
Dor so thoroughly applied. It appears to be perfectly con- 
genial with life ; of which the reasons will -be given in 
our chapter on therapeutics. It is also to be observed thai 
the whole medical faculty have swerved in a measure from 
their violent modes, and have fallen into a moi'e physiologi- 
':al and prsvontivc treatmcnl. 



44 NATURE OF SCIENCE, AND 

In our country there has still another class arisen with 
Graham and Alcott at their head, who confine the improve- 
ment of health almost totally to dietetic, and gymnastic reg- 
imen. Excepting, perhaps, some errors with regard to 
vegetable diet, their positive principles should be adopted as 
the basis of medical knowledge. Their negative princi- 
ples however, in rejecting all medicines, and despising what 
they are pleased to call "dosing anddrugging" and " Thom- 
sonian patch work," must be considered "ultraism." — 
While the Thomsonians are redily adopting their preven- 
tive means^ they will not, so long as they live in a world 
of malaria, contagious poisons, cold and storms — so long 
as they have seen their curative means so successful against 
the diseases that follow them, be ready to give up their 
lobelia, cayenne, bayberry and vapor bath. The rea- 
der will better comprehend the mistake of the Dietetic 
school when he understands that they are a secession from the 
regulars. Where all medicines contained the principles 
and demonstrations oi death it is no wonder that the maxim 
" the less medicine the better" should become to mean none 
at all. The history of Dr. Jennings of Connecticut, a 
prominent one of this school, is a complete key to it. Find- 
ing his practice deleterious, conscience bade him prescribe 
nothing but hread pills and colored water. He became 
much more successful and celebrated. Conscience again 
compelled him to divulge his practice to his neighbors ; 
and he lost it. The negative seemed no more a positive 
but nothing. 

But again to return to the nature of the science, wc must 
observe that although in the Thomsonian Practice it is 
pleasingly certain, yet it still has its imperfections and diffi- 
culties. 

When a physician proposes to give a patient a dose of 
medicine at night, but does not, and the patient is well in 
the morning, we must perceive,that, had the medicine been 
given, the cure would have been assigned to that. 

Again if a patient takes medicine, and then fiom cold, 
or accidental circumstances becomes worse, the damage 
may be ascribed to the medicine. Thus wc see that we 
are in danger of assigning effects to causes when there is 
no relation between thim. 



ITS ERRORS IN MEDICINE. 45 

A inqre complicated case of this principle appears when 
the effect concerned stands in an indirect relation to the 
cause. A patient rejects boiled mutton as a diet, bm uses 
plentifully of butter because one sits hard and the other 
light upon his stomach ; whereas the butter may be the 
very cause of the mutton setting hard, and the mutton in 
turn, notwithstanding its apparent harm, may be the very 
m6ans of restoring the strength of the stomach. Just so a 
lady will take tea to cure the head ache when its excessive 
use has been the cause of it. A notable instance of this 
error appears in the case of Dr. Brown, who used wine 
and high-living for the gout ; when it is the very cause of 
it. On the same principle a drunkard should take rum for 
the delirium tremens; and in fact, inasmuch as the disease 
is an indirect effect, the rum will have some apparent ten- 
dances to cure it. 

These difficulties still cause considerable misapprehen- 
sion in the Vegetable Materia Medica, a prominent instance 
of which is found in the use of cathartics. There is much 
ignorance with physicians with regard to medicines which 
they have long used. Truth is never proved from the 
suggestions of a solitary hint. For instance mayweed 
and pipsisewa are said to be excellent medicines, but they 
both will blister the skin and act on the urinary organs, 
so also will Spanish flies which are highly deleterious ; 
and the conditions of the experiments with the first two are 
not such as to prove they are not alike injudicious. The 
knowledge of vegetables is miserably defective on this 
point. We need a thorough institution of experiments in 
this behalf ; not only as regards plants unknown, that waste 
their virtues on the desert air, but with many long in use. 

We should never draw general condusions from singh 
ciraimstances. 

The ignorant often make this error in judging thcThom- 
sonian Practice. 

Just weigh the aggregates of our practice with that of 
the regulars and the ballance .turns, as ten to oiic, in our 
favor. Let us admit all the use of regular errors, in which, 
in analyzing differences they have forgotten the generali- 
zation o{ resemblances. Let\is admit all the uncertain- 
ties of our own school, and take the aggregate of our ex- 



4fj NATURE OF SCIENCE, &r. 

perimcnts and we have left us the following great.gencra[ 
principles: 

Life, to our undersfa?tding, is actio.n ; and disease 

IS A DEFICIENCY Of ACTION.. 

Heat IN THE EGG, OVUM, AND GERM IS THE FIRST CONDI- 
TION OF ACTION / AND HEAT AND COLD STAND, TO OUR AGE\- 
CV AS THE FIRST CAUSES OF LIFE AND DEATH. 

Disease is merely the negative of health, therefore 
medicines must always be positive ; they must increase 

action. 

That WHICH HA3 A legitimate tendency to proddck 

DISEASE CAN NEVER BE MADE TO CURE IT. 



PART II. 

CHAP. I. 
PHYSIOLOGY, OR THE LAWS OF LIFE. 

This important branch of medical science is the ground 
work of the fractice of Medicine ; as anatomy is of wr- 

fery. In the full latitude of the word .the philosophy of 
isease and medicine may be considered as only a part of 
physiology ; so that the science of life divides itself into 
two general divisions, anatomy and physiology — the one, 
the stmcture of the dead body, the other, the actions of 
the living vian. 

Although anatomy has finnished much colatteral sup- 
port to physiology, yet the latter has always established its 
principles'in the first place within its own natural province, 
which is, and ever must be, the study of the living animal- 
Scientific research, so far as regards man, can prove no im- 
portant thing to the physician which may not be learned by 
common observation. When we consider that this must be 
the case with all analysis and experiment, we shall not 
wonder that science is compelled to bring such tokens of 
homage to the feet of Samuel Thomson. 

After learning the nature of the elements concerned in 
any science, our next great object is to learn its general 
principles. 



4S PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

The most prominent and striking general principle in 
physiology- is the unity or oneness of the different parts and 
systems of the body. This must be strongly impressed up- 
on the brain ofthe medical student before he is fit to proceed 
far in his study, or is capable of being trusted in practice. 

Chemical analysis shows the animal body to be com- 
posed of two classes of 

ELEMENTS. 

First — The ultimate elements, or simple substances, such 
as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, iron ; common to universal 
matter, and then, compounded of these, proximate elements, 
such as albumen, fibrin, gelatin &c., peculiar to or- 
ganic beings. 

The relations ofthe human body to the ultimate elements 
of the external world ; and of its proximate elements to 
its o\vn internal actions, are objects highly worthy of our 
attention. 

The most important ultimate elements, are, Oxygen, Hy- 
drogen, Carbon and Nitrogen. The less important, are, 
Phosphorus, Sulphur, Chlorine, Flourine, Lime, Potash, 
Soda, Magnesia, Silex, Alumine, and Iron.* The first 
class constitute by far the largest part of the body ; and ac- 
cordingly we find them abounding in air, water, and plants 
as the principle active elements around us. The second 
class compose a much smaller part of the body, and accor- 
dingly we find them existing in much less quantity, espec- 
ially in circumstances of relation. 

Sulphur, for instance is always found in small quantities 
in albumen. It also exists in small quantities in many 
fountains and in most plants. 

Iron is the basis ofthe coloring matter of the blood ; ac- 
cordingly we find it in all plants ; and composing one per 
cent of the soil. 

Soda exists more largely in the body than potash, and is 
found to be more congenial with it. Muriatic acid is one 

*It is true that some of these elements are compounds. — 
Soda, for instance, has a metalic base called sodium united 
to oxygen. But as they are not decomposed by the vital 
powers, so it is proper to speak of them, for all practical 
purposes, as ultimate elements. 



THE LAWS OF LIFE. 49 

of the most mild of that class of substances upon the or- 
ganism, scarcely effecting any of the tissues, but the osse- 
os ; and in the wisest relation, we find that this acid, u- 
nited to that mild alkali, soda, constitutes that indispensa- 
ble article of our food, common salt. The same relation 
exists between our bodies, our food, and the other elements 
mentioned. 

Thus we see that all the ultimate elements of the hu. 
man body are not legitimately poisonous. 

But the great line of distinction between plants and an- 
imals, which is that the former subsists alone upon ultim- 
ate, and the latter alone upon proximate elements, seems 
to indicate that we should not use them in their inorganic 
state. The difference may be seen between lime freshly 
calcined, and that combined in the egg shell, plants, &c. 

On the other hand, we find that all those elements which 
do not compose a part of our bodies, such as arsenic, anti- 
mony, mercury, copper, lead, &c., are highly poisonous ; 
and by a wise provision of the Creator arc more rarely 
diffused in nature. 

It is only by a careful observance of the laws of life — 
of our relations to physical and moral circumstances, that 
we can be preserved from premature death ; or have our 
days lengthened out to the maximum of time. 

But how have our relations to the elemeitts of the ex- 
ternal world been observed ? How have physicians re- 
garded them in the use of their deadly mineral poisons ? 
Let the cripple from childhood, let the sallow victim of a 
diseased liver, let the decaying teeth and dimed eye, yea, 
and to say nothing of death direct, let the hypo haunted 
wretch, with the suicidal rope, answer for the miseries of 
a violated life ! 

What reason do these physicians offer for this practice ? 
A few years ago in a report to the Legislature of New 
York, against the Thomsonian practice, it was gravely ad- 
vanced, as a premises in favor of mineral poisons, that the 
body contained minerals ; and evenbread, "the staff of life," 
was composed of 98 1-2 per cent, of minerals. What of 
that? If it appears that plants can seize upon the ele- 
ments of the mineral kingdom, and convert them to their 



50 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

own use. thou it is to all purposes vegetable uiatttv, or tiio 
"spoils" do not "belong to the victors." 

But then, wo have already shown that it is not against 
the ultimate elements of our bodies or food, that our ob- 
jection lies. Yet, with this premises, the faculty have, 
strangely deduced the following proposition : Because 
some minerals are used by the animal economy in an or- 
ganic state, as food, all minerals may be used in an inor- 
ganic state, as medicines. 

We notice these reasons, because they have governed 
popular opinion. 

We once heard a physician of reputed learning and 
skill, advance the same idea. Upon which we offered the 
following proposition. If minerals arc good medicines 
because they compose a part of our system, it follows, of 
course, that they mn^i ha had medicines if they do not 
compose a part of our systems ; what then shall we do 
with arsenic, mercury, and antimony ? Wc received no 
answer at that time ; and we still challenge the scientific 
world to gainsay the proposition. 

To the mass of people, for whom we write, we say ob- 
serve your relations to the Tuineral world ; for you must 
violate them at the peril of your physical happiness and 
your lives. Verdigris is an active poison. But how is it 
with that brass vessel in which those acid fruits are stew- 
ing ; see the green circle above the liquor ; see the li- 
quor rise and fall again, and leave the place of the circle 
bright and clean. Can the pies and preserves of that prep- 
aration be healthy ? 

How is it with the earthen milk pans, glazed with lead, 
by which whole families have been poisoned ? 

How is it with a scissors chain which we saw, whitened 
with mercury, and wholly vi^orn off on a lady's fingers, 
thus producing black oxide of mercury, or ungiientum ; 
of which every body can tell us some disastrous ac- 
count ? Howisitwitha thousand other things silvered 
m this way ? Verily, a lady cannot take a pin in her 
fingers without getting a homopopathian dose of mer- 
cury. 

How is it with the health and length of life of painters 
and other artists who are exposed to strange metals ? and 



TUl^ LAWS OF LIFE 



51 



see in the lieallh}- blacksmith how iron is an exception. 

How is it Avitli our copper pumps, fa wcets, and tlie load 
pipe in uhich our water is conveyed. 

How Avas it with the lead sickness from the lead pipe in 
the wells of Lowell, How was it with the palsy tmd 
rholic at New Brunswick, caused by a cargo of snn-ar con- 
taminattd with lead. 

Well, indeed, might we Avonder that tlie amount of 
hcaUh and length of life in a civilized community is not 
equal to that of the savages, Avho use no vessels but the 
lioilow stone, and wield no weapons but of Avood and 
bone. 

That man Avho Avas well nigh killed by drinking butter- 
m.ilk Avhich had stood in a freshly painted pail, and that 
family, a part of whose members were recently poisoned 
to death by eating pie plant, cooked in brass, might well 
regard that time as a golden age, when men shall observa 
the laws of their relations to minerals.* 

Of the proximate ox organic elements wo have already 
mentioned the principal ; and must delay to speak of their 
beautiful relations to the vital changes until avc have giv- 
en a fuither description of the parts of the system. 

In Anatomical Analysis — the first element of the hu- 
man body which demands our attention are the 
TISSUES. 

First, the Cellular Tissue. This unites the difTerent 
organs together ; and in a more condensed form composes 
all the membranes ; it forms the cartilaginous substance of 
tho bones, into the interstices of Avhich are infused the os- 
seous fibre ; every muscle is coA'-ercd Avith a sheath of this 
tissue, and dipping into their suhstanco, covers every fascio- 
lus, and again every fibre of muscle, and uniting at their 
extrenaities, forms the tendons ; the same disposition of this 
substance attends the nerves, so that the muscular and ner- 
vous fibre, like that of the osseous, is infused into corres- 
ponding cells of the tissue; thus making of this substance 

* Wafers, Avhich are often put in the mouth, and some- 
timps eaten, are colored Avith a preparation o'( mercury ; 
and have been knoAvn to produce salivation. German 
filver i^ an alloy of arsenic, &c, <S:e. 



52 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

one grand frame-work ; so that, were the other mentioned 
substances abstracted, the cellular tissue woiild preserve the 
entire form of the body. 

The principal chemical quality of cellular tissue is ge- 
latin ; and its peculiar physiological property is contrac- 
tility. It is found to be composed of fibres which are a- 
gain sub-divided into filaments; and these, according to 
the microscope are composed of strings of minute globules. 
The same ultimate composition, of globules, is common to 
the osseous, muscular, and nervous filaments ; upon which 
viQ would remind the reader of the unity of the sys- 
tem. 

The word tissue is used as a common term to express 
all the animal organism. 

If we consider the cellular tissue as fundamental and 
complete in a classification of its own kind, consisting of 
membranes, tendon, and cartillage,we shall find superior to 
it, a gradation of other tissues, in a series of three. 

The osseous tissue, having for its chemical quality 'phos- 
phate of lime, and for its physiological property, solid- 
ity. 

The muscular tissue, having for its chemical quality, 
fibrin, and for its physiological property, irritaUlity. 

Ihc nervous tissue, having for its chemical quality, al- 
humen, and for its physiological property, sensibility. 

The tissues, to which, if we add the external coverings, 
the cuticle, nails, and hair, having for chemical quality, 
mucus and their physilogical property, insensibility, con- 
stitute all the solids of the body. 

The whole animal system may be separated into two 
grand divisions, solids and fluids. 

The fluids may be also divided into two. The Hood 
which conveys nutriment to all the solids, and the neuaura 
which conveys the vital forces of excitation and volition 
through the nerves. 

The solids of the body may be divided into seven 
INCRETORY SYSTEMS : 

Each, consisting of two grand divisions. The osseous 
system, consisting of ossified, and unossified bones or car- 
tilages. The muscular system, consisting of muscles of 
voluntary and involuntary motion ; or mwsclcs of animal 



THE LAWS UF LIFE. 53 

and organic life. The nervous system, also consisting of 
nerves of animal and organic life. The vascular srjsle7n, 
consisting of arteries and veins. The pulmonary system 
consisting of air cells and cappilaries. The digestive sys- 
tem, consisting of the superior or chimifyingj'and the in- 
ferior or chylifying structures. And the absorbent sys- 
tern, consisting of the lacetals and the lymphatics. 

There are, also, three excretory systems. The kidnies, 
the liver, and the skin. 

Of the re-productive system, or the sexes, we deem it 
due to chastity to give no descriptions in this work ; but, 
as a matter of duty, we shall be compelled to speak of its 
physiological laws and their violations in another place. 

We will now proceed to consider each of the above 
mentioned systems and their 

FUNCTIONS, 
in order. The 

OSSEOUS SYSTEM 

need not be further described ; but some of its physiologi- 
cal phenomena demand our attention. The nerves of this 
system in a healthy state, are not sensible, but when a bono 
is broken, and begins to knit their sensibility becomes ex- 
tremely acute, as manifested by the increased pain of 
which, is highly necessary to prevent a displacement of the 
parts. Thus we see that fain attends an effort of nature 
and is a friend. 

If madder be fed to animals a ie\\ days, their bones 
become dyed red with its coloring matter ; and if it be 
omitted, the coloring in a short time disappears. Thus 
we see there is a constant change taking place — a con- 
stant toaste and supply of parts ; and being found to exist 
in this, one of the most unchangeable of the tissues, the 
reader will be prepared to appreciate its importance in 
the others. 

The bones in the infantile state are principally compos- 
ed of cartilage, which are gradually ossified. 

In this stage of the human body, it is very liable to be- 
come misshaped, and the constitution injured for life. The 
nurse mnst not swathe an infant chest as if she wore gird- 
ing a sadle upon a horse. 

The extremities of the ribs always remain. cartilage ; foi 



54 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

this reason, younc ladies, bj'- tight lacint,'-. are «nahlcd Uj 
put themselves into such unpro7nising shapes. 

The joints of the spine are separated by cartilage; a 
stooping posture, or weakness of" the muscles of the back, 
by tight lacing, &c., will cause the layers of cartilage to 
become wedged shaped, and make the spine crooked. — 
This may be easily corrected by an effort to maintin au 
erect position. 

In beautiful relation to the dcvelopement of bones, it 
is found that the first milk of the mother contains the 
greatest amount of phospate of lime. As rickets are a 
defect in ossification, so the fresh milk of the cow or aa- 
other nurse, may perhaps, be the most natural remedy — 
The 

MUSCULAR. SYSTEM. 

constitutes the lean or fleshy part of the body ; and ex- 
cepting the contractility of the cellular tissue, serve to 
produce all its motions. The muscles of animal life arc 
found principally upon the limbs and surface, and are 
subject to the will. The muscles of organic life are found 
more internally, existing in the heart, chest and alimen- 
tary canal ; and arc not subject to the will. Of the 

NERVOUS SYSTEM, 

those of animal life have their great centre in tho brain. 
They are the medium of perceptive senses, and of the force 
of the will in producing all voluntary motions. The 
nerves of animal life, spring, many of them, from the spi- 
nal marrow which is connected with the brain, nnd are 
called cerebro spinal nerves. 

The nerve? of organic life are exhibited by gangliojis or 
small roundish bodies of a greyish white color, partakino- 
of the nature of brain ; which are extended in a series a- 
long each side of the spinal column, and connected by nsr- 
vous filaments. These nerves have for their centre two 
larje ganglions behind the stomach, connected by nervous 
filaments ; sometimes called the semi-lunar ganglions or 
great solar plexus. This centre is the scat of peculiar an- 
imal sensations, and has been often referred to as the 
heart. 

The organic nerves preside over all the involuntary 
motions, as respiration, digestion and the growth of the 



THE r.AWS OF LIFE. 55 

body ; and bind all tlio animal functions together in one 
hoiA o[ si/mjyaihy ; for which they arc called the sympa- 
thetic nerves. These nerves are connected in many places' 
with the nerves of animal life,especially with nerves which 
arise from the top of spinal marrow, which is found to be 
the great centre of animal consciousness. 

Thus the sensibilities of the body arc most cfTectually 
bound together in one. Hence man, in speaking of him- 
self, uses a singular pronoun ; and for this pupose, the 
Englishman has chosen the simplest and straightest letter 
in the alphabet, "I." The 

VASCrLAR SYSTEM 

has for its great object, the 

Circulation of the Blood. 
The centre and principal motive force of the circula- 
tion is the heart. This is a hollow and a strongly muscu- 
lar organ ; and is divided into four cavities. The two 
principal ones are called ventricles ; and are surrounded 
by strong walls. The two smaller ones are called auri- 
cles ; with less strong walls ; and arc attached upon the 
principal part of the heart somewhat in the form of 
ears. 

From the left ventricle of the heart arises, in a beauti- 
ful arch, a large vessel called the aorta ; from which a- 
rises all of the large arteries; and these are divided, sub- 
divided, and ramified into an infinite number of cappilary 
vessels, composing an important part of all the tis- 
sues. 

It is in this extreme part of the arteries that the blood 
performs its most vital offices to the system ; and by which 
it acquires a purple color, and is no longer fit for use. 

It then returns by the fine radicles of the veins, whick 
gradually coalese until they unite in two large vessels, 
called the venacava. These, bringing the blood from 
the superior and inferior extremities, empty it in the 
right auricle ; from this, it is sent into the right ventricle ; 
from which it is again sent out by the pulmonary artery 
and ramified into another cappilary system upon the air 
cell. 5 of the lungs. 

It i.s in this part of the system that the blood receives its 



56 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

most important vital changes upon itself; by which it ac- 
quires a bright scarlet hue; and is again rendered fit to re- 
plenish the system. 

The capilaries of the lungs then coalese into the four 
pulmonary veins, which return the blood to the left auri- 
cle of the "heart; from the left auricle it is sent into the left 
ventricle; from which it is again distributed, as before de- 
scribed, to all parts of system. 

Both auricles contract at one time ; at which time the 
ventricles both simultaneously expand; and thus the blood is 
carried by a double force into the ventricles. 

In the passage between the auricles and ventricles are 
placed floating valves, attached below by tendinous cords 
to the walls of the ventricles. These freely admit the 
blood from the auricles ; but when the ventricles are filled 
with blood they rise up, and governed by the extent of the 
tendinous cords, exaetly fill the passage. 

When the ventricles in turn contract, the blood, not be- 
ing able to flow backward, must pass, in one case, out of the 
aorta, and in the other, out of the pulmonary artery. At 
the mouth of each of these vessels are also valves, which, 
when the ventricles again expand, prevent the blood 
from returning into them. Thus it is kept in its onward 
course, night and day, in ceaseless circulations ; every one 
of which is accomplished in about three minutes. 

The wonderful harmony in the operation of this dissim- 
ilar machinery does not indicate contingent consequences, 
only, but the arbitrary design of matchless ingenuity ; 
than which nothing can convey in stronger terms to our 
faith or under standing.^ the wisdom and goodness of an 
Almighty Creator. 

the pulmonary system 
is principallydesigned for respiration ; the chief organs o^ 
which are the lungs. These receive the air by way of the 
trachea, which is divided into branches called bonchia • 
these again, are divided into an immense number of branches 
terminating in little cavities called air ceils. The lungs 
together with the heart, occupy the upper cavity of the 
trunk called the chest. This is separated from the abdomen. 



THE LAWS OF LIFE. 57 

in which are the stomach intestines, liver, &c, by a beau- 
tifuly arched partition of muscles called the diaphra-m 
Ihis latter organ is the principal agent of motion'' iii 
breathmg. When its muscles contract it is drawn down 
from Its arched, dome-like form, nearly to a plane; this en- 
larges the chest; and the lungs, which are very elastic, are 
obliged, In- the pressure of the atmosphere, to follow its 
motions. Tne ribs and their muscles, also contribute very 
much to this operation. The ribs are attached to the spine 
by joints ; from which the lower ones incline downward • 
and then terminate in cartilage, which incline upward 
and joins the breast bone. By this arrangement, when the 
muscles between the ribs contract the lower ribs are drawn 
upward,the front and lateral walls of the chest are thrown 
outw-ard, and Its capacity enlarged; at the same time the 
diaphragm being contracted, the lungs are inflated with 
air, which is called an inspiration. These muscles again 
relaxmg, the muscles of the abdomen in turn contractma", 
drawing the ribs dovvnward, and pressing the diaphragm 
upward, and the lungs at the same time collapsing by°an 
inherent power of ihcir ow^n, the air 'is expelled, which is 
called an expiration. Thus we see that this most vital 
operation— respiration, is principally accomplished by 
those very organs, whoso action vulgar and ignorant fe- 
males endeavor to suppress by tight lacing. 

"Yon naturalist or bard who worships grace 

May smile upon the sentimental face ; 
But sighs in love for that full swelling chest, 

That upward bears emotion's heaving breast." 

The size of the chest is a very good criterion of the 
physical force. When it is large, the person generally 
possesses a sanguine and active temperament. 

This will not appear strange when we learn that 
respiration is the only source of animal iieat ; and that 
the power of generating heat in the animal body is al- 
ways in pro-portion to the living force. 

The vital agent of the atmosphere is oxygen, which 
constitutes only about a fourth part of it. Of this oxygen, 
a single pair of lungs consume 30 cubic inches in a min- 
ute : and leave in its place an equal volume of carbonic 



58 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

acid, in which animal life becomes extinct as soon as il 
under water. Here we see the importance of pure air.— - 
It is the oxygen which nrterializes the blood and gives it 
its scarlet hue. It is this which gives to the inhabitant of 
the open air, his ruddy cheek and buoyant step. It js the 
deprivation of this, as one cause, which renders the inhab- 
itants of our shops and cities pale and sickly. 

We must have aie, or uik. We must have pure 
air or be sick. 

What wonder, if in violation of this law, there should be 
those, in our tight and crowded chuiches, in the afternoon, 
with lungs tied up to boot, that faint. 

Would that this law could forbid that there be ever an- 
other human dwelling erected without a view- to its venti- 
lation. 

Our senses seem to be less faithful sentinels against im- 
pure air than most otirer dangers. As ann-nal, and culina- 
ly heat are the same, and abstractly, produced in the same 
manner, so fire, like breathing, will render the air unfit ta 
support life; yet hundreds have breathed the fumes of burn- 
ing charcoal, ignorant of their danger until death s-eizcd 
them. 

To see a number of persons sleeping in a tight bed-room 
8 fee by8 — to see them'come out in the morning from an 
atmosphere that smells like Tophet, pale, languid, yawn- 
ing, stretching, unrefreshed, and without an appetite for 
breakfast — to see a person sleeping where there is a fur- 
nace of burning coals — to find him in the morning in the 
same position in which he lay down — a corpse, are exam- 
ples sufficient to warn us to call reason and science to our 
aid to preserve us from the "dangers which stand thick 
through all the land to push us to the tomb." The 

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. 

next demands our attention, the object of which is to pre- 
pare our food for the production of tissues, and of animal 
heat. 

This is accomplished by the Alijnentary Canal and its 
auxiliaries, the glands of the mouth, pancreas, and liver. 
The alimentary canal, commencing with the mouth, an<f 
^wminating with the anus, is divided into th« esophagus. 



THE LAWS OF LIFE 59 

rhe stumach, the duodenum, the small, and the larrre 
intestines. ^ 

But,not\vithstanding this apparently'complicated division 
the reader must not forget that it has a general unitTi and 
sym'pathy. Life has been sustained for years ^vhere there 
was no passage below the stomach ; that organ alone per- 
forming the offices of digestion, absorption, and excretion 
which in the normal state are assigned to different parts of 
the canal. 

Again, when the stomach could not receive food, life 
has been sustained sometime by nourishing enemas • thus 
we see one part may vicariously perform the office of an- 
other. In some of the lowest order of animals, the ali- 
mentary canal is a mere sac with but one opening. In the 
higher grades it becomes a simple canal with two open- 
ings ; and in man is divided into four distinct parts, and is 
folded to six times his length. 

These facts with regard to the great source of nourish- 
ment, present a fair type of the unihj of the lokoh system ; 
and strongly condemn those physicians who govern their 
practice by specific operations upon individual parts. 

The difference in the structure of the digestive sys- 
tem in the different animals, points to remarkable rela- 
tion in their dietetic laws. 

Those in whom the nlimentary canal is more sim- 
ple, can eat more constantly. We may take for com- 
tnon examples, the horse and the goose. 

In those in whom this system is more complicated and 
the stomach is very large as in the ox, the animal, after 
taking its meal must stop, chew the cud, and digest it 
or bloat; or on stopping, if it be driven to immediate la- 
bor it will famish. The reason of this is that digestion 
requires vitalioxce, which, as we shall hereafter see, is 
a general agent whose production is limited ; conse- 
quently when it is required to digest the large meal in 
an ox's stomach, there is none to spare for labor, or if 
expended upon labor, there \s not enough to expend up' 
on digestion. 

The capacity of the human stomach also ofdains by 
this law, that man mubt eat by meals, A.fD not bt piece 

XEALS. 



60 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

The alimentary canal is composed principally of" two 
coats, or membranes, the internal or mucous, and the ex- 
ternal or muscular coat, which is disposed in two layers of 
tissues, exccptmg in the stomach, where there are three, so 
arranged as to keep its contents in a revolving motion, by 
which they are mingled with the gastric juice, secreted 
by the mucousc, membrane, and converted into a soft pulpy 
mass called chyme. When the stomach is filled and 
this operation commences, both of its orifices are closed ; 
and Nature, while Avorking in her secret laboratory, seems 
to proclaim, like the signs sometimes over mechanics' 
doors, "no admittance," "no piece meals." 

Beaumont, who enjoyed the privilege of experimenting 
"by an external opening, upon the operations of a living 
stomach, ascertained that the gastric juice unites with the 
food in definite proportions ; not in all proportions ; there- 
fore, what is chymified is chymified mdeed ; there is no 
half way about it ; consequently when there is too much 
food taken for this effect, it must remain as extraneous 
rnatter, irritating and debilitatino- the system. A law 
which proclaims, gluttony is forbidden. 

In violation of these laws, many fond, but foolish moth- 
ers, overfeed, and grant their children piece meals (their 
judgement often misgiving them,) until they are rendered 
dyspeptics for life, or laid in a premature grave. 

The peevish and unhealthy Utile mortal gets his piece 
to stop his srying ; and because he has not taken his reg- 
ular meals ; while the very cause of this is that he has had 
piece meals. 

However, infants and young children should have 
meals oftcner than adults ; but they should be regular. 
Perhaps there are some grown up children who have not 
t)een weaned from piece meals ; but dame Nature knows 
when they are 'out," and they will get chastised. 

The digestive structure and habits of man point out a 
remarkable relation to his intellect. Thinking, like all 
other functions, requires force. Plants which assimilate 
ultimate elements cannot think ; their whole force is ex- 
pended upon organic productions. These by much lese 
force are converted into animal tissues. The ruminating 
animals, to which the Israelites, by divine direction, pria- 



THE LAWS OF LIFE. 61 

cipally confined their animal food, have a more compli- 
cated alimentary apparatus than man, and perform a grea- 
ter digestive drudgery, assimilating the coarsest vegetable 
matter : accordingly those animals cannot reason. But 
man Avas designed to live upon seeds and flesh 1 which 
have organic, elements nearest the composition of his 
own body, and require less vital force to digest them ; thus 
leaving more to be expended upon mental actions; not 
only so, but to man is given the prerogative of economizing 
the digestive force by the use of Jire in cookery. 

It is the use of fire whTch not only distinguishes the power 
of reasoning in man from the lower animals,but its propor- 
tionable use distinguishes the degree of intellectual power 
between the different races and nations. 

These facts should check the ardor of those dietetic 
physiologists who speak against animal diet and the arts 
of cookery ; for their ultra notions may tend to reduce 
them to the idiotic, grass-eating state of Nebuchadnezzar 
in his degradation. Scotland and England are the most 
intelligent nations on earth. One is called the "land O'- 
Cakts, and the other the "Land of Roast Beef" 

However, there are lamentable errors attending cookery 
— perversions alike common to all good. The drudgery 
of females in getting three vmrm vieals a daij, is one of 

the greatest examples of insidious slavery in the world. 

How much valuable time it squanders, which mio-ht be 
devoted to intellectual pursuits, and the education of 
children ; to say nothing about the gormandizing and sick- 
ness occasioned by warm food, and a variety. 

We are sorry to extend our pages with these remarks, 
but we feel compelled to suggest some remedies for these 
evils. One day in the week is thought sufficient to devote 
to washing and keeping clean ; and certainly another is 
sufficient for cookery. We pity the ingenuity of the 
housekeeper who cannot always have a supply of very pal- 
ateable food, ready to be eaten cold j and without a great 
display of dishes. 

Again, the systematic variety found upon our tables, is 
most wicked. A party sits down to dinner, and after ma- 
king a decent meal of meat and potatoes, then comes bread 
and butter, when nearly satiated with this, then comes a 



62 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

•' . 

pudding, n'hen the appetite fails upon this, then comes the 

cake, after cramuiing- down some of this, tlio climax is 
crowned by a piece of pie. We have no objections against 
puddings, cakes, and pies, properly made and timely 
eaten. 

The combination of flour and fruit in a pic is very 
congenial food. We do not mean those acrid things, poison- 
ed with verdigris and lead glazing, which we find upon our 
tables. Combination of saccharine with flour in cake is 
also very excellent ; but the grease and alkali f-hould be 
left out. Puddin'gs.also, rightly prepared,are admirably cal- 
culated to save digestive force ; and these articles, when 
eaten alone will satiate with less quantity than most oth- 
ers. 

Put together, then, these rules, one dish at a time, cold 
FOOD, AND REGULARITY, and we havc an effectual safe- 
guard against over-eating. 

We should observe that the digestive process commen- 
ces in the mouth. The organs designed for this, (he teeth 
and salivary glands, &c., are very specific. Beaumont 
found that fineness of fibre greatly contributed to diges- 
tion. This effect is designed to be accomplished in the 
mouth, and is called mastication. 

Dr. Meredith Rees states that he has cured several dys- 
peptics by compelling them to sit an hour at their meals. 
These laws ordain that man should chew his food, and 

CHEW IT WELL, 

The process in the stomach we have described, and is 
called chymification. 

The next change takes place in the first portion of the 
intestine, called the duodenum. Here the chyme meets 
with the bile from the liver, and a peculiar fluid fiom the 
pancreas, by which a homogeneous fluid, called chyle, is 
separated ; and the process is called chjlification. 

Whatever be the food we take,the chyle always bears the 
same character. In accordance with this,it has been found 
by Mulder, a German chemist, that when albumen, fibrin 
and caseine (the basis of milk) our principal articles of food' 
are acted upon by potash, they all result in one general 
compound, called proteine. This element is considered by 
liebig as the starting point of all the tissues. 



I'HE LAWS OF LIFE 6r. 

Noxv, if we add potash in the form of saiteratus to our 
cakes, we shall perhaps anticipate digestion by producinp-. 
an impure proteine. ' ^ 

We have seen that the food, in the order of nature mun 
go through regular stages ; and that the office of absorbing 
chyle belongs to the mtestines, but may be transferred to 
the stomach ; the artificial chyle of the rich cakes may 
thus pass out through the stomach, and of course will pro- 
duce imperfect tissues. 

An example of this may be seen in cows fed on still 
slops. With them the food must go through oven more 
processes than in man before it is" fit for assimilation.— 
But the fermented still slops anticipating and subverting 
this order of nature, the animals soon become sickly, their 
teeth decay, and their milk is unfit for use. 

What wonder, then, that our high livers, in committing 
these perversions, should suffer and die with gout, surfeit, 
apoplexy, &c. 

We feel also bound to endeavor to throw some light up- 
on the great question now pending between animal 
and vegetable diet. 

Considering our own body a very good physiometer (for 
we speak upon nearly all medical principles in reference 
to our own observation) having taken a careful notice of 
the effect of all kinds of food upon our person, and having 
in youth used a vegetable diet for three years we are pre"- 
pared to speak with some degree of experience upon this 
subject. 

During the period rcfered to we were a decided dyspep- 
tic ; and vegetable food did not cure it. When we com- 
menced animal food again there was an improvement of 
health ; and from our experience we are inclined to think 
that a.Jibri?i07/..<! animal diet is not an improper food for man; 
but we are still morepositivethat a fatty aivmal diet is inju- 
rious. While we except a part of animal diet, the experi- 
ence of Graham rejects all. But we believe the experi- 
ment of many different mdividuals are not sufficient ; noth- 
ing but different generations can settle the question by ex- 
perzpzce; \ve shall therefore appeal to a very different au- 
thority from Graham's or our own experience upon the 
subject. 



04 PHySlOLOGY, OK 

The Bible is acknowledged to be a superior code of 
morals , and we find that wherever its language is connec- 
ted with physics it is remarkably true to physical law. 

According to its history man was originally a frugiferous 
animal : the "seecZ" and ''^fruiV' of the '-herb" and "tree" 
were to him for '■hncaty 

But then it is said a change came over the history of his 
character ; and from that time the destruction of animals 
became necessary to preserve his vitality — he was clothed 
in "coats of skins" ; and analogy does not indicate that man 
should return again to his original diet till earth has return- 
ed again to Eden. 

To Noah, was made an especial grant of animal food; 
and when law was more particularly defined to the Israel- 
ites there was a distinction for food, between clean and un- 
clean animals : founded on certain natural characters. To 
what are these characters related ? Let us see. Beaumont, 
in his experiments on the stomach of St. Martin, found 
that the bile in the normal state, only entered the duoden- 
um ; but that when oily food is taken, the bile is obliged 
to ascend into the stomach to assist in chymification. Oil 
and fat are found to be extremely difficult of digestion; and 
call for a vital force, inconsistent with its expenditure up- 
on intellect. The esquimaux who use such quantities of 
train oil, approach the character of brutes. 

In accordance with these facts we find that the clean an- 
imals are of the muscular, lean class, as the ox and sheep ; 
while many of the unclean animals, are subject to large 
accumulations of fat, as the hog, bear, and camel. 

Again there was a distinction between the jxiris of clean 
animals. And what is it? The same rejection of fat. In 
all the directions for sacrifices "the fat of the kidnics," "caul" 
&c.,Avas not to be eaten by the priests, but burned upon the 
alter; to which was added this general law. 

"It shall be a perpetual statute for 3-our generations, 
throughout all your dwellings, that ye eat neither fat nor 
blood." 

When we consider with these things, the common ex- 
perience, that fibrin and albumen require the least digestive 
force for the greatest amount of nourishment; and that oily 
food produces dulness and disease,it is a demonstration that 



TI^E LAWS OF LIFE. 65 

ANIMAL FLESH IS A CONGENIAL DIET ; AND ANIMAL FAT IS 

NOT. [Perhaps the words "clean" and "unclean" in- 
dicate other characters of relation and non-relation 
which should confine us to the Mosaic distinction.] 

If to these things we add the fact that the ox and sheep 
consume the "green herb," and that to the swine is fed 
the "seed" and "fruit," already food — a great violation 
of economy, it becomes not only a matter of physiologi- 
cal interest, but of civil polity, that swine eating be 
banished from community. 

We come next to describe the structure and functions' 
of the 

ABSORBENT 8YS3TEM. 

This, as we have before observed, is divided into two 
parts. First, the lacteals, a set of small vessels which 
arise in great numbers from the inner surface of the in- 
testines, and absorbingr the chyle, carry it through a set 
of glands, lymphatic, bordering this part of the alimen- 
tary canal, from which it is carried into an oval sac, 
near the bottom of the spine, termed the receptaculam 
chyli ; from this it ascends along the spine in a tube, 
called the thoracic duct, which empties into one of the 
larg^e veins, and is conveyed directly to the heart. 

The next class of absorbents are called lymphatics ; 
which arise in immense numbers from all the tissues of 
the body ; from which they absorb a fiuid called lymph 
which is supposed to be expelled from the changing 
tissues ; but is still fit for the animal economy ; and 
is carried into the common channel with the chyle , and 
emptied into the blood. These fluids, in passing through 
the absorbents and their glands, assume the form of 
globules, and acquire the power of coagulation ; called 
organization ; besides possessing other characters anal- 
agous to the blood ; and are its immediate source. 

From the heart the chyle is sent, along with the ven- 
ous blood, directly to the lungs, where it undergoes an- 
other great change called mration ; and lastly, while 
passing through the arterial cappilaries it accomplishes 
the final object of organization, the production of a tis- 
sue called nutritum. 



ec PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

We have now arrived at a point where we muy bfgin 
to look into some of the most ultimate and vital functions 
of life — the transmutation of the organism — the change 
of blood into tissups, and the change of tissues again into 
lyraph and waste matter ; and the production of animal 
heat. 

We have mentioned the relation of the organic elements 
to these changes, to which we will recur. 

The blood when drawn, spontaneously separates into 
two parts — a fluid which rises to the top, composed of al- 
bumen ; and is coagulated by heat ; and a thicker part 
which coagulates of itself, composed of fibrin, phosphate 
of lime' and a compound of iron in the form of red glo- 
bules. 

The abumen exists in the greatest quantity and corres- 
ponds in quality, with the nerves. This part of 
the system, probably undergoes the most rapid 
transmutation, and requires the greatest and most easy sup- 
ply : hence the facility with which mental habits are 
changed ; hence the cause of the fact asserted by phreno- 
logists, that the brain is capable of greater enlargement 
than any other organ after adult age , hence the greater 
necessity of sleep, for renovation, to animals who have a 
larger brain. 

The fibrin is the next substance in quantity, and is iden- 
tical in quality with the muscles. 

These, being necessary to motion, undergo the next 
greatest change. 

The phosphate of lime is the next substance in quanti- 
ty. This is necessary to the bones ; and in accordance 
we find that they undergo a less rapid change than the 
other tissues. 

Gelatin, the substance composing the cellular tissue, 
that great frame-work of the body, is never found in the 
blood ; but it is produced from the elements of the blood 
by the addition of oxygen, &c. — a radical chemical change 
which requires a considerable degree of force ; according- 
ly, and as it should be, this tissue changes the least of all 
others; hence the difficulty with which strained and la- 
cerated ligaments are found to heal ; hence, when the mus- 
eles are shrunk by starvation, the tendons, &c,, preserv* 



THE LAWS or LIFE • or 

their original size. It is a remarkable fact stat ed by Lio- 
bisr, that gelatin will not support life. Animals fed up- 
on it,_died at length with the appearances of starvation. 

It is a corresponding fact that gelatin cannot be con- 
verted into proteine ; as is the case with albumen and fi. 
brin. 

Caseine, also, the basis of milk, and the only food di- 
rectly prepared by nature, is converted into proteine; 
these three substances contain exactly the same proportion 
of nhimate elements ; and their difference in nature de- 
pends merely upon a different arrangement of particles. 

We should here remark that one of fhe principal difFeien- 
ces between the vegetable and animal kingdom, is, that 
vegetables possess but little nitrogen, while it is a charac- 
teristic element of animals. But the seeds of many plants 
contain nitrogenizcd compounds m form of albumen, fibrin 
and caseine ; exactly the same as these elements produced 
by the animal body. 

These substances, or rather this general substance in 
its different forms is the only supply of the animal tissues, 
and is only produced in the Vegetable Kingdom. Wo 
should suppose, from this, that those animals which live 
upon herbs and grass, which have less of these substances, 
must eat a greater amount, and have a slower metamor- 
phosis of tissues ; and such is the fact. 

The non-nitrogenized articles,on the other hand, such aa 
starch, su^ar, gum, mucilage, and fat, are incapable of sup- 
porting life only in a relative sense ; i. e. by supporting the 
respiration, and production of animal heat which otherwise 
must be supplied from the vital tissues ; as we shall liereaf 
ter see. 

For this we have the authority of Liebig. Majendie, al- 
so, affirms that a dog fed exclusively on sugar,died in thir- 
2 /--two days.* And an ass fed on rice, lost his appetite, and 
ied in fifteen daj'S. These things should convince physi- 
cians of the utmost folly of attempting to sustain patients, 
for a length of time, upon a diet of starch, gum, &c, 

Graham, the great leader of the dietetic school, seeming. 
ly aware of the apparent necessity of nitrogenizcd food, 
has labored hard to show that vital powers of plants can 
transmute the ultimate elements from one to another. It 



68 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

is true that they assimilate these elements. But Graham 
has assumed, that "Earth's alkalies, acids, metals, sulphur, 
phosporus, and other equally simple substances, may be 
elaborated by the vital power of the vegetable economy, 
from oxygen, nitrogen,* hydrogen, and carbon of the at- 
mosphere." 

A proposition without a shadow of proof Not only so , 
but he says, "The vital economy of the animal system is 
not less wonderful in its analytic and synthetic powers. 
• * * The blood of man always contains a con- 
siderjij^le quantity of iron, which it would be difficult, if 
not impossible to account for in any other satisfactory 
way," This is the climax of hypothesis, and absurdity. 
A school boy in chemistry should know th'^t the iron is 
obtained from the food. 

But instead of animals transmuting the ultimate ele- 
ments, they do not even assimilate them. 

We have shown that the great vital force necessary in 
digesting herbs and grass is incompatible with intellect. 
The force with which carbonic acid is decomposed by the 
chemical action of the sun's light in vegetables, is equal to 
a read heat ; but animals cannot sustain such a heat ; con- 
sequently to decompose carbonic acid,they must have light; 
and to be daily exposed to the light, they must have a sta- 
tionary position ; therefore, the assimulation of ultimate el- 
ements is not only incompatible with intellect,hnt with mo- 
tion. 

But perhaps these definite relations of plants to ultimate, 
and of animals to organic elements signify nothing but the 
ignorance of the Creatok, in contradistinction to the iois- 
dom of Man. 

We hope our puny pen may never detract aught from 
the immense good done by tliis excellent man, Graham ; 
especially in another branch of physiology. . We merely 
wish to strongly mark the dividing line between the two 
classes of food ; and check that unwarranted hypothesis 
which may lead people to sap the foundations of their 
health by attempting to live upon a non-nitrogenized di- 
et. 



* See Lectures on the science of Life. Vol. 1. p. 41. 



THE LAWS OF LIFE. m 

The red globules of the blood, which we have mention- 
ed, are related to the production of animal heat ; which 
by the way, is the same as other heat ; and is produced in 
the body in a manner very analagous to that in a common 
fire. 

All fluids owe their peculiar property to caloric or heat, 
and the gases ; for instance oxygen of the atmosphere, 
contain immense quantities of it in a combined state. — 
Carbon, the principal element of fuel, when in the gase- 
ous form, has a greater affinity for oxygen, than oxygen 
has for heat. Whenever carbon is rarified by heat it at- 
tracts the oxygen which enters it without enlarging its 
bulk ; therefore the oxygen is obliged to give up its whole 
volume of caloric, and fire is the consequence. 

Iron, also, has a great afiinity for oxygen ; and in the 
globules of the blood it combines with it in such excess as 
to give it up very readily. 

Carbon is the largest element in the blood. The glob- 
ules become charged with oxygen in the lungs ; and pas- 
sing rapidly through the arteries, give it up to the carbon ; 
thus producing heat in every part of the body, as re- 
quired. 

It is well known that when a furnace of burning coals 
is placed in a room, it consumes the oxygen, and leaves in 
its place carbonic acid. It is well known that when we 
inhale the breath we imbibe oxygen ; and when we ex- 
hale it, we give out in its stead carbonic acid. There is 
no difference in these two kinds of fire, excepting that the 
latter does not evolve light ; but even here we must remem- 
ber that the arterial blood in its combustion becomes a 
bright scarlet ; which in producing carbonic acid gradu- 
ally converts it into the dark purple of the venous 
blood. 

The carbon of our food furnishes the most direct supply 
of fuel to the fire of life ; consequently a starving man is 
soon frozen. 

For this reason, animals in winter must consume a great- 
er amount of food. This difference is not so remarkable 
in man, because he equalizes it with his fires and cloth- 
ing in winter, and an increase of exercise in summer. 

But here an objection may arise. If food is simply * 



7() PHYSIOLOGY. OR 

direct source, of animal heat, how can a person live a 
number of days, and preserve his heat without it ? 

The organs for the beautiful provision against this d<'- 
fect we have already described — the lymphatic part of the 
absorbent system ; these carrying away the product of the 
changing tissues, convey it to the blood, where it supports 
respiration ; thus the supply of fuel is equalized ; and the 
production of heat may be continued many days without 
a new suppl^' of food ; but the body is famishing, and all 
the substances, and powers of life are approaching disso- 
lution ; 3''et, many physicians will keep their patients in 
this condition a long time, while they arc attempting to 
destroy the disease. 

Fat and oil are the most highly carbonized animal sub- 
stances, and therefore well calculated to support animal 
combustion. For this reason animals which sleep durincr 
the winter, or do not get their usual supply of food, as the 
hog, have an accumulation of fat during the summer. 
The camel not only has a vessel in which to carry a sup- 
ply of water, but an accumulation of fat, in the form of a 
burden ; so that this "ship of the desert" has both a sup- 
ply of water and fuel to support him in crossing the bar- 
ren wastes. 

We cannot avoid turning aside here, to trace still farther 
these beautiful designs of the Creator. Fat is a slow con- 
ductor of heat, and in the hog, which inhabits a cold cli- 
mate, it is spread over his surface ; and while it supports, 
it also preserves his heat. The same is seen in the whale. 
Such a disposition of fat in the camel would be intolera- 
ble while travelin? over the burning sands. 

The reader will perceive from these provisions for uni- 
formity of heat, that it mast be of the most vital conse- 
quence to the aniiu-il. It seems that heat, is as necessary 
a condition to the animal as light is to the plant. The tis' 
sues are held in combination by the vital force as the me- 
dium of affinity between their particles. The maximum 
ofihis force depends upon a temperature of about 98 de- 
grees. 

When this temperature is lowered, the decomposing- 
force gains the ascendancy ,and the metamorphos increases; 
thil increases the supply of combustible matter, and of heat. 



THJC LAWS OF LIFE 71 

which in return preserves the tissues, and resists the cauw 

K-ii • "''; n "'""j , ^"'^'^' "^^ °"^ c^^se, a sudden 
€hill IS ioJlowed by a sudden reaction of heat. The sxa 
ininivoroas animals whose food contains but little 
direct support to their tissues, and who cannot admit of a 
rapid Metamorphosis, have this difficulty admirably com- 
pensated by the increased amount of carbon in their food 
which produces an abundance of heat, and preserves the 
tissues from a necessity of change. The amount of force 
IS manifested m proportion to fhe amount of change.— 
Hence the smaller caniiverous tiger is master of the'^u'^e 
graminivorous elephant. ^ 

But the purely carnivorous animals also sustain a disad- 
vantage. 

According to Liebig, "15 lbs. of flesh contain no more 
carbon than 4 lbs. of starch, and while a savage with one 
animal, and an equal weight of .starch could m'aintain life 
and health for a certain number of days, he would be 
compelled, if confined to flesh, in order to procure carbon 
necessary for respiration during the same time, to consume 
five such animals." This, philosophy, as well as com- 
mon experience, indicates, that man should -rave a mixed 

DIET. 

With this food, and the peculiar structure of man we 
obtain the conditions for the greatest conjoint amount of 
nervous and muscular change with the 'least expense of 
force ; therefore man has "dominion over the fish of the 
sea, the fowls of the air, and the beasts of the earth." 

The intelligent reader will perceive that although we- 
may have proved the consistenaj of a select animal diet, 
yet, we have not proved its necessity. Our main object 
is, while we explain physiology, to make known the im- 
portant difference between azotized and non-azotized food. 
The following is a list ; 



Azozotized, or 
Supporters of Nutrition. 
Albumen, 
Fibrin, 
Casein e, 

Thein, (principle of tea and 
Come.) 



Non-azotized, or 

Supporters of Respiration. 

Fat, 

Starch, 

Gum, 

Sugar — Alcohol. 



72 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

The last mentioned article in the non-azotized clas^ al- 
cohol^ is highly inflamable — passes through the absorbent 
system without change, and meeting with the oxygen of 
the blood produces a quick and rapid flame that seems to 
singe the very soul. — Or, to be more philosophical, by 
producing heat it preserves the muscular tissue from the 
necessity of change ; so that the drunkard is enabled to go 
many days with but little food; but the brain and nerves 
of sense &c. excited, must waste, and their vitiated appe- 
tite calling only for alcohol, the damage is not discovered 
until it results in delerium-tremens. If the consumer of 
alcohol labors regularly the muscular tissue must also 
waste, and seeming to be more under the immediate con- 
trol of the organic nerves, nutrition is demanded, and the 
whole is in a measure preserved. Delirium tremens might, 
possibly find a remedy in common tea ; for the following 
reasons. 

The 'last mentioned article in the azotized class, Theine, 
is one of the most highly nitrogenized vegetable elements 
known ; and although it should be questioned as a proper 
supporter of nutrition, for it is not a compound of pro- 
tein, and does not form blood like the other three of 
the class, yet Liebig has shown that its chemical character 
is closely allied to the brain, and takes an active part either 
in its formation ox transmutation. And it is a fact of ex- 
perience that tea and coffee are powerful stimulants of 
thought; and will enable a person to keep awake when he 
otherwise must sleep. 

But it should be observed, that, although Liebig pro- 
nounces Theine notpoisnous, yet there are a number of sub- 
stances of this class, which not approaching so near the 
character of the brain, are deadly poison. Tea and coffee 
at best can only be regarded as medicines or extras ; their 
daily use is preposterous ; they disturb the balance of the 
general system ; and their excessive use is a fruitful source 
of insanity, if, when people wish an especial exercise of 
thought, as on the sabbath, they would then, and then only 
use tea, it might be of some benefit ; at least, in the instance 
given, we should have no si eepi7ig during sermons. 

We must now remark that the absorbent vessels are fur- 



THE LAWS OF LIFE, 73 

nished with numerous valves, which open only in one di- 
rection, and seem to be especially related to 



These valves are so formed that the fluids can pass in 
only one direction. 

When the muscles are in action there are repeated im- 
pressions made upon these vessels whieh oblige their con- 
tents to move ; and goverened by the construction of the 
valves, they must in all cases move toward the heart. — 
The sajne disposition of valves are found in the veins, and 
it is an ascertained fact that the motions of the blood in the 
vena cava correspond with the motions of the chest. The 
movement of the chest also contributes essentially to the 
peristaltic motion of the bowels, by which their contents 
are moved ; hence people of sedentary habits are subject 
to costiveness. It is a lata of Nature that the natural 
exercise of an organ increases its growth ; and more 
especially the 'i„ervous and muscular matter. 

Exercise is attended with a waste, but it, in return, gen- 
erates an active vital force which is capable of restoring 
the waste with usxmj^ provinding the exercise be attended 
with suitable periods of rest. If, in violation of this rule, 
one does not exercise at all, he will not be "half a man ;" 
or if he over exercise, he may be "half dead," 

A feeble person should exercise but little at first, and in- 
crease it as his organs increase in power. 

But in disregard to this law, sedentary people, to make 
amends for their neglect, will, in perfect keeping with their 
indiscretion, seize a gun or fishing rod, and after a fatigu- 
ing tour, return "overdone," and complain that exercise 
makes them worse. 

When we consider the effects of exercise, we discover 
a waste of substance, and therefore the action of the ab- 
sorbents must be increased — that an increased supply of 
blood and heat must be produced — that the motion of the 
heart and lungs must be quickened — and that the bowels 
must be evacuated and the stomach supplied with food ; 
all of which takes place by a connection of natural con- 
sequences. . . 
When we consider the vital force we find that it is a 



74 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

general principle — alike the agent of muscular motion and 
of mind — we find that Me cOTo^nf of force is hi direct 
proportion to the amount of well organized tissues ; and 

Mcrf/brC THE MORE VIGOROUS THE BODY, THE MORE VIGOR- 
OUS THE MIND. 

Liebig says, "All vital activity arises from the mutual 
action of the oxygen of the atmosphere and the elements of 
food.^^ In other words, the condition and evidences of 
life, are eating, breathings and action. 

On this point the studious often mistake. Shutting 
themselves up amid their books, as if the mind were in- 
dependent of its "mortal coil," they seem to think that 
if they reduce their diet, they fulfil all the requirements 
of Nature. Therefore the common language, "Students 
should eat lightly." Folly ! Just so laborers should 
eat lightly. If a full meal will detract the vital 
force from the power of thought, so it will from the vig- 
or of labor ; and if a full meal will indirectlj'^ increase the 
vigor of labor, so it will the power of thought. No won- 
der that so many of the famishing students in colleges be- 
come drivellers, incapable of benefitting mankind. No 
wonder that the world has been obliged to look to the 
harvest field and mechanic shop for most of its "mighty 
minds." 

From these considerations we derive this rule. We 

SHOULD NEVER BRING DOWN OUR DIET TO CORRESPOND WITH 
EXERCISE, BUT ALWAYS BRING UP OUR EXERCISE TO CORRES- 
POND WITH A NATURAL DIET. To which we wiU add the cau- 
tionary ophorism of Abertheny, "Remember it is the quan- 
tity digestediasvA. not the quantity eaten, which supports the 
body." 'Fasting andfuU eating' was a rule of Bacon; and it 
corresponds with the dietetic structure of man — with the 
book of Tzamrc and revelation oiii\iQ subject. Our next 
object is to consider the 

EXCRETORY SYSTEM, 

It is remarkable that these, although destined to throw 
out waste matter, at the same time perform a regulating 
effect upon the general system. 

The kidnies — perhaps the least important — are design- 
ed to relieve the body from certain salts and oxidize4 pro> 
ducts, as well as any surplqs of liquid which it may re- 



THE LAWS OF LIFE. rs 

ceive, and which could not consistently pass out throuffh 
the skin. * 

The action of the sk in is designed to vary with the tem- 
perature of the air ; and the action of the kidnies with the 
quantity of liquid. 

There is an intimate relation between these two organs. 
When the action of the skin is suddenly checked, an in- 
creased duty is thrown upon the kidnies ; and if not at- 
tended to, may sometimes result in diabetes. These or- 
gans vary m their structure, in the different races of anim- 
als,more than the other excretory systems; and probably are 
the least and last to which the phj'-sician should direct his 
specifics. 

The next is the liver, which receives a large quantity 
of venous blood and secretes from it the bile, an agent as 
we have seen in digestion ; besides regulating the peris- 
talticmotion of the bowels. Thomson calls it the natural 
physic of the body ; and it is a fact when the biliary duct 
has been tied in animals it resulted in constipation. 

Liebig states that the bile consists largely of unoxidized 
carbon which is absorbed again by the bowels, and con- 
sumed for the production of ^ea^ Many people seem not 
content with their health without taking occasional dose* 
of Brandeth's pills or the like to '-carry off the bile and 
cleanse the blood ;" when in fact a bilious discharge is an 
evidence that the lacteals of the bowels are closed ; and 
the order of nature subverted. We have seen some who 
have "purified their blood" in this way until they seemed 
about ready to fly away to the ethereal regions. People 
should know that a sudden check of perspiration, by les- 
sening the action in the cappillaries of the surface, will 
sometimes produce diarrhoea. This state of the bowels 
alwaj's detracts from the vigor of the arterial cappillaries — 
nature's great finishing shop. What can produce more 
sudden and great prostration than the bilious discharges of 
the cholera morbus ; and who shall presume to bring on 
such a state artificially. Moderate tightness of the bowels 
is concurrent with strength and health. If costiveness be 
morbid, cathartics only make a "bad matter worse." — 
Exercise, fasting and Graham bread are sure remedies 

The liver next to the kidnies is varied in different class- 



76 PHYSIOLOGY, OK 

es of animals ; and in many kinds the gall bladder is ab- 
sent. 

The next is the skin ; and of all the excreting organs, 
this is the most uniform in the animal kingdom, the most 
important in the functions, and the most to be regarded by 
physicians. 

Sir Charles Bell, in speaking of it, says, "It is as im- 
portant in its function, and the healthy action of the sys- 
tem depends upon it nearly as closely as the action of the 
lungs and the surface of the intestines." 

In fact, the necessity of our taking food, and putting on 
cIothing,points out by the finger of Nature, that the alimen- 
tary canal, and the skin, are the two great points, which, 
more than all others, demand the agency of man, both in 
sickness and in health. 

The skin is principally composed of three layers, the 
cuticle, retemucosum, and the true skin. The first seems 

to be a mere protection — being produced by secretion 

very easily restored — and without sense. This is the part 
raised by a blister ; and is found to be very elastic, and 
■easily effected by differ.ent degrees of temperature and 
moisture. 

The second, the retemucosum is very thin, and like the 
cuticle is composed of mucous, without [nerves or blood 
vessels. 

This membrane is the seat of coloring matter, which 
varies shade with the different races. 

It is thicker as the color is darker ; and is very conspic- 
uous in the negro. From some observations this mem- 
brane seems to be related to the absorption of miasmata,and 
poisons— being, when thicker,a greater safe-guard ao-ainst 
them. ^ 

This seems not the less remarkable, since immediately 
below this is found a very fine voscular membrane which 
Bell regards as the seat of the small pox pustule &c — 
Flannel clothing has been used with supposed adVantage 
agamst malaria and contagion ; and dresses of oiled silk 
have been used with success against the infection of the 
plague in the Lazaretto of Naples. It has also been ob- 
served that the oil dealers of Egypt were never affeeted 
with the plague. 



THE LAWS OF LIFE. 77 

If these things are correct,then we have discovered beau- 
tiful provisions in nature by which the darker complex- 
ioned people of hot climates are enabled to resist the mala- 
ria common to those counties ; and a useful clue by which 
to avoid its dangers in our own latitude. 

We come next to the cutis vera, or true skin, lying be- 
low the other two layers. This is a thick dense, and elas- 
tic membrane, interspersed with nerves and blood vessels, 
amazingly fine and numerous ; and also studded with mil- 
lions of little follicles, some of which secrete the hair, 
some a sebacous oil to supple the skin ; and also, im- 
mense numbers of little glands, which, excrete the perspi- 
ration. 

These perspiratory organs have outlets in the form of lit- 
tle tubes, which, seen under a high magifying power, ap- 
pear at first to take a serpentine course, and entering the 
cuticle, become closely spiral, and terminate in little open- 
ings, called pores. This spiral construction of the perspi- 
ratory ducts appears to be related to the changes of [the 
temperature ; and when we understand that it is strictly ne- 
cessary that the amount of perspiration be increased or les- 
sened with the change of heat, and that the elasticity of the 
skin and cuticle, are sensibly effected by it, we readily un- 
derstand the object and the operation of the spiral tubes. — 
By having an extended surface, they admit of a greater a- 
mount of contraction from cold, their cappillary resistance 
is increased, their excretion diminished, and vice verca; so 
that the perspiration is varied by the temperature raore 
uniformly than could be done by any other means. 

Thus we see that these singular perspiratory vessels are 
a simple but effectual system of safety valves. 

From these outlets, it is estimated there are thrown off 
nearly two thirds of the waste matter of the system ; — 
hence one important cause why a continued check of 
perspiration proves so disastrous to health. 

But this is not all, the vapor of the perspiration plays 
another very important part. 

It is well known that water thrown upon a heated sub- 
stance will become vaporized and carry the heat rapidly a- 
way ; and that oil which is not volatile, will not have the 
same effect. Liquids, vapor and gases, must combine with 



78 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

heat in proportion to their rarity. That vapor should 
carry away heat from a substance until it is reduced to the 
temperature of the surrounding medium is not wonderful, 
but that it should continue to carry it away from the sur- 
face of a porous vessel until the liquid within, is in a hot 
day reduced to the level of ice water, certainly shows a 
most surprising property. This is a complete key to the 
physiology of perspiration. 

When the pores are closed, heat must accumulate,and the 
body be in a state of fever ; and concurrent with this is a 
retention of waste matter, and a check to nutrition and di- 
gestion. 

When the cutaneous system is very much relaxed, the 
body debilitated, and but little blood reaching the surface, 
the perspiration produces an icy coldness ; so great that 
even Thomson (for he too may err) thought that the mois- 
ture was condensed from the atmosphere, like that seen up- 
on the surface of a pitcher of cold water in a hot day ; but 
this cannot be the case, for after death this appearance 
ceases ; and Thomson cannot consistently say that the 
body is more cold before death than after "it. This state 
of the system is called a "cold sweat" or "death sweat ;" 
a«d certainly it is no desirable predicament in which to 
be placed,yet it is the very kind of sweat tending to be pro- 
duced by physicians when they reduce their patients to 
destroy fever. 

In an ordinary state of rest and health the cutaneous 
excretion is not manifest and is termed insensible perspi- 
ration. This is a definitely balance point, in which there 
is just heat enough to keep the surface snfficiently dry, 
and just moisture enough to keep it sufficiently cool. If 
we disturb this equilibrium on either hand— if we reduce 
or increase the vital actions, we shall have in one case a 
cold svveat, and in the other a warm one. This latter state 
is admirably calculated to balance the heat caused by in- 
creased temperature or exercise. Every one who has 
felt the oppressiveness of a warm day, when commencing 
labor with a dry skin, and again has felt the soothing relief 
on the breakmgout of a sensible* perspiration, must be 
convinced of its importance. The vnpov carries away 
the superabundant heat. 



THE LAWS OF LIFE, 79 

It is this which enables the inhabitant of the torrid zone 
to endure the vertical sun, and yet his bodily temperature 
bene higher than that of the Greenlander. 

It is this that has enabled people to remain sometime in 
an oven that would roast meat ; and Chabert, the fire king, 
entered an oven at 600 degrees ; nearly three times hot- 
ter than boiling water. 

On the other hand it is the lessening of the perspiration, 
as one cause, that enables us to endure the cold. If we 
perspired as freely as the people at the equator, we should 
perish with cold in our own temperate latitude. 

While, as we have seen, the body has the power of gen- 
erating heat at the centre, it also has the power of gen- 
erating cold at the surface. Thus, the perspiration is 

THE REGULATOR OF ANIMAL HEAT. 

But we should remark that it is not altogether performed 
by the skin ; for the lungs have an exalation very annla- 
gous to it ; and a translation of perspiration often takes 
place from the cutaneous to the pulmonary system, of 
which the nose, pharynx, (the back part of the mouth) and 
the trachea are a part ; hence the sneezing, hoarseness, 
and expectoration, consequent to a cold. 

In carniverous animals, who perspire but little, we find 
panting and lolling out the tongue, in hot weather substi- . 
tuted for a sensible cutaneous perspiration. This relation 
of the skm to the lungs, — in fact , its relation to every part 
of the body — is a key to a most important secret in pre- 
serving health. Here is written in the volume of nature, 
a grand condition of life ; and if man, as master of his 
condition, would avoid "taking cold" that fruitful cause of 
so many diseases, or if unavoidably taken, would immedi- 
ately counteract it with the vapor bath or other proper 
application of heat, he would be free from one quarter of 
the "ills to which flesh is heir." 

It will be readily seen that the excess of internal heat 
ov«r that of the external, is an important object in the cir- 
culating power ; as this difference is effected by the per- 
spiration, so we shall find that the equality of the circula. 
lion is effected by equality of the perspiration. 

We have known a sudden check of perspiration in the 
feet by wading in snow, produce a sudden and violent de- 



80 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

termination to the head. If a person partially exposes hi? 
body to a current of air from a door or window, he will 
be far more likely to take cold than if exposed to the open 
winds. Again, if a person wet his feet only, he will be 
in more danger than if he had wet his body all over, al- 
though in the later case he will lose much more heat than 
in the former. The reason oithisis, when the perspira- 
tion IS checked equally, the balance of circulation is pre- 
served, but when unequally, it is disturbed, and disease 
is the result. But we must remember that checking the 
perspiration equally is not the same as checking it perma- 
nently. 

A man was once confined under cold water several 
hours, excepting his head ; the result was an immediate 
fever ; and such is the case when a person is long exposed 
to chilly air. 

It is an excellent rule, that if a cold bath is followed by 
a protracted chill, mstead of a warm glow, it should not be 
used. 

And now that we are on the subject of 

BATHING, 

the reader will readily imply its great importance. The 
whole surface of the body should be often, and thoroughly 
washed. Every house should have a room fitted up with 
vapor, warm and shower baths ; and ready for any emer- 
gency — for any one to bathe night or day, without the 
assistance of a second. 

We would as soon think of building a house without a 
pantry, as without a bathing room. The pores of the skin 
must be kept open — the safety valves must be unobstruct- 
ed, or the machinery of life is in danger. 

It should be remembered that after a vapor bath, a light 
shower bath will contract, or tone the skin, preserve the 
heaf , and prevent from taking cold. Or some stimulating 
wash, vinegar and water, salt water, or spirits, will have 
a similar effect, though used warm. 

It is this stimulating effect of salt which makes people 
who are. wet in sea water, so little liable to take cold.— 
When a chil^, or other person has wet their feet, an im- 



THE LAWS OF LIFE. sj 

naediate washing with stiipulanls will generally prevent 
any bad consequences. 

The skin, too, is a great absorbent. Paracelsus as- 
serts that it imbibes nutriment to such an extent that 
he has preserved the lives of patients by a bath of milk. 
Sailors when cast away at sea have effectually pre- 
vented thirst by keeping their clothes wet in sea wa- 
ter. 

The skin absorbs much faster when in a state of per- 
spiration than otherwise. This may seem rather con- 
tradictory ; but it is a law ot the exhaling membranes 
that \yhen they exhale they also absorb. A chicken's 
intestine taken out when 'warm, filled with milk and 
thrown into water, will admit the milk to pass into the 
water, and at the same time a portion of the water passes 
into the intestine. In this respect there is a strong an- 
alogy between the skin and the intestines; and :n fact 
so great is the identity of these two organs in the poly- 
pus that when this animal is turned wrong side out, it 
still lives, the ekin performing the office of the intestine 
and the intestine performing the office of the skin. 

In the serous membranes, which line the cavities of 
the body, absorption and exhalation balance each oth- 
er. 

When this balance is disturbed we have inflammation 
in one case and dropsy in the other. The intestines are 
designed to absorb much more than they exhale ; and 
the skin to exhale much more than it absorbs. Cathar- 
tics and cholera subvert this order of things. In fact 
we suppose some of the brandrethenians might be made 
to absorb food externally and exhale it internally ; thus 
equalling the polypus turned inside out. 

The skin absorbs mercury and other poisons, producing 
^[' '^^ effects as when taken internally; therefore it 
should never be exposed to deleterious substances • and 
perspirable matter should never be suffered to accumu- 
1 a t e u p on it. CleanUness is a law of Heaven and Earth. 

intimately connected with the subject of perspiration 

IS that of ^ r r 

. CLOTHING. 

This should be »o regulated with the change of 



82' PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

weather as to avoid being chilled. Remember (his 
rule and keep it as your lives—- nefer he chilled. The 
wearing of flannel next the skin is justly applauded. — 
It excites if, absorbs perspiration, and keeps heat reg- 
ular. Dr. Combe, the physiologist, thinks that by its 
use and other due attention to the surface he has saved 
himself from pulmonary consumption. No doubt ; such 
means mis:ht have saved thousands and tens of thou- 
sands. Flannel in our climate should be put on early 
in the cold season, and taken off' late in the warm ; and 
if the cold weather returns, put it on again. Remember 
never be chilled. 

Young ladies are often accused of wearing thin slip- 
pers and otherwise exposing their health in cold weath- 
er by improper dress. This was once true, but they 
are studying physiology; they are learning better now. 
But gentlemen, old and joung, abuse their feet with 
dress in a different way ; they draw on thick elastic 
stockings, and cram them into tight boots. This great 
confinement causes a moisture which reduces the tem- 
perature so much that we often hear the subject com- 
plaming of damp and cold feet, but unable to tell the 
cause. A sensible perspiration is incompatible with 
health in cold weather ; besides the feet should be 
freed of their waste matter ; and not only so, but have 
pure air ; for the shin imbibes a portion of oxygen. If 
no stockings are worn with boots, the feet will be much 
more warm and healthy. 

And now we must never be afraid of whatever im- 
provement our experience suggests. We must remem- 
ber that our fathers have descended from barbarous na- 
tions. When we look upon the little feet of the Chi- 
nese women, the fiat heads of the western indians, or 
the small waists of American ladies, we look alike upon 
the traits of heathenism ; and when we look upon a lit- 
tle child stretching forth its bare arms in a winter day, 
•with its sleeves cut ofi'at its shoulders, we behold a relic 
of barbarism. 

In considering the various functions in the preceding 
pages» we have noticed two important 



THE LAWS OF LIFE, 83 

POWEUS OF LIFE. 

tkc vital force, and heat. These, althoupfh they actuate 
the various organs yet in turn are produced from them by 
a wonderful interchange, which keeps up a perpetual ac- 
tion. When we consider life, we discover nothing, direct, 
but a reciprocity of actions. We labor and rest. The 
chest rises and falls. The heart contracts and expands; 
all of which is subservient to the chemical changes — the 
composition and decomposition of the tissues ; from which 
results the vital force — passing from a state of affinity in 
the tissues, to a state of activity in the nerves — the agent of 
thought, motion and growth or rccomposition of tissue ; 
and concurrent with this, is produced heat, which is not 
only an agent of motion in the fluids, but a condition of ac- 
tion to the vital force. 

By these powers of life we do not mean that concious, 
self determining principle, Avhich through the medium of 
action, takes cognhance of matter ; and -yvhich all man- 
kind have been compelled to consider in contradistinction 
to matter ; and have denominated mind. 

The production of the vital force has been compared by 
Liebig to the production of electricity from the galvanic 
battery. 

When a series of plates, of copper and zinc, are exposed 
to an acid, and their ends brought into connection by 
means of wires, a rapid revolution of electricity takes 
place ; accompanied with an oxidation of the metals. But 
when the connection is broken, both effects cease. So^ in 
the animal system, when an action conveys away vital 
force, a metamorphosis of tissue takes place ; but unlike 
the galvanic battery it is j-estored during rest. This vital 
force holds the tissues in affinity and resists the action of 
oxygen. 

In a state of health and temperance it accumulates, or 
in the words of Liebig, it acquires a momentum, which, 
when expended upon action, determines a corresponding 
•waste of substance. 

But the fact of there being a momentum offeree, enables 
temperate actions, attended with proper nutriment, to re- 
pay the force expended in them with gain — with an in 



84 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

crease of mass as seen in a blacksmith's arm, or the well 
proportioned muscles of the farmer. Deficient exercise 
allows of no gain, and excessive exercise, either of motioas 
or passions, expends the capital itself How important 
then, that we wisely husband this precious principle of 
life. 

The vit»l force which is so analgous to electricity, has 
been considered by some as being identical with it ; and 
although it must be a vital principle ulterior to heat, yet 
how can it compare with heat as a practical agent in the 
hands of man. 

It is true that it has been applied as a semi-tangible a- 
agent, with wonderful effects, under the cognomen of an- 
imal magnetism ; and is well worthy of investigation ; 
especially in its application to surgery, where it enables 
patients to undergo operations without any pain, like Ad- 
am in his deep sleep. 

But ]ts existence was long unknown, itfe physical 
nature is still obscuie ; and the conditions of its appli- 
cation often cannot be obtained ; therefore it cannot be 
regarded as the most universal agent in causing dis- 
ease. 

Not so with heat ; this is intuitively known to all. — 
The fly basks in the sun ; the hen gathers her chickens 
beneath her wings to keep them warn* ; and man 
for the same purpose kindles the glowing fire. Heat, 
in one sense, seems to be more subtle than all other im- 
ponderable agents. The light of the sun may be turn- 
ed aside, or shut out from us, the electricity of the 
thunder cloud may be "bottled up," but heat is the most 
powerful and unconfinable of all known things. Whert 
collected it radiates itself in every direction, until the 
equilibrium is restored; and no human means can pre- 
vent it. As spirit seems to be the universal medium of 
ideas, so heat seems to be the universal medinm of mat- 
ter, the solidity of the diamond, and the fluidity of e- 
ther depend upon it ; and vital force and electricity are 
alike subject to it. 

According- to Liebig, "The phenomena of vitality in 
the living organism diminish in intensity when heat is 
abstracted, provided the lost heat be not restored by oth- 



THE LAWS OF LIFE. 85 

■er causes." "The weaker resistance of the tissues is 
determined by the abstractioa of heat, or by the expen- 
diture, in mechanical motions of the available force of 
the living parts." 

The operation of heat will be better understood 
when we perceive its anatomical relations. The heart 
is situated in the centre of the body, and the main ar- 
teries course along the centre of the trunk, andjon the in- 
side of the limbs next to the bone. The blood in the ar- 
teries is one degree higher than in the veins, and seve- 
ral deo-rees higher than the surface of the body. Thus 
we see there must be a constant radiation of heat from 
the centre of the body and limbs to the surface ; no 
doubt an important cause of motion in the circulating 
fluids. Who that learns this will not admire the sa- 
gacity of Thomson in saying that the internal heat 
should be kept above the external — the fountain above 
the steam, and the current of life will flow with health- 
ful vi^-or ; which we have seen is measurably revers- 
ed in case of fever. 

Every one who has learned that the expansive power 
■of a certain degree of heat is necessary to the chemical 
combinations in the body ; and that a reduction of heat 
reduces the vital force — its power of holding the maxi- 
tim of tissue in combination. Just as cooling the air re- 
duces its capacity of holding water; and that the pro- 
duction of heat by the body always has a life preserv- 
ing tendency ; and that there is no vital agent that can 
so directly and universally applied by man, must at 
once concur with Thomson in believing that to our a- 
gency at least, "Heat is the principal cause of life 
AND motion." No element whatever is so strictly a con- 
dition of action. All chemical changes depend on it. 
All animated nature requires it. In contemplating^ 
these things, well might Thomson exclaim 

"Look at the earth in winter-time, 
Fields, trees, plants, flowers decayed, 

Then view again when spring returns 
Them rising from the dead. 

When we consider the actions of living bodies we find 



86 PHYSIOLOGY, OR 

thnt as belonging to finite beings they cannot be con- 
tinued infinitely in one direction, or in oilier words eve- 
ry action must have a corresponding reaction ; and a- 
greeingwith this, the moving powers have opposite 
states, positive and negative, heat and cold. Perhaps the 
different actions of the ///?zcif2o?Js have none more impor- 
tant than the expansion and contraction of the vascular 
system. Although apparently opposed yet they are 
strictly subservient to, and consequent upon each other. 
The greater the contractile power of the arteries the 
greater will be the expansile power or momentum of the 
blood, and vice vfrsa. 

If a debilitated person stoop some time, the vc-sels 
of the head are distended with blood, when he rises the 
pressure is relieved, but the weakened vessels do not 
contract to embrace the diminished quantity of blood, 
the circulating force toward the head is lessened and 
dimness of sight or fainting ensues. The relaxation of 
the vessels, by allowintj a reflux of blood upon the 
heart, is the cause of palpitation 

We have often explained this law to our patients — 
pupils, by the example of a river. Where the channel 
is wide it flows sluggishly, but where it is narrow the 
waters rush on with rapidity. VVe have a proof of this 
in the following proposition of hydrodynamics. "When 
a liquid Jloivs in a tube lohich fills it every where com- 
pletely, the qtoantitij of this liquid which traverses the dif- 
ferent sections of the tube m a given time ou^ht to be ev- 
ery where the same; consequently lohen the tube in- 
creases the velocity diminishes; and when the tube di- 
mhiishes the velocity increases. 

This general law of expansion and contraction in the 
body has a striking correspondence in the Solar Srstem. 
The attraction or gravitating power of the Sun agrees 
with the contractile power of the heart and arteries ; 
and the tangent or projectile force of the planets agrees 
with the momentum of the blood. When a jdanet ap- 
proaches the sun, the gravitating force increases, and 
its rapidity results in a greater tangent force which 
carries it again from the sun, and thus its revolutions 
are perpetuated. So it is in the human system ; the 



PHYSIOLOGY, on 87 

iTiore vioorously the heat and arteries contract, the more 
rapidly the blood circulates, the more food is digested, 
the more the vessels are expanded ; and, in turn, the 
more vigorous becomes the contractile power. 

Ifthe gravitating force of the Sun were destroyed the 
Solar System would fail to ruin : and so in our systems 
when the tissues are weakened, the blood recedes upon the 
heart, and lassitude, faintness, or palpitation ensues ; and 
when contractility is destroyed dissolution takes place. — 
The more immediately these forces effect each other, or 
the more nearly they are balanced in the planets the more 
nearly circular will be their orbits ; and the more con- 
g'enial to life their climates. 

A like balance constitutes health in the human system . 
This balance is destroyed in the intermitting fevers; and 
then the action of the system corresponds more nearly to 
that of a comet. 

In the ague and fever, for instance, the paroxysm com- 
mences with a recession of blood from the extremities, fol- 
lowed with chills, on account of weakness in the \'essols ; 
after a time a reaction takes place, the blood is thrown' to 
the surface, and fever ensues on account oTthe now abnor- 
mal contractility of the vessels. 

By keeping these illustrations in view it is very easy to 
understand how peruvian bark and other tonics have such 
a wonderful effect upon ague and fever. 

These medicines impart power especially to the circu- 
lating system ; and given just before the time of a parox- 
ysm, they increase the contractility of the vessels to suCh 
an extent that the blood is kept to the surface^ and the par- 
oxysm cannot occur. 

The reader will also perceive that it is upon this princi' 
pie that the shower bath produces its benefits ; but it must 
be remembered that the application of cold to the surface 
is but a negative principle, and must always be regulated 
by the positive power of the system^ or a supply of heat to 
react against it. 

All applications to the body dependmg on reaction are 
extremely limited in their good ; and very liable to over- 
balance the powers of life ; in fact none but application of 



88 THE LAWS OF LIFE. 

cold to the surface should ever be attempted, and this re- 
quires much discretion. 

In a normal state the positive powers in nature always 
produce their own requisite negative. We have seen that 
the heat of fever tends to produce cold on the surface by 
inducing perspiration. 

We have seen that in the Solar System there is but one 
course of orbital motion, and that this cause excites a neces- 
sary opposing efTect. 

So when we consider life in the aggregate we find that 
it must be assigned to one general principle, which is best 
expressed by the word action. 

Thus we see again, that life is a unit ; and moreover 

that WE MUST NEVER EFFECT VITALITY, NEGATIVELY, WHEN 
WE CAN POSITIVELY. 

We have now arrived at a point where we may look 
upon all the organs of the human body united together inr 
beautiful harmony ; with their reciprocating forces result- 
ing in the majestic powers of motion, and still subhmer 
powers of thought — a system "fearfully and wonderfully 
made" — fearfully, because it depends upon certain condi- 
tions which if not observed, death is the result — wonder- 
fully, not only in its matchless structure, but in its physiolo- 
gy — we behold there a system of functions so mutually de- 
pendant that it seems impossible to tell which is antecedent 
— the heart depends upon the lungs for aerated blood, and 
the lungs depend upon the heart for their own supply of 
the same — the digestive system depends upon the vascular 
for its secretions, and the vascular system depends, in turn, 
upon the digestive for its nutriment — without blood the 
nerves will not act, and without nerves the blood will not 
move — when vital force is diminished, the tissues waste, 
and the wasting of the tissues again make an available 
force, applicable to supply. 

Thus far we have traced fisnctions so related that it is 
impossible to know which is the cause, or which the effect 
— in fact the terms are mutually applicable— they consti- 
tute a circular chain of circles without beginning or end 

when one is weakened its neighbor is weakened the prin- 
cipal circle represents the vital force— when this is weak- 
ened so are the smaller circles— the subeervient functions, 



PHYSIOLOGY. OR 89 

or when they are weakened, so is the vital force. But 
within all these we behold another agent upon which the 
\ntal force itself depends, and whose functions are diverse 
from the rest; for when the vital force is weakened this is 
strengthened ; as in fevers ; — this is heat. Thomson calls 
it life. We will venture, at least to say. Heat is the u- 

NIVERSAL HINGE ON WHICH CREATION'S CIRCLE Tl'RNS. 

Hitherto we have treated only of the immediate interests 
of the individual ; but besides these, Nature has established 
another interest in the propogation of the species, to which 
especial organs are appropriated, called the 

REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM. 

This system is divided between the two sexes; and is 
governed by laws as important to each, as all the other 
laws of life united ; and not only so but they are of the ut- 
most importance to their progeny ; for these must be but 
the antitype of the condition of the reproductive powers, 
which in turn are but the antitype of the condition of all 
the other powers. 

Related to these organs, are especial faculties of mind 
which are among the strongest and most important passions 
of man. 

According to the moral rule, the greater the good of 
any blessing, the greater the curse of its perversion, so we 
find these faculties are, alike, the element of some of the 
finest pleasures of social life, and the worst maladies of 
body, and keenest miseries of mind. 

The mutual action between these physical organs and 
mental faculties is not fully developed until about the four- 
teenth year in temperate latitudes. 

The preturnatural excitement of the amative faculty be- 
fore the physical developement of the corresponding or- 
gans,is thought to be one of its most mischievous perversions. 
It is an established law in physiology, that the more •pre- 
maturely an organ is brought iiJo action the weaker it 
will be, and the sooner its decay. To prevent evil con- 
sequences of this nature to the young, is the province of the 
parent and guardian. 

And they may find ample preventive means, by proper 
precept and example in that delicate moral feeling, chastity, 



90 THE LAWS OF LIFE. 

by virtue of which we hope many of our readers will 
blush to see us compelled to write upon this subject. 

By the ago of puberty the principles of chastity should 
be fixed ; and from that time there needs no longer neg- 
ative but positive action on the subject — knowledge must 
be communicated. 

Like savage and ante-christian times shall this eden of 
the soul be abandoned to the serpent, and left to the growth 
of all that is wild and noxious, or shall the serpent's head 
be bruised, and the garden be cultivated — this faculty of 
mind be included in the province of education? 

This period of life is the most important promontary in 
the voyage of time, and if safely doubled, the rest of the 
voyage is comparatively secure. It is a period when the 
young are introduced to all their relations, to society ; and 
the seven years, from, the fourteenth to the twenty first, is 
none to long an apprenticeship for a wise preparation to 
fulfil them. 

An excessive indulgence of the procreating powers, is, 
at any time of life, a serious error ; but it is in early life, 
ere the_,body has ceased to grow, and the tissues are consoli- 
dated, that its damages are sustained from Avhich there is 
the least hope of recovery. 

So necessary are the sexual organs to all beings possess- 
ing vital force, that we may trace them down to the lowest 
grade of plants — the stamens and pistils constituting the 
male and female organs. It is in plants and flowers that 
we may read, in chastest lines, man's own procreating laws. 
The life of a plant, in itself considered, seems wholly di- 
rected to the perfection of the seed — the propogation of the 
species. 

But in the brutes there is superadded to this a concious- 
ness of present existence. And in man it is left far behind 
by both the sense of present existence and the anticipation 
of immortal life. 

When man degrades his noble powers to undue amours, 
he sinks himself towards the brutes — yes, towards the level 
of a mere vegetating existence. 

The roots of biennial plants may be tumbled into a cellar 
or hung up and dried, yet planted on the ensuing spring, 
they grow again vigorously ; but Avhen they ifave pro- 



PHYSIOLOGY, OR 91 

duccd their seed, they die — flowering- seems to exhaust 
their vitality, and no human means can resuscitate them. 
The same law appears under different circumstances in 
perennial plants. When trees are caused to bloom early, 
their growth is stinted ; and g-ardners are in the habit of 
plucking the flowering buds from their rose bushes &c., 
in order to increase their size. 

What can we expect, then, from the constitutions of 
youth whose vitality are severely taxed by sexual indul- 
gence. It must be remembered that the vital force is a 
general principle, and when a large amount is expended 
upon any one object there is but little available for another. 
It is manifest that there is no product of the hnman body 
that exhauts so much force as the elements of generation. 
For this reason the ancient Greeks called it the third di- 
gestion. 

The intelligent youth must here be reminded that the in- 
crease of brain by exercise is one of the most certain of the 
late physiological discoveries, but that the developement 
of intellect cannot be thus effected without a momentum of 
vital force on hand. An example of this principle occur- 
red in the illustrious Herschel, who commenced the study 
of astronomy after forty years of age, from which time his 
head increased considerably in size ; and it will appear 
still more encouraging to the reader when told that tem- 
perance and chastity brought an important tribute to this 
increasernent of intellect. In fact,occupation of the mind up- 
on any noble object, naturally tends to these virtues ; while 
en the other hand, we find the drunkard and the libertine 
generally indolent. 

It is a remarkable fact that many plants taken from 
their native situations and cultivated in an unnaturally rich 
soil, will have their stamens become petals and thus be ren- 
dered incapable of producing seed. A precisely similar 
effect appears in the populating habits of those fashionable 
hot beds of society where indolence and luxury, a- 
bound. 

Now it will not be denied that there is a solitary self in- 
dulgence practiced among youth, which if not inore im- 
moral, is even physically worse than the social vice. It 
saps the very foundations of life; and is the predisposing 



92 THE LAWS OF LIFE. 

cause of many diseases, such as tuberculous consumption, 
scrofula, cutaneous eruptions ; and if not early death, pre- 
mature old age. The sad victims of these vices are haunt- 
ed with unhappy feelings— they do not take the world as it 
is — their judgernent is impaired — and insanity is often the 
result. Their countenances present a cheerless, or cadav- 
erous appearance — never exhibiting that joyous glow re- 
plete with life, that beams out from every lineament of the 
virtuous. We are not putting a public brand upon this sin ; 
for innocent disease will produce all of these appearances. 
But we have here given the great secret of prolonging 

YOUTH, BEAUTY, AND LIFE. 

Shakespeare, whose depth of penetration into human na- 
ture, makes him still the wonder of critics, well understood 
this. Therefore he makes his actor say — 

"Though I look old, yet I am strong and lusty ; ' 
For in my youth I never did apply 
Hot and rebellious liquors in my blood ; 
And did not, with unbashful forehead woo 
The means of weakness and debilityj^ 
These remarks apply as well to the married as the un- 
married, but not equally as well to females as to males. — 
The peculiar organization of females do not admit solitary 
errors of the same extent as the other sex ; besides their 
superior chastity forbids it. However such is their analo- 
gy, it is well they should know these things — they should 
know too, that every sensation requires an expenditure of 
force ; and the exalted relations of the human race demand 
that the greater amount of mental action should be of a mor- 
al and intellectual nature. 

But to the fair sex belongs the pleasures and responsi- 
bilities of fostering the chaotic molecules of vitality, and 
of moulding the bodies and the minds of future genera- 
tions. This is their most important field of virtue and of 
vice. Children, especially boys, most generally resemble 
the mother. It is from this laAv that we are to expect so 
muchfrom the education of females. The acquired char- 
acter of the man perishes in a great measure with himself;- 
but when we educate the females we educate two genera- 
iions. 



PHYSIOLOGY, OR ^S 

IN'o fact is better attested than the power of the mother 
while she is encient, to impress upon her offspring, a men- 
tal organization corresponding with her then state of feel- 
ing. 

It is well known that the imagization often imparts cor- 
responding '■'■marks'' to the body ; and it is a curious fact 
that most of these are representations of plums, cherries 
raisins, whortle berries, or the like, caused by an undue 
Hojiging ;" a striking hint that she who first ate the 
"forbidden fruit," still possess a responsible power, pregnant 
with the weal or woe of coming ages. 

This particular time with the daughters of Eve, is a 
period of probation, in which, if its wayward tendency 
of mind are nobly conquered, there cannot fail to be im- 
ported a correspondmg nobleness to their children. The 
cause of the peculiar character of many great geniuses 
have been traced to the circumstances of their mothers, 
cotemporary with their embryo state. The specific powers 
of Zerah Colburn, the great mental calculator, were de- 
rived from the efforts of his mother to calculate her yarn 
for the loom, while encient. And the celebrated John 
Wesley said if he were to write his life, he would com- 
mence it before he was born, &c. 

^t must be remembered that the perfection of the child, 
in utero, requires vital force ; and if this be prostituted, at 
that time to improper sensualities, the growth of the child 
will be robbed as well as its faculties debased. To the 
violation of this rule, observing writers have attributed 
cases of imbecility and idiocy. For the same reason, ex- 
cessive labor must at that time be avoided. 

Many plants, when taken from a southern to a northern 
latitude, will, after a few years, lessen in their period of 
maturity, diminish in their size, and deteriorate in all their 
qualities ; and again, after bemg cultivated in their native 
climate a few years, they are restored to their pristine state. 
Here the human race may read, deeply engraven in na- 
ture, the laws of their own propogation — immutable con- 
ditions, by the violation, or observance of which "all flesh 
may eventually corrupt its way on earth ;" or rise to the 
dignity of the "sons of God." We have a two-fold evi- 



94 THE LAWS OF LIFE. 

dcnce that the God of Nature and Re\'clation will "visit 
the iniquities of the fathers upon the children unto the third 
and fourth generation. " And we do not hesitate to say 
that by a due observ-ance of physiological law, the sev- 
enth generation, within the period of three score and ten, 
may almost bid defiance to disease, and triumphantly ex- 
claim, even in a physical sense, "O death where is thy 
sting, O, grave, w^here is thy victory." 

We must here interpose our protest against those doc- 
trines, whether Infidel or Christian, that represents man as 
acting nnder a'^atal necessity." They tend to paralyze 
responsibility. He who preaches ihem, sins against his 
own intuitive senses, and contradicts the Creator to his 
face. 

As our identy of to-morrow must depend upon the con- 
sequences of to-datj, so our identity in ETERNrrv must de- 
pend upon the consequenecs of time ; as fiope is re- 
lated to the future, and consdefice to law, so we, in all our 
acts, are investing an interest in future generations. He 

THAT HAS A WILL TO ACT, LET HIM ACT ; FOll THE LAST OF 
OUR RACE SHALL JUDGE US. 



CHAP. II. 
PATHOLOGY, OR THE NATURE OF DISEASE. 

This is the most disputed part of medical science. It 
is from this, as from head quarters, that the various schools 
have endeavored to derive authority for their different 
modes of practice. 

Patholog-y describes the state of the body in disease ; 
and includes its causes, and the classification of its differ- 
ent forms. The causes of disease are divided into three 
kinds — predisposing, exciting, and proximate causes. 

The predisposing causes are simply a weakness in some 
one or more of the systems of the body, which make them 
more liable than others to be effected by deleterious a- 
gents. Predisposition is often inherited ; about which 
there prevails some false notions — as though it were like 
the seed of noxious weeds in a soil, which would inevitably 
grow upon a congenial season. It is true that actual dis- 
ease is sometimes inherited. But predisposition is only 
the fitness of the soil for certain states of disease, instead 
of health. 

If the seeds be not sown, the individual may enjoy life 
to'' a comparative old age. Predisposition may also be ac- 
quired ; particularly by intemperance. It is remarkable 
that inherited disease seldom appears before the age of pu- 
berty ; therefore, it may in a great measure be avoided. 



96 PATHOLOGY, OR 

The exciti?ig causes are the agents which develope dis- 
ease — they are the seeds which cause the noxious weed* 
to grow. We need not use many words with the intelli- 
gent reader, to show that the same exciting cause, as cold, 
may, in constitutions differently predisposed, produce dis- 
ease in a variety of forms, as consumption, dropsy, rheu- 
matism, or spasms, according with the nature of the organ, 
or part of system affected. 

In all these cases, we shall find a dimunition of vital 

force — A WANT OF POWER TO CONTINUE HEALTHY ACTION, 
IS THE GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF DISEASE. 

Again, we need not use much argument to show that 
the deficiency of action may be produced by a variety of 
exciting causes, as cold, heat, malaria, poisons, &c. So we 
may illustrate disease as a sort of focus: from which we 
may diverge to a variety of exciting causes on the one 
hand, and to a variety of forms of disease on the other. 

The proximate cause, is that particular state of the tis- 
sues, in which disease manifests itself; whether inflamma- 
tion, or paralysis ; a contraction, or enlargement ; — ^and in 
tangible facts, it is the same as the disease itself 

Thomson, instead of saying that disease is a deficiency of 
action, has assigned it to its most general exciting cause, 
cold. Readmits that 7iga<, as instanced in a burn, may 
produce disease, but still he calls the effect of a burn, cold; 
thus, as a sort of technicality, he puts the most common 
exciting cause as the sole proximate cause. The conve- 
nience of this appears in its more readily suggesting the 
means of cure, which must be its oposite, heat ; and it 
is a fact that the legitimite effect of cold is to produce con- 
traction, obstruction and deficiency of power, while heat 
by direct application, or by such medicines as will cause 
it in the body, is the most direct m?ans of removeing those 
difficulties, whether caused by cold or any thing else. It 
is a remarkable feet, corroborating the theory and languao-e 
of Thomson, that heat may be successfully applied to pre- 
vent a burn from blistering. Some people are in'jthe habit, 
when they have burned themselves slightly, of exposing 
the part again to heat, as they say, to draw out the fire. 
The pathology of blistering appears to depend upon the 
obstruction of the perspirable vessels, which allows the 



THE NATURE OF DISEASE. 97 

fluid to collect under the euticle. Anything applied 
which will expand or relax these vessel?, will prevent 
the blistering. A natural degree of heat, in a measure, 
effects this purpose. 

Again, to be more exact. Thomson sometimos con- 
siders cold as the exciting cause, and obstructed perspi- 
ration as the proximate cause of all disease ; and al- 
though we see that other deleterious agents applied In- 
ternally will cause obstructed perspiration, yet we must 
not forget that heat is as strictly necessary to remove 
this obstruction as in the former case. 

The obstruction of perspiration is certainly the most 
convenient point for us to begin to consider the nature 
of disease. In this case we discover in the first place a 
simple derangement of the circulating fluids—the per- 
spirable matter not being able to pass off' at the skin, is 
obliged to seek vent, for instance, at the lungs, in which, 
case it is always attended, or rather, resisted by a de- 
gree of inflammation and hoarseness before the unnatural 
passage is allowed. In constitutions difl^erently predis- 
posed, the fluid will determine to the head, the pleura, 
iiver or some other port ; in all of which it is resisted by 
an inflammation before an effusion of fluid is suffered to 
take place. It is easy to see that an obstructioni of this 
kind may result in many forms of disease, particularly 
pulmonary consumption. 

There is sometimes an induration of vessels of the 
lymphatic system upon the lungs, called tubercles, 
which precedes the latter disenss ; but even in this 
case we must not disregard the great effect which 
the determination of the fluids have upon the lungs 
— indueing a natural perspirn.fjon will always re- 
lieve the symptoms of even tuberculous consumption j 
a diarrhoea checks its action upon the lungs; and the 
increased determination to the uterus in pregnancy, 
seems entirely to arrest it. 

In the first'place we find a simple obstruction which 
is easy to be removed, this results in inflammation, which 
may still be removed with comparative ease ; — but in- 
flammation if not renioved,results in mortification,which. 
is hopeless; or in supporalion, in which we must wait 



98 PATHOLOGY, OR 

in a great measure, the work of nature ; or in chronic 
inflammation, in which we find an adaptation of the ves- 
sels to a diseased state. The two extremes of this in- 
separable chain constitute the only natural grand divis- 
ions of disease — acute awA chronic. Of the utmost ex- 
tremes, one is very curable, the other incurable — between 
gre diiferent stages, with different degrees of curability. 
>S.aUe disease is more prominently marked by obstruc- 
tion and derangement, attended with fever and infla- 
mation, and other efforts of nature to remove them. — 
Chronic disease is more prominently marked by a change 
of structure, and unnatural secretion. The greater this 
change, the more difficult the cure. 

Acute disease is naturally divided into two classes ; 
firstly, those principally effecting the vessels, as fever, 
inflaraination, congesiion, and morbid secretion ; second 
]y those principally effectinj2[ the nerves, as spasm, hys- 
teria, neuralgia, and insanity. The first class have 
\iGQn the greatest field of speculation, and are of the 
most importance to the physician, because it is only 
through the medium of the vessels that we are enabled 
10 effect the nerves. 

The phanomena of fever has met with even a greater 
variety of explanation than modes of treatment. Hyp- 
pocrates taught that it was owing to an excess of one of 
the four humors of the body, blood, phlegm^ yellow, 
and blackbile ; each of which produced a different kind 
of fever, &c. Sydenham taught that this disease was 
caused by an impure state of the air; particles of which 
became incorporated with the blood, &c. Boerhaace, 
that it was owing to a glutinous or viscid state of the 
blood, &c. Clutterbuck assigned it to a primary inflam- 
mation of the brain ; and Brussais to an inflammation of 
the mucous membrane of the stomach and bowels. — 
Currie said it was a morbid production of heat ; and 
Perkins, an excess of electricity. 

Again others pretend to know nothing of its cause, 
or hardly to describe it. Dr. Thomas says, "It is im- 
possible to give a concise and proper definition of the 
disease known by the name of fever." 

Professor Jackson aays, "This problem has continued 



THE NATURE OF DISEASE. ©9 

unsolved" Dr. Good says, "no complaint is so difficult 
to be dennea. 

Dr. Souihwood Smith says, "there is scarcely one 
pomt m this disease on which physicians are agreed." 

Liebig says, "physicians all alo'ng to the present, have 
been unable to say what fever is." 

In fact, some physicians are content with merely say- 
ing that fever is fever. Yet it is a subject of vast im- 
portance. 

Morgagni says, "Of all disease, fever is the most 
frequent, and presents itself under the greatest diversity 
of forms." 

Good says, "No complaint is so common as fever." 

Dr. Gregory says, "that it exists in eight ninths of all 
diseases." 

Thomson says, "in all." 

But all the mentioned theories are more or less er- 
roneous, and suggest anything but the true mode of 
practice. Very different'is the theory of Thomson.— 
He holds that the heat of fever, like animal heat at all 
other times, is a friend to nature, and that the phenom- 
ena of fever is an unequal distribution of it;— that the 
heat accumulates upon the surface, and that the centre 
of the body is relatively cooler than natural. This at 
once dictates the practice — to increase the internal heat 
with stimulants, and lower the external heat by pro- 
ducing a natural perspiration— ^nd the success of the 
practice every day verifies its correctness. 

For an account of the manner in which the suppres- 
sion of perspiration elevates the temperature of the 
body, we must refer the reader !o the preceding chapter. 
Finding it possible for our reasoning on the subject to 
meet with cavillers, we will here give some authority. 
"Evaporation takes place constantly from the surface of 
our bodies ; and it is owing to this circumstance that 
men are enabled to undergo exercise during the heat of 
the summer. In general, the more violent the exerciseu 
the greater is the quantity of perspiration arising from 
the surface, and consequently the greater the quantity 
of heat carried away. 

In this manner nature regulates the hsat of the sys* 



100 PATHOLOGY, OR 

tern, and during health sustains the equilibrium of tke ani- 
mal temperature. When ever this exalation from the 
fkin is suppressed, which only results from disease, the 
temperature of the system rises, and /erer succeeds. In 
some cases of this kind of the heat of the human body ex- 
ceeds that of the standard of health by seven or ei*ht de- 
grees. ' ' — Comstock's Chemistry. 

Since the days of Franklin, who has the honor of first 
explainini^this law of nature, we find abundant evidence of 
this kind in philosophical writings not medical ; but until 
recently, physicians seem to have taken no notice of it ; n'o 
doubt because it did not agree with their antiphilogis- 
tic practice ; or in other words a practice which tended to 
reduce action and animal heat. In all of the old theories 
before mentioned we find one general supposition, that 
acute diseases are preternatural, and require the antiphilo- 
gistic treatment. This is totally denied by Thomson, par- 
tially so by Brown, condemned by the reasoning and ex- 
periments of Majendie and other physiologi sties ; in a mea-- 
sure abandoned by the faculty, and we might have hoped 
that the world would soon be rid of this curse to human 
life ; but the doctrine has recently found a strong hold in 
the writings of the talented Liebig. He assigns the cause 
of fever, andal! disease, to the want of equality between the 
waste and supply which takes place in the cappilary ves- 
sels of the body. It is true that this is a phenomena sec- 
end in importance to none but the suppression of perspira- 
tion; and perhaps the chief proximate cause in inflammations. 
He regards the oxygen of the atmosphere as the soli cause 
of the change of matter and of the developement of the vi- 
tal force, which holds the tissues in combination, as its an- 
tagonist. He holds that a weakning of the vital force, by 
cold or otherwise, allows the cause of waste to predominate • 
and as motion is dependent on a change of matter, so an 
'increased change of matter is followed by an increase of 
motions, as seen in the accelerated pulse — this is simple 
fever. And when the change is so great that it cannot 
all be expended upon involuntary motions, it extends it- 
self to the apparatus of voluntary motions — this is a febrile 
paroxysm, as seen in intermittents. 

Now all this is very plausible, but it is curious to see 



THE NATURE OE DISEASE. 101 

what a miserable aspect the author's reason immediately 
takes when applied to explain the anti-philogistic treatment 
of the day. In his own language. "In consequence of 
the acceleration of circulation in the state of fever, a Great- 
er amount of arterial blood, and, consequently of oxygen 
IS conveyed to the diseased part, as well as to all other 
parts; and if the active force in the healthy parts con- 
tinue, the whole excess of oxygen is exerted upon the dis- 
eased part alone." "In certain cases medicine removes 
these diseased conditions, by exciting in the vicinity of 
the diseased part, or any other convenient situation, an 
artificial diseased state ( as by blisters ; sinapisms, or 
seaiow;) thus diminishing, by moans of artifieial distur- 
bance, the resistance offered to the external causes of 
change in these parts by the vital force. The physician 
succeeds in puting an end to the original diseased condition 
when the disturbance artificially excited exceeds in a- 
mount the diseased state to be overcome. In cases of a 
different kind, when artificial external disturbance pro- 
duces no effect, the physician adopts other indirect meth- 
ods to exalt the resistance offered by the vital force. He 
diminishes, by hlood letting ihe xmmhex oi caxx'iGxs oi ox- 
ygen (the globules) and by this means the conditions of 
change of matter. He carefully excludes from the food 
all such matters as are capable of conversion into blood." 

Now compare the practice with his theory. "A com- 
plete cure of the original disease occurs, Avhen external ac- 
tion and resistance in the diseased part are brought into 
equilibrium" "If the physician accomplishes this with- 
out arresting the functions of the other orgaoisih^^ res- 
toration to health is certain." '■'■The very same rnethod 
may restore health in one individual, which^ if applied 
io another may prove fatal in its efect. Thus in certain 
inflamatory diseases, and in highly muscular subjects, the 
anti-philogistic treatment has a very high value ; while in 
o\hcx c?i?,Q,s blood letting produces unfavorable results-^^ 
None but Thomsonians can fully realize the absurdities of 
this language. In their practice we find none of those ar- 
tificial diseases, none of those "indirect methods" — none of 
those fearful "ifs." 

Again hear Liebig. The vivifying agency of the blood 



102 PATHOLOGY, OR 

must ever continue to be the most important condition m 
the restoration of a disturbed equilibrmm ; and the blooa 
must be considered, and constantly kept m view, as the ul- 
timate and most powerful cause of a lasting vital resistance, 
as wel! in the diseasea, as the unaffected parts of the body. 
Yet in view of these contradictories, he says the results ol 
blistering and blood letting are such, "that the most per- 
fect theory could hardly have pointed them out more ac- 
curately or more justly than has been done by the observa- 
tion of sagaciouspractitioncrs." From the treasuries of the 
profoundest knowledge, here is indeed a costly sacrifice 
brought to the alter of that molock of the medical faculty, 
the "anti-phi logistic treatment." But Liebig is not to blame, 
for the medical practice of Europe furnished him no bet- 
ter data for reasoning. 

We are sorry that it devolves upon one so liable to error 
as ourself, to show wherein animal chemistry points to a 
very different medical practice. It seems to be an error 
common to genius, to make too much of their favorite sub- 
jects — to assign too many effects to one cause. This ap- 
pears to be the case with Liebig. He refers fever in no 
decree to suppressed perspiration. He assumes that "the 
act of waste of matter occurs in consequence of the absorp- 
tion of oxygen into the substance of the living parts;" and 
that thisoxidationdevelopes alike, the vital force, (the cause 
of motion,) and heat. But Liebig has not told us how it is 
that thare is a constant metamorphosis going on, without ox- 
idation, as manifested in the hjinph of the absorbent system. 
Neither has he shown us how it can agree with his as- 
sumption that the blood has a higher degree of heat in the 
left side of the heart than in the right. 

But the reader will recollect that in the last case the 
blood had just received a new accession of lymph and ox- 
ygen ; consequently the combustion and heat must be 
greatest in the arteries and in the centre of the body ; where- 
as in Liebig's view, it must be the greatest in the veins, and 
upon the surface. 

Nor has Liebig told us, if heat, and the cause of motion 
are produced simultaneously, how it is, in intermittent fe- 
vers that the greatest amount of motion is exhibited at 
first, and the heat afterward. According to this author^ 



THE NATURE OF DISEASE, lOS 

the ague of an intermitent must determine a rapid cliange 
of matter ; and wo can only suppose that this chano-e is 
mostly the production of lymph, which must set at liberty 
the force which held the previous combination, and appears 
in the involuntary motions, or shudderings of that stage of 
the disease ; and that the large production of lymph, after 
a circutious route, meets with the oxygen in the arteries 
thus producing a vigorous reaction of heat, and puts a stop 
to the metamorphoses. 

Here we find tliat disease results in an effort of nature 
to remove it. We find nothing that indicates blood letting, 
blisters, and seatons ; but on the contrary that ague shou Id 
be prevented by stimulants, tonics, and every ineans that 
will keep up a cappilary action. 

We observe in intermiltents that the comparative 
state of health, or equilibrium does not take place until 
the sweating stage; and furthermore that, during, and 
immediately previous to the paroxyism the patient cannot 
digest food. This shows that nutrttion is checked 
while the metamor'phosis continues. This is the case 
with all fevers ; for one of their most invariable symp- 
toms is want of digestive powey, and generally want of 
appetite. How little has this ' most important symp- 
tom governed the practice of the regulars ? Why 
is the digestion and appetite gone ? Because the 
great office the arterial cappilaries is suspended — nutri- 
tion ; and this state is sure to be caused, and is always 
attended by an obstruction of the passages of the waste 
matter — the perspiratory organs. Therefore the only 
cure indicated, is to cleanse the stomach and bowels, 
stimulate the cappilary vessels to action, and open the 
pores of the slfin. Nothing' ever discovered, can do this 
so well as a Thomsonian course of medicine. 

In our own language, we mean by waste matter, that 
which is oxidized, and rendered useless ; — by change or 
metamorphosis, the conversion of tissue into lymph ; — by 
nutrition, the replacement of new matter in the tissue. 

The translator of Liebig's work uses the words change 
or metamorphosis, and waste, as synonymous ; because 
Liebig teaches that metamorphosis and oxidation are sim- 
ultaneous. Our idea, that the change of matter and ac- 



104 PATHOLOGY, OR 

tion of the absorbents continues when nutrition is stopped 
and the cappilaries are cold and collapsed, may n?cet with 
doubts ; but it is necessary to restore the heat and vascular 
action ; and Mascagne found that the action of the absorb- 
ents, and the change of matter continued twenty four hours 
after death. 

Desengettes and Valentin have made similar observa- 
tions. Thus we see that fever, and probably all other dis- 
ease, is attended with a preponderance of metamorphosis 
and waste, over digestion and nutrition ; and the only cure 
indicated is to restore digestive and cappilary action. 

Liebeg has expressed the same essential principle, "Dis- 
ease occurs when the sum of vital force, which tends to 
neutralize all causes of disturbance is weaker than the ac- 
ting cause of disturbance." But how different is his treat- 
ment — only '■'■indirect inethod^^ — to divert the consuming 
power of the oxygen from a diseased to a healthy part by 
cxeating ^^ artificial distase;^' and if this fails to diminish 
the absorption of oxygen by blood letting, and a non-ni- 
trogenized diet. 

We sincerely regret to see his splendid talents and 
philosophy Avarped to a system of treatment that has al- 
Avays been fraught with such disastrous consequences to 
mankind. 

We find from the precedjng consideration.?, that 
THE surruEssioN of perspiration, and the cessation of 

NUTRITION, constitute THE MOST IMPORTANT PATHOLOGICAL 
conditions, OR PROXIMATE CAUSES OF FEVER. 

Inflammation comes next to be examined. This has 
been justly considered by all writers, as closely allied to 
fever ; — inflammation sometimes standing as the cause of 
fever, and fever sometime the cause of inflammation. This 
state of disease is characterised by heat and redness of some 
local part, and generally by swelling and pain. 

When it occurs in deep seated organs, we cannot sup- 
pose that the excess of heat is caused by supposed pespira- 
tion, or any similar exalation ; but the swelling, the suppa- 
ration, &c., which attends this complaint, forc^es us tocon- 
• elude that the action of the absorbents are suppressed and 
that the metamorphosed matter is consumed in the part 
where it is detached ; thus creating local heat. When the 



THE NATURE OF DISEASE 105 

change of matter is greater tfmii the supply of oxygen it 
results in supparation ; and if the nerves be much impaired 
in mortification. Nature then demands that the circulation 
of oxygen be increased in the part. It is a fact that where 
supparation has commenced the application of stimulants 
will cause it to be less than if nature were unaided. It is 
a fact that the tincture of cayenne applied to inflamed sur- 
faces will produce essential benefit. But how different is 
the anti-phi logistic treatment as sanctioned by Liebig — 
bleeding and counter disturbance ; Avith the supposition 
that stimulants are highly dangerous. Shame on the 
philosophy that condemns any fact without testing its na- 
ture. Ask those physicians who are so loud in their de- 
nunciations against cayenne, lobelia, and other diff'usable 
stimulants of the Thomsonian school, if they ever gave 
them a thorough trial in an inflammatory fever ; and they 
will universally answer, no. 

The pathological difference between fever and inflamma- 
tion has never been explained. The talented Dr. Arms- 
trong in speaking of the disputes upon inflammation,cites the 
language of Newton when he compared himself to a per- 
■son who had found a few curious pebbles upon the sea 
shore ; and remarks, "such a reflection we may, with deep- 
humility apply to ourselves." 

But we have seen that the heat of the animal body indis- 
putably depends upon a species of combustion; — we have 
seen that the elevation of heat ni fever is indisputably 
•caused by suppressed perspiration ; — we have seen that 
the elevated heat of inflammation cannot alone be caused by 
this ; and that it can have no other cause than suppression 
of absorption, and the combustion of waste matter in the part 
inflamed. 

Most of the disputes with regard to inflammation, have 
been confined to the rapidity of circulation in the diseased 
part. The strongest evidence is that it is quickened or 
rather increased m quantity ; for the artery and vein lead- 
ing to, and from, an inflamed part, frequently become en- 
larged ; showmg an effort of nature that should not be 
directly counteracted. The arteral blood also penetrates 
many of the cappillaries, which before only contained a 
colorless fluid. This may be proved by pressing the finj 



106 PATHE0L0C4Y, OR 

ger upon an inflamed part so as to cause a white circle 
around it ; when at every pulsation the circle will partly 
disappear. It is also proved by the changed color in the 
vessels of an inflamed eye. 

It is this unusual pulsation afllecting the nerves of sense 
that causes throbbing. That the absorbents are obstructed 
is proved by the inflammation that in some cases extends a- 
long the surface over the large lymphatic vessels ; some- 
times reaching from the foot to the groin, and affecting the 
lymphatic glands there. 

It is a very wise economy that the arterial blood pene- 
trates the nutritive cappillaries in these cases ; because it 
consumes the lymph which the absorbents cannot carry a- 
way, thus preventing supparation, while it produces heat, 
which is necessary to preserve the part from further 
change, open the contracted vessels, and carry on nutri- 
tion. 

According to the preceding views we have now found 
a solution of the long pending problem between intermit- 
tent and continued fever. In the former we find a sudden 
suppression of nutrition, attend with a rapid metamorphosis, 
and increased action of the lymphatics, to which the shiv- 
ering motions are necessary. The lymph at length reach- 
es the lungs and heart, a reaction of heat takes place, and 
a balance of action again succeeds ; — when the additional 
strength from this effort of nature subsides, another parox- 
ysm again occurs. 

In continued fever, there is not only a suppression of nu- 
trition but of absorption ; so that the metamorphosed mat- 
ter must be oxidized and an excess of heat produced in the 
parts obstructed. In fevers of the typhus character the 
cappillaries and absorbents are not only affected but the 
nevous texture becomes impaired ; nevous symptoms, pu- 
tfescency, and mortification occur. Thus we see that 
these three natural divisions of lever depend upon the num- 
ber of systems affected , and it is a fact, as should be ex- 
pected, that their danger is graded accordingly ; the typhus 
being the most dangerous, and the intermittent the least. — 
There is a species of fever between the intermittent and the 
continued, where there is but a very slight and short ces- 
sation of the paroxysms, called remittent fever. The ob- 



THE NATURE OF DISEASE. 107 

ject of ihe regular always is to convert this fever into 
an intermittent, which if done, he considers his patient 
safe. 

Thomson has noticed the difference between the fa- 
tality of these fevers, saying that in the intermittent or 
ague and fever there was nearly a balance between the 
cold (deficiency of action) and heat (healthy action;) 
the heat keeping little the advantage. 

In these fevers it must not be forgotten, that although 
abnormal heat may be produced by a rapid metamor- 
phosis, and an obstruction of the lymphatics, obstruction 
of perspiration always assists to elevate the temperature ; 
also that the heat of fever is a friend — a restorative ef- 
fect — that the causes which immediately produce it rnu3t 
not be repressed ; bui increased, as the only means of 
restoring a healthy state to the tissues, and a normal 
distribution, and proportion of heat in the body. 

The recession of blood from the surface in intermit- 
tents and its engorgement in the heart, lungs, liver, &c., 
is called a congestio7i. There is a form of disease in 
which this accumulation is not followed by a reaction, 
called congestive fever. Nothing could more strongly 
indicate Thomsonian remedies than such cases. Listen 
to Dr. Armstrong, a regular, on the subject. "The in- 
dication of the treatment of this form is to restore the 
natural balance between the arterial and venous circu- 
lation. How is this to be accomplished. 

1st. By exdtiiig the heart through the internal ad- 
ministration of stimulants. 

2d. By exciting the skin through the external appli- 
cation of caloric." 

Now when nature produces the excitement alone, 
shall that excitement be fought against ? Say ye reg- 
ulars. 

In the cold climates there is frequently found a con- 
tinued fever called si/TzocAa, whose pathological condition, 
at first, IS solely obstructed perspiration ; attended with 
high heat, frequent strong, and hard pulse; yet common 
people sometimes cure it by a thorough application of 
stimulants, in spite of the increased action of the arterial 
system, which is so frightful to the regulars. It must 



108 PATHOLOGY, OR 

be remembered that the increase of action in the pulse 
is only relative — that the aggregate amount of action is 
deficient ; else, patients in fever would be the most 
profitable laborers. 

One of the most certain signs of incurable debility, is 
the quickness of the pulse. When death is approach- 
ing it often becomes a mere flutter; yet to directly pre- 
vent this increased action, is the foundation of the anti- 
phlogistic treatment. 

When synochal fever proceeds to affect the body 
more extensively it is successively named, synochus, 
nervous, and typhus or putrid fever. 

The intermittent, and remittent fevers are called bil- 
lious fevers, on account of the discharge of bile and de- 
rangement of the liver which attends them, caused by 
the congestion of the blood in the digestive system. — 
The spleen also, an organ situated on the left of the 
stomach, and which is calculated for a resevoir of blood 
when it receds from the surface, is also sometimes 
hardened, or enlarged. This has led some to think 
that the cause of these fevers are situated in these parts, 
particularly the liver, and therefore try to carry it off by 
billious evacuations. But this may only give temporary 
relief, while it increases the general congestion. Arm- 
strong states that cathartics the medicines generally 
used have a decided tendency to induce congestion. — 
The pathology of the spleen at once indicates the mode 
of treatment in these fevers. This organ has no secret- 
ing outlet — it is not a gland, and can be-disgorged only 
by a difl^usion of blood again to the surface. 

The exciting cause of the bilious fevers appears to 
be a peculiar gas arising from decaying vegetable and 
animal matter, under particular circumstances, called 
malaria, or marsh miasmata. The proximate cause 
seems lo be a general debility, or laxity of the vessels ; 
consequently it is pretty uniformly relieved by the bra- 
cing effect of cold weather, and tonic medicines. 

If we wish to give all fevers a meaning name or defi- 
nition.swppreiSiOTto/" perspiration, and obstruction ofnutri- 
Hon are the best terms we can use. It denotes the cure — 
loss of appetite and digestion always attend them. The 



THE NATURE OF DISEASE. 109 

tongue becomes coated, and the surface of the stomach and 
intestines are in a similar condition ; as if to prevent the 
absorption of nutriment which would be useless and dele- 
terious. Tonics, which only produce contractility of the 
vessels, seem to operate only upon the effect ; Avhiie emet- 
ics and stimulants, which effect nutrition are much better 
to remove the cause ; however both should be conjoined. 
It is well known that the cause of intermittents will re- 
main in the system through winter, unobserved, and be de- 
veloped by the warm relaxing weather af spring. There- 
fore they are in a measure chronic ; and must require 
time to remove them. So it is with the common synochal 
fever, when suffered to run until the alimentary canal is 
effected. In the first stage we have only to open the 
pores of the skin ; but if we do this in the second stage the 
fever will return ; its nucleus is then in the alimentary 
canal ; this cannot supply nutriment to keep up a natural 
action at the surface ; so that we have then the double 
work of relieving the surface while we put the stomach 
&c., in a condition to digest food. Those who are affected 
with synochal fever are generally robust, and therefore 
neglect their disease until it is seated ; consequently, they 
needlessly lose, sometimes two or three weeks, even under 
the best Thomsonian treatment. Those who read this 
will do well to bear it in mind. They will do well to re- 
member that the longer a disease has continued the slower 
it will be to cure ; that medicines and means must be per- 
severingly repeated to cure chronic maladies. 

Typhoid symptoms are found in the last stages of all fe- 
vers ; but sometimes the typhus fever is produced at once 
bv an epidemic contagion. The yellow fever has been 
thought to be contagious ; but it is no doubt a mistake. It 
depends upon a malariac poison, closely allied to that which 
produces the other billious fevers. It is developed from 
certain districts by a long continued heat above 80 degrees, 
when the soil is dry. Copious showers of rain, or lower- 
ing of the temperature to a certain point immediately puts 
a stop to it. Therefore it is principally confined to tropi- 
cal climates ; and the inhabitants of New York, and Phil- 
adelphia need not expect its recurrerjce without a long con- 
tinued heat, above 80 degrees. 



no PATHOLOGY, OR 

When we consider that synochal fever often runs into 
typhus, that the typhus character often attends bihous le- 
vers, that billious fevers have been traced, in all grades 
from the most mild intermittent, to the most malignant yel- 
low fever, that there is no natural dividing line between 
acute and chronic disease, we must conclude that disease 

CONSISTS OF ONE GENERAL PRINCIPLE ; THAT THE DIFFER- 
ENCE OF PHANOMENA CONSISTS ONLY IN THE DIFFERENCE Ol'" 
CIRCUMSTANCE, AND THE DEGREE OF DAMAGE. 

For illustration ; the synochal fevers are attended with 
a debility mainly of the cutaneous system; the bil I ious fe- 
vers are attended mostly wilh a debility of the digestive 
system ; in yellow fever the stomach seems to be affected 
as by a corrosive poison. 

The pathology of different structures of the hu- 
man BODY WILL differ AS MUCH AS THEIR PHYSIOLOGY. 

The doctrine of a great variety of different diseases has 
been used to support a great variety of different medicines, 
and curious experiments upon the human body ; whereas 
pathology teaches that medicines should be few and sim- 
ple. 

Although we hold that medicines should be simple and 
correspond in one general principle, yet as different or. 
gans and structures are affected so we must adapt that 
principle in a vaciely of ways to correspond with the phy- 
siology and circumstance of the part affrcted. This is 
particularly requisite in local obstructions. It requires 
some degree of knowledge, on the part of the practitioner 
or nurse, to distinguish the diseased part in some cases ; 
but to a good judgement it is easily taught ; and for the 
particular rules of it, we must refer the reader to the suc- 
ceding chapters. Meanwhile, the pursuance of its phylo- 
sophy leads us to other distinctions in disease, termed idio- 
pathic and symptomatic. We have a striking example 
of this in sciatica or hip disease ; in which the pain and 
seat of disease, in the commencement, is referred entirely to 
the knee. 

The nerve becomes injured at the hip, but the pain can 
be expressed only by its sensient extremity at the knee. — 
The idiopathic affection is in the hip ; the sympathetic af- 
fection is in the knee. In a similar way disease of the 



THE NATURE OF DISEASE. in 

liver produces pain in the shoulder ; affections of the ali- 
mentary canal produces affections of the brain, or whole 
nervous system &c. 

Fever in many instances is a sympathetic action from 
local inflammation ; in which case the fever cannot be per- 
manently subdued until the inflammation is removed. 

This leads us to examine the received doctrme of sym- 
pathy, the laws of Avhich do not appear to be well de- 
nned. 

According to Hooper "Sympathy is divided into, first, 
the sympathy of equilibrium, in which one part is weak- 
ened by the increased action of another ; and, secondly, the 
sympathy of as50cza^io?2, in which two parts act together 
at the same time." 

"The sympathy of association is produced suddenly and 
for a short time. The sympathy of equilibrium is' pro- 
duced more slowly and continues to operate for a much 
longer time." 

Such is the standard authority of the regulars, but we 
doubt whether such a distinction of sympathy exists in na- 
ture. In the examples they give, we discover nothing but 
a superficial view of sympathy proper, or their sympathy 
of association. Their doctrine of the sympathy of equilib- 
rium seems to be mainly supported by their favorite use of 
blisters, and counter irritants ; but Liebig has shown that 
these depend upon a different cause. 

When an inflammation, or fever occurs,'the stomach is 
always weakened. This is given as an instance of sym- 
pathy of equilibrium. But the mistake consists in calling 
the'disease a preternatural action. Fever and inflammation, 
are attended with deficient nutrition, and as should be, 
there is deficient digestion. It is the sympathy of asso- 
ciation. 

Beaumont found that when the perspiration was sup- 
pressed, so was the secretion of gastric juice. 

It is true there is a reciprocity of secretion between cer- 
tain organs ; for instance when cold lessens the excretion 
of perspiration, it increases the excretion urine; but it is 
done through the medium of the vessels, and should be 
called a. relation instead of sympathy. But if the pores 
be abnormally closed, then through the medium of the 



112 PATHOLOGY, OR 

nerves, the urine will be suppressed, the lungs be consftrid- 
ted &c., showing a general sympathy of association. In 
fact we can find but one kind of sympathy in all the exam- 
ples furnished in the body. It is true that when an exces- 
sive supply of vital force is demanded for one part it must 
be withheld from others. This, with the equilibrium of 
■excretion, already mentioned, confounded with the proper 
law of sympathy, is all that has enabled the regulars to 
found the doctrine of a sympathy of equilibrium. 

Excepting Liebig's '■'•indirect'^ reasoning, there is not, 
then, left a shadow of foundation for the use of counter ir- 
ritants. We have known, by experience, a blister to ag- 
gravate all the symptoms of a fever ; and much similar tes- 
timony may be found in medical authors. 

It is true, that sometimes there is a determination of the 
blood to the head, which may be relieved by putting the 
feet into hot water ; but this is more an effect upon the ves- 
sels than the nerves, and we doubt whether it should be 
called sympathy of equilibrium. Certain it is that stim- 
ulants internally, by the sympathy of association, will pro- 
duce the same effect. The same remark may apply to 
any congestion. 

When the stomach is supplied with a meal, digestion 
goes on better with moderate exercise. If the person 
sleep, digestion is retarded ; if he awake it is hastened, 
without regard to exercise. The action of the brain and 
muscles, are then, sympathetic with the stomach. 

On the other hand if the action of any one part is des- 
troyed the whole severely suffers. Therefore, the law of 

SYBIPATHY TENDS TO PRODUCE, AT THE SAME TIME, A UNI- 
VERSAL ACTION OF THE ORGANS. Anything which tends to 
destroy the balance of action, tends to produce disease. In 
an emotion of feeling, there is a flow of blood into the or- 
gan of brain exercised. If this be excessive, and iono- con- 
tinued the balance of action in the brain is destroyed, con- 
stituting insanity. 

Therefore, in ail disease, of whatever name, it musk be 
more or less the object of the physician to restore an equi- 
librium of circulation. But he must never attempt this by 
counter irritants, for they produce "artificial disease ;'* 



THE NATURE OF DISEASE. 113 

and are therefore contrary to the law of sympathy ; the 
only law by which equilibrium can be restored. 

Hitherto we have considered principally the proximate 
cause of disease. We will now turn our attention to the 
exciting causes where we shall find a field very much 
nco-lected by physicians. These causes may be divided 
into three classes, transient, habitual, and contagious. In 
the first are malaria, cold, and poisons; the first two of 
which have been considered ; the third is treated in the 
chapter on therapeutics. v 

The second class, habits, are often found to be a constant 
exciting cause of disease ; and unless they be removed, 
medicine will be of little avail. Among themost common, 
are errors in diet — eating irregularly — eating greasy and 
indigestible food — and too much in quantity. The stom- 
ach when deranged will acquire the habit of desiring food 
before the last meal is digested. This is a cause of dis- 
ease that can only be cured by regimen. The appetite 
can be brought to desire most unnatural articles, as well as 
immense quantities of food. 

Habit is capable of making monsters of the human race. 
Witness drunkards. W^itness the canine appetite produced 
by jugglers. In 1821, a man died at the Bcllvue Hospi- 
tal, New York, from the effeets of sv/allowing fourteen 
clasp knives, one of which was four inches long. He 
commenced the habit at the age of fifteen, by stealing mar- 
bles from his playmates and swallowing them. He then 
began swallowing knives for a reward. While serving 
in the American army, he swallowed for ten dollars an 
ordinary gold watch, with the chain and crystal; which 
passed on the ninth day. At another time he swallowed 
thirty four musket balls. Finally, not from choice but 
from appetite, he would swallow buttons by the handfull, 
and other similar substances which fell in his way, until 
the habit became so troublesome that he was dismissed from 
service. 

Tarare, a French soldier, from a similar cause, at length 
acquired such a voracious appetite that he swallowed in 
one day 4 lbs. of cows udder, 10 lbs. of raw beef, 2 lbs. of 
candles, and five bottles of porter. He would also devour 



114 PATHOLOGY, OR 

cats, dogs, and serpents. Several similar cases are on 
record. Beware of habit. 

The next class of exciting causes to be considered, 
are contagious, such as produce the small pox, scarlet 
fever, &c., of which there are several species, These 
propogate their kind ; and we are warranted in believing' 
that they are either animalcula, or a vegetating princi- 
ple analagous to mildew, perhaps both. Some, like 
the measles never take effect m the bodv the second 
time. The mumps may take effect in one parotid gland , 
and some years after in the other, but never twice in 
the same. Some, like the small pox are occasionly re- 
produced. As some plants unfit the soil for a second 
crop, so these contagions seem to render the body more 
or less incapable of reproducing their kind. That they 
depend on a living principle lodged in the system, is also 
proved by the kind of medicines that destroy them. — 
Sulphur and spirits turpentine will cure the itch ; and 
these articles are also found to be very offensive to or- 
dinary vermin. 

Worms are a ponderous example of animalcula ; and 
to make the analogy more perfect, the tape worm some- 
times appears as a contagion, or epidemic at the Cape 
of Good Hope ; and is found to be immediately destroy- 
ed by spirits turpentine. 

As plants and animals choose different localities ac- 
cording to their kind, so different species of contagion 
fix upon different parts of the body. The eruptive kind, 
as small pox and scarlet fever, naturally operate upon 
the cutaneous system ; and the first object of the phy- 
sician must be to keep up a circulation to the surface 
so that they will remain there; but if the pores are 
suffered to become closed, the contagion works inter- 
nally, and often destroys life. The second object of 
the physician will be to destroy the contagious princi- 
ple; lor the means of which, see the next chapter. 



CHAP. III. 
THERAPEUTICS, OR THE PRINCIPLES OF WlEDICiNE. 

This branch leaches the nature of medicines, and 
their operation upon the body. But little is known of 
the means by which these agents effect vitality ; there- 
fore it should not be expected that we can advance any 
thing very accurate on the subject. We can do little 
more than observe their phanomena, and by experience, 
and analogy, decide upon their congeniality to life. 

Thomson has very justly placed 

EMETICS 

at the head of his materia medica. When we consider 
that the chemico vital charges in the body constitute 
the very battery and citadel of life ^ and a so the im- 
mediate dependance of these changes upon the stomach ; 
it must lead us to conclude, at a single step, that emet- 
ics exercise a very important influence upon them, it 
is not onlv a conclusion, a priori, but it has abundant ev- 
idence from experience. The regulars have observed 
that even their pernicious emetics will promote absorp- 
tion, reduce dropsies, and disperse tumors. feome o. 
them believe that emetics will completely arrest a com- 
mon tvphus fever in its first stage. 

It is a signal favor to the Thomsonian System that 
the most perfect of all emetics Lobelia, was discovered 



116 THEEAPEUTICS, OR 

by its founder. It is certainly the most acrative article 
ive possess. 

Dr. A. Curtis, president of the American Medical In- 
stitute, at Cincinnati {Thomscmian, obliges us lo savi) 
who was once a regular, says, in slight lo allolher medi- 
cines, "iju'e us lobelia for a cure.'' 

But the regulars have seldom used emetics for any 
object excepting lo evacuate the stomach ; and those 
loo, are of such a deleterious kind that they have only 
served to confirm the popular opinion that all emetics 
must be poisonous. This opinion is rather specious ; 
but a little examination will convince anyone that it is 
very bad logic to believe that because most poisons will 
vomit^ all that vonnits are poisons. If the received o- 
pinion be true, then warm water, the mothers milk, and 
even immagination are poisons. 

Physiology leaches us that the powers of digestion, 
and emesis are designed as especial functions of the hu- 
man stomach. We see the latter put into daily requi- 
sition by the infant when it is over fed. It is the safe- 
guard of life. 

In all animal races we find that the digestive power 
is in perfect relation to certain articles of food, which 
are not poisonous but congenial to it. The eye also, 
bas a telescopic machinery in most wonderful relation 
to the laws of light — and light is not poisonous. And 
so with the ear; and why not so with all the excitable 
powers of the body ; why not so with the emetic power. 
Food, light, and sound, are congenial stimulants of their 
relnled organs; arfd if there is no article in nature 
which is purely a stimulant of the emetic power ; and 
no more inherently poisonous than the mothers milk, 
then we have found a chasm in the works of the Crea- 
tor — a jargon in the music of Nature. To believe 
such a thing is to doubt Divine Goodness. 

If Lobelia is a poison, why is it the most sovereign 
counterpoison we possess. If it is not congenial to life, 
why can it be given in doses repeated to a quarter of a 
pound; or m small doses long continued, with perfect 
safety ; and, almost uniformly with benefit. No. In 
lobelia, and probably several other vegetables, we are 



THE PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINE. 117 

abundantly supplied with what we must regard ns sim- 
ply a stimulant of the emetic power. 

What is the phanomena of this power ? A 
restorative effort— in the stomach — in that organ cal- 
led the ''centre of sympathies." We might then con- 
clude, according to the law of st/wpa^Ar/, thai, when a 
restorative effort is induced in the stomach, a like effort 
would be induced in any diseased locality. Such, cer- 
tainly, is the therapeutic action of lobe'ia. Some pa- 
tients, while under its operation, complain, of remarka- 
ble syniptoms, and pains in the part affected. In one 
case there was severe pain m the diseased organs, which 
subsided by spells and was followed by vomiting. It 
was a case of debility, and the vital force could not be 
equally expended upon both parts at the same time. It 
should be remembered, that when by oveitasking an or- 
gan, we produce dissympathy e. g., when we excite the 
brain so as to impair digestion, or overload the stomach 
so as to becloud thought, we transgress the laws of life. 
Such dissympathy sometimes becomes habitual. It is 
seen in ague and fever. 

Armstrong tells us of a man whose intellect was only 
fit for business on every second day, attended with fever 
which was a constant habit. Although lobelia always 
tends to produce a general sympathy, yet in some cases 
it is governed by dissympathy. Sometimes the increas- 
ed action of the stomach is attended with a chilliness of 
the surface ; but sooner or later it is followed by a uni- 
form action. In cases of difficult parturition, sometimes 
large doses will not vomit, but its whole effect seems 
to be spent upon the uterus ; in which case it is the 
greatest aid the daughters of Eve have ever found. 

A remarkable case of its communicating its restoia- 
tive power to a part remote from the stomach, occured in 
the practice of Dr. Wilcox. A patient, who for several 
years had nearly lost the use of one leg, from hip dis- 
ease, one day, after taking a course of medicine, admin- 
istered to himself an enema, containing a large portion 
of lobelia; — not operating soon, another of the same 
was repeated; — the effect was complete prostration, at- 
tended with excrutiating pain in the diseased hip and 



118 THERAPEUTICS, OR 

limb ; — when this subsided he vomited ; and getting np 
walked down stairs without his cane ; his useless limb, 
though formerly crooked, had become nearly as straight 
and useful as the other; and continued so, 

Nearly all vegetable medicines are compound ; — be- 
sides he'iag an emetic, lobelia is also an excellent diffu- 
sable stimulant and a relaxant. It opens the pores of 
the skin — equalizes circulation — relaxes spasm — reduces 
the pulse of fever — anests hemorrhage — promotes di- 
gestion — in fine, by virtue of its sanatory power upon 
the stomach, a sympathetic restorative effort is commu- 
nicated to every fibre of the body — the great function of 
nutrition is rallied ; and the machinery of life again set 
in unimpeded motion. 

We were pleased with the reply we heard a student 
make, a few years ago, before the board of censors of 
the N. Y. State Thomsonian Society. Being question- 
ed on the properties of lobelia, he replied something in 
this manner, "Lobelia is an emetic, a diaphoretic, a di- 
uretic, a hepntic, an expectorant, a peristaltic, a deob- 
struent ; a silagouge, a hydrogougue, an amenagogue ; 
a difFusable stimulant, a nervine, a relaxant, and indi- 
rectly a tonic." 

As should be expected, according to the doctrine of 
the unity of disease, lobelia has the power of restoring 
the body from apparently opposite states. It will re- 
store alike to a natural standard, the sluggish puUe of 
apoplexy, or the bounding pulse of inflammatory fever. 
It relieves alike, looseness or costiveness, profuse per- 
spiration or obstructed perspiration, amenorrhoea or men- 
orrhagia, strangury or diabetes; prevents abortion, — or 
aids parturition agreeably to the laws of life. 

Unlike poisonous emetics, lobelia aids digestion. — 
When given with food, in suitable quantity to vomit 
without food, it does not operate until the food is di- 
gested. Such is the close sympathy between the emet- 
ic and digestive powers, that when the former is ex- 
cited by a natural stimulant, the latter more strong and 
constant, appropriates the force to itself. If the food 
be indigestible it does not excite the digestive power ; 
the emetic operates at once, and the food is thrown off — 



THE PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINE. 119 

If it be necessary (o evacuate the stomach of food im- 
mediately, on account of poison, we may accomplish 
our object by exciting the emetic power very much with 
large quantities of lobelia, aided by powerful stimulants, 
salaeralus vvater, and plenty ©f drinks. 

We perceive ihen, that although th? medicine does 
not cease to work in either case, yet the emetic and di- 
gestive powers counteract each other. Upon this prin- 
ciple depends the secret of curing spontaneous, or long 
continued vomiting. It consists in exciting the stom- 
ach with the most digestible food — chicken soup for in- 
stance. But mark the principle ; for if you give it in a 
large draught it is rejected — it mechanically excites 
vomiting. But if given in small sips it presently ex- 
cites th'' appetite and puis an end to nausea. Some 
use bears oil, and think it infallible — for practice con- 
sult the patients desire. 

Lobelia is also the greatest anti-spasmodic with which 
we are acquainted — a soverign cure for most recent 
cases of fits. The medicine, however, sometimes seems 
to produce spasms ; but never by its legitimate effect ; 
it is only when the disease tends to result in spasm ; — 
spasm is an effort of nature; lobelia aids nature, and in 
those cases, it brings it on sooner, and makes it le«!s ; — 
if we wait till the spasm comes on spontaneously, lo- 
belia, by increasing the effort of nature, throws them 
immediately out of it. The alarming prostration, and 
nervous agitation which lobelia sometimes produces, are 
observed to be almost invariably followed by a more 
rapid recovery to health/ As to any danger from the 
medicine itself, there is no necessity of its being thrown 
off. It never acts as a cathartic, as has been published 
by Thacher; although it will sometimes put into action 
cathartic agents. The facility with which it operates 
as an emetic, when given by injection, has sometimes 
taken the regulars by surprise; and is not the only in- 
stance in which the Thonisonians have shown their su- 
perior knowledge of physiology and theiapeutics. 

In lobelia we have a substitute for all the bleedirig, 
blistering, opium, and refrigerants of the regulars ; with 



120 THERAPEUTICS, OR 

this superior advantage, that while those operate upon the 
effect^ this removes the cause. 

In view of these facts, we must then conclude that lo- 
belia IS A SIMPLE STIMULANT OF THE EMETIC POWER ; AND 
THROUGH THE SYMPATHETIC CONNECTION? OF THE STOMACH, 
ACTS AS A UNIVERSALLY SANATIVE AGENT IN THE BODY. 

A different theory, of the therapeutic operation of this 
medicine has been taught by an intelligent and influential 
writer. He holds that it vomits by virtue of its great re- 
laxing power ; which is carried so far as to produce an 
organic sensibility of error, and a reacting effort takes 
place, which produces vomiting ; similar to the manner in 
which a bow flies back when it is bent. 

When we consider that some of the essential oils, and 
other articles, will relax the stomach very much without 
producing vomiting ; and that strong astringents or tonics, 
or even the introduction of the finger into the throat, Avhich 
cannot be preceded by relaxation, will produce immediate 
vomiting ; we conclude that the physiology of vomiting 
does not depend upon relaxation. Besides it does not agree 
with our theory to believe that the therapeutic action of 
lobelia depends, in any degree, upon first effecting an un- 
natural state of the body. 

Thomson says, "lobelia is searching, enlivening, quick- 
ening, and has a great power in removing all obstructions; 
but it soon exhausts itself, and if not followed by some 
other medicine to hold the vital heat till nature is able to 
support itself by digesting the food, it will not be sufficient 
to remove a disease that has become seated." This des- 
ideratum, he found in his 

STIMULANTS 

particularly, cayenne, which he has the honor of introdu- 
cing into popular use as a medicine. 

It would be curious, indeed, to know why cayenne pro- 
duces heat in the animal body ; all we can say of it, is, 
that like lobelia, it is a simple, safe, and natural stimulant 
pf the vital powers ; manifestingitself most prominently by- 
increasing the circulation of the blood, and the productioi) 
of heat. It increases all of the secretions, and like lobelia, 
restores the body fiom apparently opposite states. The 



THE PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINE 121 

writer, whose opinion of lobeJia we cited, thinks that cay- 
enne acts in a similar manner : only the relaxations and 
contractions are more rapid. There is truly some analoo-y 
between them ; but ca)'enne 'acts more upon the vessels 
and less upon the nerves. It is greatly superior to all the 
stimulants formerly in use by the regulars, in as much as 
It has no narcotic, nor intoxicating effect, and holds its heat 
throughout the alimentary canal. 

As fever attends nearly all disease, a simple fever may 
be taken a? a proper clue to a general therapeutic system. 
The restoration of perspiration, and the nutritive state of 
the cappillaries, is fully answered in our emetics and stim- 
ulants. But another agent is wanted to remove from the 
alimentary canal, the canker, apthe or thrush, which al- 
ways attends suppression of nutrition. This Thomson 
found in his 

ASTRINGENTS. 

In his own language "When cold gets the advantage 
over the inward heat, the stomach and bowels become 
coated with canker, which prevents those numerous little 
vessels, calculated to nourish the system, from performing 
their duty." The articles which effect this most directly 
have a contracting, puckering, operation upon the mouth, 
which depends upon the proximate element, tannin. But 
as most vegetable medicines, are compound, so different as- 
tringent vegetables have very different effects. 

Thomson says, those which leave the mouth rough and 
dry are bad, and those only which cause the saliva to flow 
freely, and leave the mouth moist and natural, should be 
used. The very popular opinion, that a medicine long 
used, loses its effect, has been applied too indiscriminately. 
It does not apply to astringents. They act by a chemical 
power upon morbid matter, and assist to detach it from the 
body. This power will act upon the same matter out of 
the body as well as in it : therefore they will never cease 
to have their cleansing effect, any more than water will 
cease to wash a persons hands. This renders these medi- 
cines particularly favorable in chronic disease, Avhere a 
long continued treatment is necessary. It should be here 
observed, that the composition so much in use among the 



122 theRapp:utics, or 

Thomsonians, has for its basis tlie best of all known aslrin 
gents, bayberry. 

We obtained our first knowledge of this article from 
Gale's Medical Electricity, which we studied when about 
twelve years old. Gale derived it from an old French 
author, where it was mentioned as having cured consump- 
tion. 

The foregoing principles of materia rnedica, emetics,, 
stimulants, and astringents, constitute Thomson's first three 
classes, or nuiTibers ; and are our main curative elements. 
Their main purpose is to regulate action, and remove mor- 
bid matter irom the system. When this is done the pa- 
tient is often very weak and needs something more to 
strengthen him. 

This, Thomson found in his fourth class, 

TONICS 

or Bitters. The articles of this class impart strength and 
elasticity to the tissues, particularly the middle membrane 
of the arteries,and thus throw the blood into the cappillaries ; 
equalize circulation, and restore secretion ; for which they 
are highly servicable to convalescent and debilitated pa- 
tients. However, so great is thoir action upon the cellular 
tissue, which composes the basis of the skin, that they may, 
in improper times and quantities, obstruct perspiration ; 
which should be carefully avoided. Astringents are, more 
or less, tonic. 

We have remarked in the vegetable kingdom a striking 
relation between the quantity of certain kinds of medicinr 
and the prevalence of certain forms of disease. There ia 
no degree of ailment more common than that which re- 
quires tonics ; and there is no medicine in the veo-etable 
kingdom more common than the bitter principle. 

The next most general difficulty, is canker, and morbid 
matter ; and the next most general medicines, are astrin- 
gents. 

The next most common form of disease is obstruction ; 
and the next most common medicines are stimulants. 

The next, defective nutrition ; and the next emetics, near- 
ly all uncooked vegetables, which are not poisons, are 
medicines. 



THE PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINE. i23 

We are here reminded of an anecdote related by a reo-- 
ular as an instance of quackish presumption. A charlatan 
was called to a patient, and being out of medicine, took a 
bushel basket, and going into the woods, gathered a hand- 
ful of leaves from every bush and tree. On being ques- 
tioned for his reason, he replied, that among so many 
kinds, it would be strange, indeed, if there was not some 
medicine good for the patient. But ridiculous as it appears, 
such quackery posseses more science, than that practice 
which prefers mineral poisons to the simple and efficient 
medicines, with which our fields and woods abound. 

Agreeably with these views, we should expect the ne- 
cessity of administering tonics and astringents, a longer 
time, and in' greater quantity than stimulants and emetics ; 
and, in exact harmony, Ave find the body will more natu- 
rally bear their longer application. These things not only 
exhibit inuch wisdom in the economy of Nature, but point 
to a law against the whimsical use of the proverb, ''The 
less medicine the better," M'hen applied to the use of thorn- ' 
sonian tonics and astringents in chronic disease. 

The foregoing principles, constitute the basis of a gene- 
ral treatment, but besides there are several of lesser impor- 
tance which belong to this class ; as follows : 



It IS well known that the regulars have, thought them- 
.selves often obliged to depend upon the use of sedatives and 
narcotics. But in doing so, they have made the great 
blunder of lulling the efforts of Nature to sleep without re- 
moving the cause of disease. Their deleterious agents, 
given to lessen pain and vascular action — opium, digitalis, 
henbane &c., are entirely superceded by the curative ef- 
fect of lobelia, and the Thomsonian stimulants. But not- 
withstanding we sometimes find a nervous irritability, and 
a want of sleep, which are very naturally remedied by a 
class of medicines we call nervines. Many an infant has 
been destroyed by the use of laudanum, or paragoric. But 
if the mother would give the worrisome child, when un- 
well, a little tincture of lobelia, followed with some of our 
nervines, the difficulty would be removed instead of being 
perpetuated. How medicines of this class act, we know 



124 THERAPEUTICS, OR 

not, excepting that they appear to have an influence, more 
directly, and solely, on the nerves than any other. It 
is remarkable that most of them have a strong and rather 
ynpleasant smell ; as the Thomsonian valerian Mother- 
wort, Assa-fetida, Skunk-cabbage &c. Some of our phy- 
sicians have expressed but little faith in nervines ; but the 
difhculty will be found in one of two causes; either cook- 
ing them too much, or using thom too sparing by 

ANTISCEPTICS. 

There is a putrescency, or sort of fermentation, which 
takes in animal bodies, in some diseases ; and which like 
yeast in vegetable matter, is capable of communicating the 
same kind of decomposition to healthy animal matter. — 
Terrible examples of jt, sometimes happen to those who 
dissect dead bodies. Like vegetable fermentation, it pro- 
bably has different stages ; and one form constitutes the 
morbid or impure state of the body, approaching to gan- 
grene or mortification. Such articles as will arrest this 
decomposition are called antisceptics. 

For this purpose the ancients used to employ the aro- 
matic spices, myrrh, and other resins, to embalm their dead 
bodies. 

Myrrh constitutes the basis of the Thomsonian rheumatic 
drops, and is a reputed remedy for mortification. Char- 
coal is easily proved to be a powerful antisceptic. When 
calcined, it will 'immediately destroy the smell of putrid 
meat. 

Chlorid of lime is also verv powerful, but how far it 
may be applied lo the human body wc are not able to say. 
It is a little singular that yeast, a "fermenting substance has 
been supposed to be very useful in mortification : and this 
in conjunction with charcoal, has been very much used of 
late years. We are, however inclined to impute the bene- 
fit of the yeast to its nutritive quality. 

Hops, the milk weed, and smart weed enjoy considerable 
reputation as anticeptics. The pyroligneous acid, or acid 
of smoke is so powerful as to preserve meat a long time 
without any other preparation. This can be abundantly 
procured in tar water ; and we apprehend it will become 
•very useful in the contagious eruptive diseases ; where we 



THE PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINE 125 

believe there is a degree of putrescency which is the ele- 
ment of the animalcule or exciting cause. We are in- 
formed that in a certain section at the south, fumagations of 
tar are considered severeign medicine in scarlet fever. Its 
curative nature may also depend upon the turpentine or 
resinous quality of the article; which we will consider un- 
der the next head. 

rURIFIERS. 

Although venders of secret medicines have caused much 
duplicity, in endeavoring to make people believe that all 
diseases spring from impurities of the blood, yet the popu- 
lar opinion that there are medicines which cleanse the 
system from, Avhat are erroneously styled, "bad humors," 
we believe has some foundation in Nature. 

But in the first place, we should remember that the blood 
is manufactured by the digestive system ; and that it is 
cleansed of Its ordinary impurities, principally by the cu- 
taneous system; therefore, the first condition of pure blood, 
is to keep the alimentary canal, and the skin in a healthy 
state. 

It is remarkable, that what are considered the most com- 
mon signs of impure blood, are eruptions. Much of the 
treatment, employed by quacks and regulars, for removing 
this kind of difficulty consists in the use of cathartics. Now 
, it is very easy, for any one versed in physiology, to see 
that cathartics, w^hich determine the fluids inward, and re- 
duce the action at the surface, might cause eruptive diseases 
to disappear without removing their cause. In fact in 
scarlet fever, smallpox, and the like, cathartics are often 
fatal. But there are many articles, ^hich have been used 
with more success in curing cutaneous diseases . In search- 
ing for a general principle in these medicines, the most 
certain we have hit upon is their resinous, or terebinthinate 
nature. This is verefied in the sarsaparilja, spikenard, 
meadow fern, and pine. The produce of the two latter 
vegetables are known to bo certain remedies for the itch , 
which, it is universally admitted, has for its exciting canse, 
an animalcule. It is possible that this class of exciting 
causesof disease has a greater limit than we have yet im- 
agined. In searching for means to destroy animalcule, 



126 THERAPEUTICS, OK 

we must be gover?icd by this rule ; choose only such as 
will ex'pd them, and yet be congenial to the human body. 
Happily, we are furnished with such medicines in the 
terebinlhinate vegetables, it was ih-^ ignorant viola- 
tion of this rule, that brought, mercury into popular use. 
It was first .introduced by the Arabian chemists, but 
such were its disastrous effects that it deservedly sunk 
into disrepute. 

But about the year 1492 a horrible, contagious disease 
spread over chaistendom ; which gradually subsided inla 
our modern syphillis. Paracelsus, who flourished soon 
after, was the first to introduce the use of mercury in 
this complaint. It is true that it vvill destroy the animal- 
cula of the syphillis ; ar)d if applied properly, and in 
season, may destroy all there is in the body, and effect 
a cure. 

But if a little to late, it makes a bad matter worse : 
for a little will not then avail ; and as it only cures the 
disease by virtue of its life destroying power, so it often 
times destroys jhe patient. It is by this cause that mer- 
cury cures the itch. D.^ Thomas, in his practice of Med- 
icine, states that calomel, mixed with the small pox vi- 
rus, vvill entirely destroy ils innoculating power. We 
did not commence I his chapter with the design of discuss- 
ing the iherapia or rather ihe to.xicology of the regulars ; 
but while we are in contact with mercury, we will say 
that besides the life destroying power, aldready explain- 
ed, there are bnt two other reasons for its use ; one is 
that it acts as a cathartic ; but this is worthless, since we 
have many articles equally as active, and far more safe ; 
ihe other is, the barbarous doctrine of creating one dis- 
ease to cure another! This we can prove they hold, bv 
the best authoritv. 

Mercury also furnishes a fine illustration of Homoeo- 
pathy ; for given to a healthy person, it will produce 
caries of the bones, and other symptoms very similar to 
syphillis. Bah I 

We are glad however to see the use of this poison in 
this disease, in a great measure superceded by copaiva. 
a terebinthinate substance. Lobelia, also, which is very 
successful in this disease, is still more congenial to life 



THE PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINE. 127 

ihan capavia. Probably the power of lobelia in this 
case, deperds upon the sanatory power which il gives to 
the body. In confirmation of this idea it i.s stated in the 
Gentleman's Medical Pocket Book, that plentiful 
draughts of barely water or linseed tea will cure the mil- 
der forms of this disease. 

To conclude this subject, we will illustrate it with an 
annecdote ; which we believe is authentic. At the time 
when innoculafion for small pox was in vogue, a certain 
man had the operation performed upon his whole family^ 
including a negro in whom the infection did not take. 
The operation was again repeated but without effect. — 
Mistrusting from his boasting, that he used some preven- 
tive means, he was again innoculated, and watched ; 
when it was discoved that he was in the habit of going 
into the cellar, and drinking water which stood upon a 
barrel of tar. Did its preventative power consist in the 
turpentine, the pyroligneous acid ; or both ? 

THE VAPOR BATH. 

This is one of our most powerful agents for restoring 
Mclion, and remo'v'ing morbid mattei from tlie system. — 
The heat produced in the body by cayenne, and other 
stimulants, depend upon a mutual action between the 
medicine and the system. 

Ca\ enne exhibits no heat to a ihenometer ; therefore, 
when the powers of life are very low. it is throvving too 
great a task upon Nature lo undertake to produce a suf- 
ficient determination lo the surface, by the use of stim- 
ulants alone. In factjin some cases they c<2?272o^ produce 
the desired effect. 

But in the vapor bath vpe have the most perfect of all 
modes for conveying heat independently into the body. 

When the patient commences with the temperature 
of the vapor pretty low, and there be not much fever^ it 
generally relaxes his skin more than it communicates 
heat, consequently he feels at first a degree of chillness. 
But the circulating blood becomes gradually warmed and 
expanded, until every vessel sensibly enlarges with the 
swelling tide. A thrilling glow runs through the frame, 
and the subject enjoys, what he calls a "luxury." 

On the whole a vapor bath seems to be as much a 



129 THERAPEUTICS, OR 

tonic as a relaxant ; therefore if the fever be very high 
it is reccommended by some to sponge with tepid water 
before applying it. But this is seldom necessary if the 
temperature be sufficiently low at first ; in all cases it 
should be.gradually increased. 

Allhoujrh t!ii!= bath is the most effectual thinj^ to pro- 
duce a perspiration upon the dry and burning skin of fe- 
ver, yet it is also useful to restore tone to the same or- 
pan, in the cold sweat of pulmonary consumption. Like 
lobelia it seems to restore the body from apparently op- 
posite diseases. Possibly it may yet be concluded that 
this principle is the only test of a perfectly congenial 
medicinal agent. 

Steaming, or the vapor bath is a necessary concomitant 
to a course of medicine. So important does Thomson 
regard it that he says, "One operation of steaming will 
be more effectual in removing disease than four courses 
without ii." 

Orie of the most foi^midable exciting causes of disease 
w'.th which we h-ive to contend, is the mercury with 
Avhich the bodies of thousands of invalids have been in- 
fused by the regulars. 

Corrosive sublimate when brought into contact with 
albumen or with the animal body, is rapidly reduced to 
calomel, during which lime it produces its destructive 
effect as a poison. Calomel, although it holds its re- 
maining portion of chlorine with greater affinity, is 
gradually reduced to pure quicksilver. 

Oliver, in his physiology, slates that "Metalic quick- 
silver has been found in the bones of persons who have 
been subjected to mercurial frictions; it has been found 
for example, in a carious scull, and in some other of the 
bones. Quicksilver has been found, not only in the blood 
and urine, but in the saliva and sweat of persons who 
have been severely salivated." 

Mercury is very sensible to heat; and its being reduced 
to that form in the body, may account for its not ma- 
king its attack immediately upon the vital organs, 
which lie in the great centre of radiating heat. But 
like the savage of the wilderness it lurks about the out- 
skirts of the human system and keeps up a predilory 



THE PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINE. 129 

warfare upon the life of its victim. This also accounts 
for the sensibility of mercurialized people to the chanaes 
of the weather. Any increase in the pressure of the at- 
mosphere ihious it from its locality, and renders the 
subject a complete walking barometer. The same rea- 
son may account for its haviir. such a specific elftct up- 
on the liver, especially the blue pill or black oxide, which 
is very easily reduced. 

Throiigh the liver circulates all the venous blood 
from I he digestive system ; consequently, in this orfjaa 
it ttOuld very naturally find a lodgement. Eut fortu- 
nately Its reclucibiliiy, and volatility, enables us, by aid 
of the vapor bath, to jjradually expel it from the system. 
Thomson obse; red, that in steaming his mercurialized 
patients their faces would sometimes swell ; no doubl; 
because thev were uncovered and colder than the other 
parts. Such patients will sometimes become saliva'ed 
by usina the vapor bnih, years after they have taken 
any mercury ; especially if they take cold. 

Mr. Sunderland, the distinguished patheiist and phy- 
siologist of the brain, informed us that he was once call- 
ed upon bv a man who wished to have his healih ex- 
amined by his magnalized clairvoyiint. She (the clair- 
voyani) said the patient was affected with a severe piia 
in one leg; which was a fact ; and although ignorant 
of the human system and of medicine, she said it was 
caused by mercurv ; prescribed the vapor bath ; and he 
recovered. Mercury has an affinity for phosphate of 
lime, and thus locates itself securely in the bones; 
therefore the beat w-ay to get it out of the system is to 
keep It out. 

The application of cold water to the body, which is 
sometimes practiced after a vapor bath, has ofien ca»eed 
objections hv those isnorant of its nature. They drive 
their ideas from the effect of cold water upon a person 
sweating from fatigue. Bat the cases are widely dif- 
ferent, "in the latter, the heat and power of the systea 
is exhausted too much to react against the cold. In trie 
former there is a large supply of artificial beat actually- 
gone into the system ; and the applicatioti of cold water 
closes the pores, and by stopping perspiration, retaina 



ISO THERAPEUTICS, OR 

the heat longer and renders the cappillaries less liable to 
become collapsed than uiihcui it. 
We will now turn our aiteniion to 

SPECIFICS 

or medicines which operate upon some particular part of 
the system. 

Cathartics. — These increase the pristaltic motion 
and produce fluid discharges. Their operation is the 
very reverse of emetics, not only their elTect upon the 
alimentary canal, but upon the whole system. Thom- 
son sr.ys that they reinforce the disease. When a 
course of medicine has restored a patient to tolerable 
health, we have known a cathartic to bring them im- 
mediately back to their old condition. The greatest 
plea which Thomsonians can urge for their use, is the 
bilious cholic. But in this case, there is such spasmodic 
contraction of the intestines that most powerful cathar- 
tics sometimes refuse to act. We were once called to 
a man in this disease, where two regular physicians 
had been in attendance, without producing any passage. 
We administered the lobelia, which threw up a quantity 
of cnstor oil and other physic which he had been taking 
for the space of 48 hours. We gave more, and produced 
prostration; after which a cathartic, given by the phy- 
sician for whom we v;ere acting, operated. Fevers are 
most generally protracted or made worse by cathartics. 
The bilious, and morbid matter of which some physi- 
cians think they relieve their patients, are often produ- 
ced by the medicine ; and will serve a well person in 
the same way. However, there are some indications 
in nature for the use of cathartics. All we wish is to 
banish them from use as a general treatment; where 
they have often disgraced the Thomsonian practice. — 
Let thern be confined to their natural place as specifics 
— used only to remove obstinate obstructions from the 
bowels — and not then when injections will answer. 

We believe the ground formerly occupied by Dr. 
Thomson on this subject is the correct one. We think 
his total rejection of them, was, in some measure the 
result of party spirit, aroused by the opposition of How- 



THE PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINE. 131 

ard of Ohio, who had published a work with pretended 
improvemerits, which mainly consisted in the introduc- 
tion of cathartics. After this Thomson introduced his 
test resolution bet'ore the United Slates Thomsonian 
Convention, which divided the society. 

The greater reason for the common use of cathartics 
is that they beguile the patient and make easy work for 
ihe docior. Such, 's not only quackery, but imposition. 
'Mark it ; the practice of the physician who makes a free 
use of cathartics, as a general treatment, will be distin- 
guished by bad success. 

Hepatics. — These are medicines which increase the 
discharge of bile from the iiver. Many of the bitters 
are considrred to have this effect. Dandelion, and gar- 
den celendine, are regarded as operating very tpecifi- 
caily upon the liver. 

The shakers say that the former has double the ef- 
fect of blue pill, so much in vogue with the regulars as 
a hepatic. 

The venous blood from all the digestive system pas- 
ses through the liver; and the biliary duct, which divides 
into the almost infinite penicilli, where the bile is pro- 
duced, is but a continuation of the mucous membrane of 
the bowels ; therefore we may conclude that those a- 
gents which will produce the greatest conjoint amount 
of stimulation and secretion of mucous in the bowels, 
will be the best hepatics. Cayenne id certainly verv ex- 
cellent for this purpose. However, besides this prin- 
ciple, it seems there are some vegetables wh'ich furnish 
the material of the bile. See Liebig's Animal Chem- 
istry. 

Diuretics. — These promote an excretion of uriiie 
from the kidnies. An excessive diuresis as well as ca- 
tharsis is injurious to the system. A specific for this 
purpose should only be used when there is a suppres- 
sion of urine which a general treatment will not remove. 
We cannot long excite any local action without disturb- 
ing the balance of the system. Many are in the habit 
of carrying off the water of dropsy by diuretics; but 
ibey will avail much more, in the end, by usin^f the 
next elass. 



132 THERAPEUTICS, OR 

SuDORiFics — but even the use of these are sometimes ob- 
jectionable; for the articles that properly belong- to this 
class, pioduce an excessive perspiration without a corres- 
ponding action in other parts of the system by simply re- 
laxing the skin. Although the Thomsonians have depend- 
ed mu^ch upon pioducinrr a determination to the surface, 
yet it ma ;t not be considered that the cure consists alone 
in sweating. 

There is sometimes such a relaxed state of the skin that 
the fluid which reaches it, flows rapidly out, producing a 
cold sweat; for there is not blood enough driven to the 
surface to keep it warm ; and at the same time, in pulmon- 
ary consumption, the internal organs will bn congested, 
and profuse expectoration take place. This state must be 
avoided. Excepting a few cases, where there is evidently 
much morbid matter, it is a healthy cappillary action, and 
nutrition, instead of sweating, that we wish to produce. — 
This state is determined by a moist but warm skin, and a 
returning appetite. Profuse svvcating, without this, is very 
debilitating. 

One reason that dover's powder, the famous sweating 
remedy of the regulars, has done so liule curative benefit, 
is the violation of this lav.'. Potash is the basis of this 
powder. Perhaps there is no article that will relax so 
much, and stimulate so liule as this kind of alkali. In the 
form of ley il is the most effectual application that can be used 
to relieve the vessels, in wounds, bruses, felons &c. Its in- 
ternal application is questionable. The purest sudorific in 
use by the Thomsonians, is the white root (Asclepias tu- 
berosa.) 

ExPECTOR VMS. — These promote a discharge of mucus, 
or pus from the lung-s. 

We have hoard several of our experienced physicians 
observe that we have been in the habit of giving too many 
expectorants in pulmonary consumption. But when we 
rtcoliect that the principal one used is lobelia, we conclude 
that the mistake dues not cCiSist so much in the kind of 
medicine, as in the idea that expectorants have a curative 
effect. Thomson justly compares them to a pump in a 
leaky ship which must" be used until the leak is stopped. — 
The fact is expectoration, or rather a determination to 



THE PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINE. 133 

the lungs is the very thing we should prevent. But vt-hen 
the lungs are obstructed with undue secretion, expectorants, 
render very important aid in throwing it off 

POISONS. 

We cannot dismiss this chapter without making, some 
remarks upon the nature of poisons. Dr. Hooper says, 
"It is e.xtremely difficult to give a definition of a poison."-— 
There is no wonder that he wishes to clothe the term with 
ambiguity, for he immediately says, "Poisons in general 
areonlv deleterious in certain doses; for the most active, 
in small doses, form the mo>t valuable medicines." 

We were recentlv conversing with an intelligent M. D, 
who stated thatthebenificialorpoisonous nature of an article 
was entirely deteimined by the quantity or some other 
circumstance connected with it — that bread might be con- 
verted into a poison — that arsenic, ahhough it destroys 
life, might be made to save hundreds of children from dis- 
eased nicsrnteric glands, were it not for the prejudice a- 
gainst it— that carbonic acid, often on an element of our 
food and drink, in small quantity, is a fatal poison in a 
larger quantity. This is the current reasoning of the fac- 
ulty on this subject. But carbonic acid is no more a poi- 
son than water ; both are products of combustion, not 
capable of beina- decomposed by the vital powers— both 
abound m the system ; and only destroy life, Avhen the 
body is immersed in them. 

With the regulars, bread and Avater, mercury and ar- 
senic, are confounded together as poisons. They give so 
much lati:ude to the term as to entirely destroy its worth 
Ifeverythingisapoison, we shall, after all, for practical 
purposes, have to go to work and distmguish them m 
good and bad poisons. 

But what is the common sense of the word poison .'— 
Th»t which tends to produce death independent of the 
quantity, or manner of applying it. This includes all ot 
the inorjranic elements not composing a part of our bodies 
and which, as we have before shown, constitutes a grand 
natural distinction of poisons. 

But it may be objected that the ultimate elements ol our 
bodies may destroy life, for instance the alkalies. But 



m THERAPEUTICS, OR 

that depends, in all cases, upon the quantity given, or tho 
manner of applying them. Their destroying power is not 
the legitimate object of their relation to the human body , 
they are not poisons. 

tVe may apply the same distinction to vegetable sub- 
stances. Many of the essential oils, in small quantity, are 
very useful and perfectly harmless, but increased to a cer- 
tain amount, though still small, they produce death. Per- 
haps prussiac acid should be included in this class of a- 
gen^s. This article, in the kernel of the peach, constitu- 
tes the basis of Thomsons No. 5, or strengthening syrup; 
but when in a pure state a very small quantity will pro- 
duce sudden death, or rather suspended animation ; for 
it appears that a dash of cold water, or a shock of electri- 
city will recover a person parrallyzed by it. It is often 
procured from the vegetable kingdom to flavor cake. We 
do not think it should be considered a radical poison. — 
On the other hand, the vegrtable narcotics, so much used 
by the regulars, produce deleterious effects in any quantity ; 
and are justly considered poisons. 

THEKAPEUTIC AGENTS OF THE REGULARS — BY THEMSELVES 

Jlrse7vic. 

An arseniate of of pollassa was extensively used by the 
late Dr. Fowler, of New York. He used it in intermit- 
tent and remittent fever ; periodical head ache, nervous, 
and other disorders. Externally it has been used as a 
coustic to extipate cancers. It has been more lately us- 
.ed as an alterative in chronic rheumatism. 

The efTects of arsenic have been graphically described 
by Dr. Black. 

"First — sickness and distress at the stomach,soon follow' 
ed by thir.st, and burning heat in the bowels. Ihen come 
on violent vomiting, and severe colic, pains and excessive 
and painful purging. This brings on fainting, Avith cold 
sweats, and other signs of great debility. To this succeed 
painful cramps, and contractions of the legs and thighs, and 
extreme weakness and death. Similar results have fol- 
lowed the incautious sprinkling of schirrus ulcers with 
powdered arsenic — Dr, Hooper — Med. Die 



THE PKIXCIPLES OF MEDICINE. 135 

Antimony. 

"Antimonv is so called because it slew certain monks. 
The evils inflicted by the indiscriminate use of antimony, 
are far more extensively known than formerlj?-. It hap- 
pens that a child is taken with the whoopino^ cough, but 
runs about, being in other respects, perfectly well. A 
neighboring physician is sent for. He prescribes tartrate 
of antimony, and sickens the child every four or six hours. 
It becomes pale and prostrate, and lies in his mother's lap. 
The mucous membrane of the stomach becomes excited ; 
general irritation takes place ; the bowels and the brain be- 
come implicated in the affection, and in a fit of convulsions, 
it dies ! ! It is a notorious fact that whooping cough is 
far more fatal in London than in the country ; and I be- 
lieve this arises from the very free use of antimonials in 
London. Mercury, Opium, and Antimony, are in reality 
poisons." — Dr. Armstrong. 

Copper. 

<• Verdigris, and other preparations of copper, act as vi- 
olent poisons, when introduced in very small quantities in- 
to the stomach of animals. Death is commonly preced- 
ed by very decided nervous disorders ; such 9s convulsive 
movements, tetanus, general insensibility, or palsy of the 
lower extremities." — Hooper. 

"But although copper be thus dangerous, some prepa- 
rations of it are, in certain cases, used with great advan- 
tage, both externally and internally." — American Dispen- 
satory. 

Lead- 

"Its effects on the body, are emaciation, violent colics, 
paralysis, tremors, and contractions of the limbs." — Jlrtier- 
ican Dispensatory. 

Meicury. 

"Mercury produces pains like those of rheumatism, and 
nodes of a scrofulous nature . Mercury occasionally at- 
tacks the bowels, and causes violent purging,even of blood. 
Mercury, when it falls on the mouth, sometimes produces 
inflammation, which now and then termiates in mortifica- 
tion ! 



135. THERAPEUTICS. 

Occasionally, mercury acts on the system, quite uncon- 
ected with its: agency as a remedy, neither proportionate to 
its action on the mouth, nor actual quantity' of the miner- 
al absorbed. It is characterised by great deprcs?ion of 
strfnglh, a sense of anxiety about the breast, irregularity 
of the heart, frequent sighing, trembling,a small, quick.and 
somctimfs intermittent pulse, occasional vomiting, and a 
pale contracted countenance." — Hooper. 

"I once saw a lady who had been for several months un- 
dergoing courses of mercury. The blue pill was con- 
tinued to correct the stools, till she was reduced to a skel- 
eton, and was so nervous that an angry look made her shed 
tears, and if the door were suddenly opened, she started, 
and was excessively agitated. The administration of mer- 
cury, day after day, with a cool skin is one of the most 
det.tructive practices with which I am acquainted." — Arm- 
strong. 

Opiinn. 

"The symptoms of poisoning by opium, begin with gid- 
diness and stupor. The stupor rapidly increasing, the per- 
son soon becomes motionless, and insen-ible' to external 
impressions ; he breathes very slowly, generally lies quite 
still, with the eyes shut and pupils contracted. A>=the poi- 
soning advances;, the features become gha,»tly, the pul-e 
fetble and imperceptible, the muscles excessively relaxed, 
tmd unless assistance ia speedily procured, death ensUes." — 
Dr. Ckrislison. 



FINIS. 



Co)ichision of Part II. 
It Is hoped the indulgent reader will not rashly condemn 
the truth on account of the error that may be found in the 
preceding rapid views of medical science. A work 
■which, like this, goes to press nearly as fast jis written, 
justly claims an apology for not exhibiting that revision 
common to more mature writings. Perhaps our fondness 
for system has caused us, in some instances to transgress 
the laws of inductive philosophJ^ But we hope all will 
reflect that it is much easier to find flaults than to mend thenj. 



INDEX TO PARTS 2nd AND 4th. 

Absorbent System, 65, Acute and Chronic disease, 98. Adminis- 
tration of medicines. 287. Ague and fever, i03. Aguepowder,293 
Aliments, 2 classes of, 67—71, Antisceptics, 124- -286. Ani^ 
mal heat, how produced, 69. Animalcuia in disease, 125—114. 
.Arsenic eftects of, 134. Astringents, 121— 286, 

Bread of life, 292. Blood nature of, 66. Bile pills, 300. 
. Cayenne, 120— 2S6. Cathartics, 130. Catarrh Snuff, 296. Cathar- 
tic pills, 300. Cheniico vital changes, 65, Chewing .'bod nccess.- 
jtyof, 62. Chylo, formation of, 62. Cholera iSyrup, 298. Cir- 
culation of llie blood, 55. Congestion, 107. Counter irritants, 
disproved, 112. Contagions, 114. Courses of inedicines, 291. 
Compounds, 292. Composition, 292. Cough BaUam, 296,— 
Cough powder. 295 Cooking, errors in, Gl. Cold appiications, 
87. Clothing, 81. 

Determination to the surface 81. Digestive System, 58. Digestion, 
process of, 60. Diet vegetable anH animal, 63, Dietetic laws of 
different animals, 59. Diuretic cordial, 298. Disease, causes of 
96. Dyspeptic powder, 293. Dysenltry powder, 295. 

Emetics, 285— 115. Emetics, administration of, 287. Enemas, ad^ 
ministration of. 290. Eye water, 298. 

Fatality, tendency of, 94. Female restorative, 299. Females encient, 
important laws for, 93. Fcvf;r, difterent views of, 98. FeverThoms 
sons theory of, 99 Fever and inflaiimiation, 105. Fever, philos- 
o[)hy of, 99. Frequent eating, 59. Functions, 53. 

General principle of disease, 100. Grahams position disproved, 63. — 
Grades of Fever, causes of, 106. 

Healing salve, 299. Hepalics, 131. Heat, provisioijs for, 70. Heat 
nature of, 84. Health and disease, 86. Heat a prime agent of 
life, 89. Hip bath, 289. High living, reasons aguiusl, S3. 

Intellect, depending on chastity, 00^ India rubber or stimulating Via- 
imeni, 297. Itch ointment, 299. Iniellect, related to a rich or easy 
diet, 68. Inflammation, philo.-:opliy of, 104. Intermilients and con- 
tinued fever, difference between, 106. Idipothic and sympto- 
matic di.seases, 110, 

Kidnies and skin, relation between, 75. 

Lobelia a universal medicine, 118. Lobelia, 115. Liebig's doc- 
trine, criticised, 100. Loheiia not calhaitic, 119. Lymphatics, u- 
es ol, 70. 

Muscular system, 54. Mixed diet,/!. .A/i.id & body, reialion between 
74, Mother's relief, 297. M;nerals,what are poisonous 50. Meadow 
fern ointment, 299. ./VVcdical botaiiy 301. Meicuiy, its .Ticde of ac- 
tion 126. Mercury remaining in the system, 128. Mercury, how je- 
inoved from the body, 129. 

Nervous system, 54. Nerve powder 294. New view of fever, 102. 
No. 6. 386. No. 6. iropioved, [Erratum, for Sqits. brandy read 3 
qrts water, 296. Nerve ointnoent, 299. Nervines, 123. 



138 INDEX 

Osseous system, 53. Opposing forces in the bodj, 86. ObstrnctioB 
of perspiration, 97. Old school sophistry, 101. 

Pnlmoniiry balsHiii, 298. Pile ointment, 299. Physiology, 47. — 
PuliDoriMry system, 56. Poi.jono is, minernls in food, 50, Pnre air 
necessary, 58. Peispiuition, physiology of, 78, Powers of life, 83. 
Fb}si()l(>wy, general vitw of, 88. Piorre;iling laws drnwn from 
p!iiriis, 90, Pfo;;ressi(>n, nDiiiis sii>^ceptil)ili:y of, 94. Pathology, 96, 
l'n;dispo5'!ion, 95. i'urifi'Ms, 125. Poisons, 133, 

Qofintiiy of fo'^d, ru'e fn-, 74. 

Reprodiiclivo s\sieir., 89. Kfidtion of disease to inedicnl plants), 122. 
Kel:>tion of the oi^^riiiic bU;n:ei:is, C6, Hhtuiiialic or stiinulating 
liiiiment, 297. Klieumatic decoction, 2£8, 

Sexual precociousncss, injurious, ?9. Pohuuy indulgence, coneequen* 
cesof,91. Secret of lieiiuiy, 92. Siippu'ssi d pirspinition, 100, — 
Sympathy, nature of in disease, 111. Siiiiiuliinis of the etne'io 
power, lie. Stimulants, 285— 120. Spe;ific3, 130, Sudonfics,132. 
Systems of the body, 52. Size of the chest, 57_ fwine eaiir'g un- 
reasonable, 65, Skill, its physiology 76. Skin and lungs, lelation 
between, 79. Spice bitters, 293. Siimuliuing tea, 295. Strength- 
ening and adhesive plaster, 297. Stimulating poultice, 299. Stomach 
pills, 300. Stimulating liniment, 297. 

Tight lacing, 57. Taking cold, cause of, 80. Tissues, 51. Thera" 
pntics, 115. Tonics, action of, 122, Ihomsons nnmbers, 985.— 
Unity of the body, 55. 

Vascular system, 54. Vital force, 83. Vomiting, good effect of, 117. 
Vapor bath, 127—288. Vegetable caustic, 299. 

Wine bitters, 294. Worm powders, 296. Wisdom and goodness 
of God, 56. 

Youth to be taught, 90. 



AGREEMENT. 

The subscriber agrees to give.when applied for, to all who parchns* 
this work, any information that shall be necessaiy for a complete 
understanding in preparing and using medicines used in his practice. 
He also will give them council gratuitously in any case of disease, 
when applied to at his office or by letter, containing the symptoms, 
age &c., of ihe patient, postpaid, and directed to East Bennington, 
Vermont. SILAS WILCOX, 



OBITUARY. — Since this work was put to press Dr. Samupl Thorn- 
son, the founder of this system, died! The fame of his genius w'til 
descend the stream of time until disease is forgotten in theprograss o( 



ill. 

Descriptions of Disease, 

CHAP. I. 

NOSOLOGY AND INDEX. 

CLAS S 1 . 

Acute or transient disease. 

ORDER 1. 

Principally affecti?ig the non-nervous tissues. 

Genus 1 . 

Fevers. — Suppressed perspiration and nutrition; 

Page. 

Simple Inflammatory Fever, . . 145 

%nochus, or Common Continued Fever, 147 

Typhus, or low Nervous Fever, 150 

Intermittent, or Ague and Fever, 154 

Remittent, or Bilious Fever, . 155 

Yellow Fever, . . , . 157 
Genus 2 . 
Inflammations.— Suppressed nutrition and absorption. 

Inflammation of the Brain, . 159 

Pleurisy, 161 

Inflammation of the lungs, . 153 

Inflammation of the Bowels - • 165 

Inflammation of the Stomach, . 167 

Aeute inflammation of the Liver, . 168 

Inflammation of the Kidnies, • 170 

Inflammation of the Bladder, . 171 

Inflammatory Rheumatism, . I'^l 

Gout, .'..... 174 

Erysipelas, , . : . 1^5 

Inflammatory Sore throat or Gtuinzy, • 1'6 

Inflammation of the Eyes, . 1'''* 

Inflammation ol the tar, ^79 



140 SYNOPSIS AND INDEX. 

Genus 3 . 
Hemorrhages. — Involuntary discharges of blood. 

Bleedi'ig from the Lungs, . . 180 
Bleeding from the Stomach, . . 181 
Bleeding from the Nose, . 182 

Bleeding from the Urinary organs, . 183 
Uterine Hemorrhages, . . . 183 
Genus 4 . 
Congestions. — Central collections of blood. 

Congestion in general, . . .187 

Apoplexy, 188. Fainting; . 190 

Suspended animation, . . . 191 
Genus 5 . 
Obstructions. — 

Strangury, .... 194 

Suppression of Urine, . . . 195 
Common cold, .... 196 

Croup, 197 

G enus 6 . 



Po:soNs. — 



Injukies.- 



Mineral Poisons, .... 200 

Vegetable Poisons, . . ' . 205 

Venomous Bites 207 

Acids and Alkalies, . i . 208 

Milk Sickness, .... 208 
Cholera Morbus, . . .208 
G emc si . 



Cuts and Bruises, . . . . 210 

Fractures and Disclocations, . . 213 

Burns and Freezes, . • . 215 

Choking, 216 

ORDER 2. 
Principally effecting the nervous tissues. 

Genus 1 . 
Spasmobics. — 

Hysteria. 281 Heartburn, • 221 

Spasms and Convulsions, . . . 219 

Locked jaw, 220 

Palpitation of the Heart, . . . 220 

Water brash, ... 221 



SYNOPSIS AND INDEX. 141 

Hiccough, ..... 222 
Genus 2 . 

Nervous Pains, — 

Neuralgia ... - 223 

Sciatica, or Hip disease, . . . 223 

Bilious colic, , . ; . 224 

Flatulent colic, .... 224 

Toothache 225 

Sick Headache, . . . .226 

Various kinds of Headache, . . 226 
ORDER 3. 
Propagated Disease. 
G etius 1 . 

Contagions. — 

Scarlet Fever, - • - 228 

Putrid Sore throat, . . - 230 

Measles, . . . • - 231 

Small Pox, . . . . - 231 

Varioloid, .... - 233 

KinePox, 233 

Chicken Pox, .... 234 

Mumps - 235 

Whooping cough, . . - 235 
G enus 2 . 

Epidemics. — 

Asiatic Cholera, ... 236 

Dysentery. • .... 237 

Epidemic Erysipelas, . • i 238 

Epidemic Influenza, . • - 339 

(DiTa S S 2 . 

Chronic or permanent disease. 

ORDER 1. 

Principally effecting the nervous times. 

G enus \ . 

Diseased Viscera . 

Pulmonary Consumption, . • 240 
Liver Complaint, . . • *^3 

Dyspepsia, . . . • ^^^ 

Diseases of the He^rt, . "^^ 



142 SYNOPSIS AND INDEX. 



Scurvy, ..... 


24G 


Chronic Rheumatism, 


247 


Genus 2. 




Dropsies. — 




Dropsy of the Chest, 


249 


Dropsy of the Abdomen, 


250 


Dropsy ot the Brain, 


251 


Dropsy of the cellular membrane. 


252 


Genus 3. 




Obstructions . 




Costiveness, .... 


254 


Jaundice, . , . . 


255 


False Membrane, 


256 


Gravel and Stone, 


257 


Chlorosis, . . . , 


259 


G enu s 4: . 




Fluxes. — 




Diarrhoea, .... 


261 


Caiarrh in the head, 


262 


Diabetes, 


262 


Leucorrhea, . . - - 


263 


Gonorrhea, .... 


264 


Genus 5 . 




Ulcerations. — 




Ulcers in general, . . , 


265 


Proud ftesh, .... 


266 


Gangrene, • , . , . 


266 


Abcesses, ' • • . . 


267 


Felons, 


267 


Piles, - . - .' .' 


268 


Fistula, 


263 


Tetters, ..... 


269 


Corns, 


270 


G e7ius Q . 




Deformities. 




Rickets, 


270 


Goitre - -. . . 


271 


Whii* swelling, 


271 



SYNOPSIS AND INDEX 


143 


Genus 7 




Displacements. — 




Hernia or rupture, 


272 


Prolapsus ani - - - - 


273 


Prolapsus uteri, .... 


273 


ORDER 2- 




Principally aflec.ing the nervous tissues. 




Genus 1. 




OtA^^0T>lCS. — 




Epilppsy, 


274 


St. Vitus' dance, . . - . 


275 


Asthma, . . . - - 


276 


Palsy, 


276 


Nignt mare, . - . - 


- 277 


Genus 2. 




Mental disease?. — 




Hypochondria, . - - . 


278 


Ins;inity, 


279 


Delirium tremens, 


279 


ORDER 3 




Propogate(>disease. 




Contagions. — G en us \ . 




Syphillis, 


280 


Itch, ------ 


281 


Ring worm, - - ■ - 


282 


Scald head, - . . - 


282 


Genus 2- 




Hereditaries. — 




Scrofula, - - - - - 


283 


Cancer, - - - - ■ 


283 


Worms, 


P84 



CHAP II. 



Distinguishing Symptoms. 

THE PULSE. 

This is the beating of the arteries. It corresponds the 
motion of the heart. At birth, the number of beats are 
135 in a minute ; at 1 year 125; at 2 years 105 ; at 7 
88 ; at 14 years 80 ; at adult age, 70 ; at old age 60. In 
some persons, the natural standard is 80, or 90 ; in oth- 
ers. 50 or 60. It is 5 or 6 beats quicker in females. — 
Disease both increase.? and lessens the number of beats 
and their force. Quickness and hardness of the pulse, with 
a hot dry skin, attends fever. A quick small pulse with 
coldness of the skin, attends a congestion of blood upon the 
centre. A slow pulse attends congestion of the brain. A 
quick pulse without fever. iS a sign of debility ; when it is 
over 120 in chronic disease, the case is bad. A quick cor- 
ded pulse attends inflammation of serous membranes. In in- 
flammation of the mucous membranes, such as the inner 
membrane of the bronchia, or bowels, it is comparitively 
soft. A small quick pulse, Avith a hot dry skin attends the 
typhus, or putrid state of the system. 



.00- 



THE TONGUE. 

A white fur on the tr>n»ue attends simple fever and inflammation. 
Y«llowne.«s of the tontjue ationdsa dnrangement of the liver, and is 
comtiinn to bilious, and typhus fevers. A tongue vividly red on the 
tip and ed^ps, or down the cenlie, or over the whole surface, attends 

inflainmutionof the niucou.'? tiiembmne of the stomach or bowels. 

A white velvety tongue, attends mental diseases, A tongue red at tb« 
lip, becoming brown, dry and glazed attends typhus state. 



CHAP. III. 

FEVERS. 



SIMPLE INFLAIVTATORY FEVER. 

Symptoms. — This disease commences with alteraate 
chills and fever — skin hot— eyes red— pulse quick, strong, 
full, and regular — great thirst for cold w^ter — tongue white 
—urine high colored and small in quantity — bowels cos- 
tive — breathing quick — great determination of blood to the 
head — great aversion to noise — and, somfetimes, slight de- 
lerium. 

Favorable. — Slight hemoerrhage from the nose — gene- 
ral perspiration — pale urine, turbid when cool — pulse re- 
turning to its natural standard — and the surface returnino- 
to its natural temperature. 

Unfavorable, — Excessive delerium — profuse discharge 
of limpid urine, occurring suddenly-^profuse watery dis- 
charges from the bowels — copious sweat without, sedlimen- 
tous urine. 

Cause.s. — Cold, or a sudden check of perspiration — vio- 
lent exercise — Intemperance — and sudden suppression of 
accustomed evacuations. 

Regular Treatment. — Bleed and repeat every 6 or 12 
hours until relief is obtained — blister — give salts — Calo- 
mel — dovers powder — salt petre, antimony, &c,, &c. 

Natural Treatment-' — In the management of this ferer 
the great object is to open the por^s of the skin, and relievs 
the vesiels of the retained ^spirable fluid. 



145 SIMPLE INFLAMMATORY FEVER 

To carry out this indication, place the patient in a chair 
near a fire; pin his feet in hot water; cover him with a 
blanket; give him a cup of warm composition, once in ten 
or fifteen minutes, continue tu add hot water to the vessel 
in which his feet are placed, increasing it in temperature as 
much as he can bear, until a fiee perspiraiion is produ- 
ced. Then put him in bed ; put a steaming stone to his 
feet and give him a thorough operation of lobelia as describ- 
ed under course of medicine, No. 1, hereafter. If the bow- 
els be very costive, they should, first of all, be relieved by 
an enema ; and, in any case, be daily moved by the same 
means, if necessary. If this should not be sufficient to ar 
re-t the disease, the lobelia should be repeated in broken 
doses, so as to keep the siom.ach in a state of nausea. It 
may be administered in the following form. Oneteaspoon- 
fulof the powder to two thirds of a tea cup full of ladys 
slipper, or scull cap tea. Of this, give a table spoonful once 
in two hours; more or less according to the age and 
strength of the patient ; accompanied with a liberal use of 
the composition, or stimulating tea. If the skin be dry and 
hot it should be frequently sponged with weak ley, salera- 
tes water, or soap suds. 

If, under this treatment, the disease does not rapidly sub- 
side, the course of medicine should be repeated within twen- 
ty four hours. 

If the thirst of the patient be very great, he may make a 
free u>;e of common herb tea, crust coffee or slippery elm j 
and ifthe pores be well kept open, small draughts of cold 
water will do no harm ifthe patient be very urgent for it. 
This treatment should be persevered in until all febrile sym- 
ptoms disappear. 

Diet.— This should be very light, at least for the first 
day or two ; consisting of milk porridge, rice &c. In this 
as in all other disease,^, food should be given at regular 
hours; whether fluid or not; the violation of this rule has 
often destroyed the regular appetite of the patient. 

Allow us here to remark that to much dependence can- 
not be placed upon the effect of Lobelia in this and all o- 
ther febrile diseases. It operates not only as an emetic but 
as a stimulant — Antispasmodic — Diaphoretic and Sudorific. 
A worthy M. D. Professor of the theory and practice o/ 



SIMPLE INFLAMMATORY FEVER. 147 

medicine in the Southern botanico medical colletre savs 
"the perfect revolutionizing power of Lobelia, in\ preat 
variety of diseases cannot be appreciated, but by those v/ho 
are acquainted with its operation. These assertion? are not 
the offspring of a heated imagination, or ardent enthu- 
piasm— but the plain sober facts of every days observation 
and familiar as household word^, with the Botanic fra- 
ternity. Were I to make an appeal for the truth of my 
language, the united voices of every Thomsonian in the 
land would give the same reply, until thsy made the very 
tcho's head ache!" 



-00- 



SYNOCHUS, OR COMMON CONTINUED FEVER. 

Thi3 fever is intermediate between the inflammatory and 
typhus, combining the milder forms of each ; and is the 
most common grade of continued fever that occurs. This 
disease is found in several forms ; sometimes very much 
like the inflammatory excepting that the patient has less 
strength ; sometimes commencing with a character more 
markedly typhus or nervous ; in which we have the fol- 
lowing 

Symptoms. — Commencing with a cold stage, character- 
ized by lassitude — restlessness— confusion of mind— feeble- 
ness and quickness of pulse— and disgust at food. Thea 
comes flushes of heat ; — then a confirmed state of heat and 
dryness upon the surface, with the pulse more active— face 
flushed— a dull heavy or throbbing pain in the head— and 
intolerance of light and sound. 

The tongue is aC first white, becoming dry and dark 
brown as the disease advances ; the bowels are torpid — the 
stools soft, and often clay colored. The urine is generally 
red, sometimes pale, and wholly without sediment. If the 
disease is suffered to go on, these symptoms often continue 
for five or six days, excepting a slight remission in the 
morning and an increase at night, sometimes with slight 
delirium. 



148 I SYNOCHUS, OR 

Favoeable. — The tongue becomes clean and moist — 
pulse and fever moderate — the surface moist, and the appe- 
tite and attention gradually returns. 

Unfavorable. — Stupor and constant delirium — dilated 
pupils of the eye sordes about the teeth — hurried breathing 
—twitching of the muscles, picking at the bed clothes — ^and 
sinking of the pulse. 

Causes. — Most commonly application of cold to the body 
after debility has been produced by great fatigue — loss of 
sleep — close application to study — gloom and anxiety — 
intemperate indulgences — blood letting — and drastic pur- 
ges. 

Regular treatment. — 'By Heeding unnecessarily at the 
commencement of this fever, such a degree of weakness 
may be induced, as, added to the depression of strength, 
which arises in its progress, might produce symptoms of 
putrefaction in the second or third week of the disease, so 
as to prove fatal ! ! By neglecting to bleed, however, when 
the pulse is full, hard, and quick * * Ave shall 
commit a dangerous error, and endanger the life of the pa- 
tient. 

'If great heat, with much thirst prevails, refrigerants 
may|be used,with headache, the most useful of this class 
is nitre. 

* * Antimonials given in small nouseating 
doses. * * For pains in the head, stupor or 
delerium, the application of a blister near the part affected 
will be proper. * * Where there is any cold- 
ness of the extremities, 6Zzs?e;-^ to the inside of the legs. — 

* _ * Where there is mostly weakness and 
irritability, opium in small doses, and peruvian bark.' — 
Thomas'' Practice. 

Nattiral treatment. — In most cases of this class of fever 
the treatment should be at first very much like that pre- 
scribed in inflammatory fever, depending mostly on cour- 
ses ofmedicine, excepting that less quantities may produce 
the desired effect ; for in these cases the strength of the pa- 
tient is weaker ; and also, as the disease is more chronic, 
we must expect a longer application of the same means. — 
Besides the stomach and bowels are more obstructed with 



COMMON CONTINUED FEVER. 149 

canker, which requires a more thorough application of as- 
tringents. 

If wakefulness, and other nervous symptoms occur 
which is generally the case, take nerve powder, bayberry 
and cayenne, equal parts ; infuse from half to a teaspoonful 
in a cup of hot water, add milk and sugar ; give once in 
two hours ; at bed time increasing the quantity of ner- 
vine. 

To keep up a gentle perspiration, especially, on days 
when no course of medicine is given, two or three stomach 
pills may be given once in four hours. Keep the bowels 
open by the use of injections, once or twice a day — com- 
posed of composition, nerve powder a teaspoonful each, and 
green lobelia from a fourth to a half, infused in a sufficient 
quantity of water, with a little molasses or sugar. 

If typhus symptoms, which seldom occur before the 
seventh or ninth day, should make their appearance, and 
known by increased stupor and delirium — pulse becoming 
smaller and quicker, and the stools very fetrid, we must 
then place more dependance upon antisceptics, — make a 
strong decoction of bayberry, sumac, or raspberry; to a 
cup of the tea put in a teaspoonful of nerve powder, half a 
teaspoonful of pulverized myrrh, from a fourth to a half of 
cayenne ; give half a cup full every one or two hours as 
the case may seem to require. 

A decoction of the same, with a teaspoonful of third prep- 
aration, or a half a teaspoonful of green lobelia, may be giv- 
en for an injection every six or twelve hours, according to 
the case, the stomach pills should be continued as before 
described. 

Particular attention must be given to keep the blood in 
the extremities, by putting steaming stones to the feet ; and 
by sponging the surface several times a day with salt and 
vinegar and water, followed by rubbing with a dry towel. 
If there be great determination to the head, cloths wet m 
cold water may be applied. If the extremities become 
cold, make a thorough application of the rheumatic, or 
stimulating linament. 

When the febrile symptoms are well abated, the patient 
should be put upon a course of tonics or spice bitters, poplar, 



150 SYNOCHUS, &c. 

balmony or golden seal, given three or four times a day 
before eating. 

Diet &c.— The food, as in all fevers should be light, but 
we must not, as some do, keep the patient a number of days 
on nothing but a starch diet; — this is vory proper in the 
afternoon, but in the morning he should have some chick- 
en or beef soup, cleared from every particle of oil. His 
loom should be frequently aired, but his body kept warm 
with 1 ight and porous bedding, which should be often chang- 
ed and cleansed. 

This kind of fever, under a judicious Thomsonian treat- 
ment; where cathartics are avoided, seldom assumes the 
typhus eharacter ; and when they have first occurred un- 
der the regular practice, they will generally yield in the 
course of a week by the application of our remedies ; but 
if the friends wait till the regular gives up the case, it fre- 
quently defies all aid, and the patient dies. 

As an instance, this fever prevailed in 1833, in Starks- 
boro Addison Co. Vt. Out of some thirty five patients the 
regulars lost twenty three, mostly heads of families, the 
fever running from fourteen to ninety days. The M. D's. 
of the town often held consultations with others from va- 
rious parts of the county, devising various modes of apply- 
ing mercury, antimony, nitre, opium, blood-letting, even 
arsenic, and various other poisons with which their murder- 
ous pharmacopeia furnished them ; and the very natural 
result was, death ! death! ! death ! ! I 

Although we were then residing about thirty five miles 
distant, we were called to practice in the town, and out of 
seventeen patients we lost not one ; the disease rapidly giv- 
ing way before the warming, cleansing, blood arousing, 
life restoring Thomsonian remedies, terminating in from 
three to seven days ; and in only one case did it continue 
till the fourteenth. 



-00- 



TYPHUS, OR LOW NERVOUS FEVER, 

SYjrPTOMs.— -This disease is frequently several days 
gradually encroaching upon the patients health before he 
is aware of its character. 



TYPHUS, OR 151 

It commences with a general languor — dejection of spir- 
its — loss of appetite — weakness — watchfulness — deep sigh- 
ing — pain in the back and head. 

Succeeded by a quick low pulse. — sometimes inter- 
mitting— tongue dry and brown — giddiness— nausea and 

occassional vomiting — urine pale — breathing difficult 

and particularly stupor and delirium. 

This disease sometimes appears in a more violent form 
tarmed Malignant, lyphus, characterized by spots upon 
the surface oi a red, purple, or black color— fetid stools — 
and hemcerrhagps from the mouih, eyes, nose— teeth en- 
crusted with a dark brown sordes. When it occurs from 
contagion it is distinguished from common typhus by these 
symptoms coining on much more suddenly. The blood 
when drawn appears dissolved. 

Favorablf,. — If on the seventh, ninth or tenth day the 
tongue become moist— plentiful spitting— bowels loose — 
skin moist or a suppuration in one or both ears— pustules on 
the lips and nose, returning apetite. 

Unfavorable. — Excessive diarrhoea— cold wasting sweat 
— frequent fainting — extremities cold — slow fluttering 
pulse — starting of the tendons — loss of sight and hearing — 
and involuntary discharge of stool and urine. 

Causes. — It is often caused by bad diet — excessive indul* 
genccs — want of cleanliness — the effluvia from decaying 
animal and vegetable matter — sometimes by contagion on 
exposure to the sick ; this is particularly so in its malignant 
form, in which character it sometimes appears.as a pesti- 
lence in prisons, camps, and cities. 

"Sometimes frequent salivation — too free use of purga- 
tive medicines — and whatever impoverishes the blood 
[Blood letting of course.] — Buchan M. D. 

Regular treatment. — 'First emetics, for cerebal conges- 
tion, cupping the temples in delicate constitutions; but in 
plethoric habits, six or eight ounces of blood drawn from 
the arm or juglar vein— cold affusions — blistering, one of 
the chief things to be depended on. Move the bowels with 
rhubarb, senna, jalap and mercury. For dangerous symp- 
toms, musk, ether, camphor, and opium. For debihty, 
Peruvian bark and wine. — Buchan M. D 



152 LOW NEEVOUS FEVER. 

Natural treatment ■■^—In the commencement of thisfaver. 
if the patient has sufficient streng-th to set up, we may en- 
deavour to arrest it by courses of medicine no. 2 daily ad- 
ministered. If he is too weak for this, emetics must be 
given every 12 or 24 hours ; with steaming stones to the 
feet and sides, if the skin be drjr or the extremeties cold. — 
The skin must never be suffered to become dry ; although 
we should avoid profuse perspiration, excepting in cases 
where the surface has been dry for some time, when it 
should be kept very free for several hours. Courses of 
medicine should be administered throughout the disease, 
but repeated in the latter part only every second or third 
day ; abating with the convalesence of the patient. Fre- 
quently bathe the surface, alternating with weak ley, and 
?ah and vinegar and water ; — and the extremeties, if cold 
with stimulating linament. As a general dose, infuse a 
tcaspoonful of Diaphoretic powder, or if not at hand, the 
fever powder (see Materia Medica) in a teacupful of n^rve 
powder or scull cap tea ; and give every 3 houis. Keep 
the bowels moved daily with enemas. 

If bad symptoms occur, we must make a more vigorous 
application of stimulants and antisceptics — make an enema 
6f milk-weed root, or tar water, and add a table spoonful of 
some of the canker medicines ; put into the syringe from a 
half to a table spoonful of third preparation ; and if it pas- 
ses soon, repeat it ; also give by mouth a strong tea of 
white root with half a teaspoonful of cayenne and myrrh 
each. Repeat this at suitable intervals as the case may re- 
quire. If there be much determination to the head and 
delirium, apply steaming stones to the feet, also rubbing 
them with stimulating linament, or vinegar and cayenne ; 
and apply wet cloths to the head. The bowels may be fo- 
mented or rubbed with No. 6. When the patient becomes 
convalescent use the spice or wine bitters 3 or 4 times a 
day ; or Thomson's No, 5 syrup. 

Regimen. — The diet may be very much the same as 
that in synochus fever, excepting that more care must be 
taken not to give the patient solid food. 

If the bowels are costive small quantities of mdian gruel 
may be servicable in correcting them, if it agrees with the 
stomach. Sour apples roasted, the juce of cranberries. 



TYPHUS, OR 153 

lemonade &c., may be used as a drink. Particular 
attention must be paid to cleanliness — the bedding often 
changed — ijje night vessel, as often as used, washed, 
sprinkled with chlorid of lime, or common fresh lime, 
and returned beneath the bed. The rootn may be fiimi- 
gaied daily wiih a little fresh tar dropped upon a, shovel 
full of hot coals. This will be benefioial lo the palient, 
and agreeable rather ihaii olhfMwise. The house must 
be often aired ; leniember it is one thing lo ictep a pa- 
tient warm and anullier'ihinjj lo yivc him pure u'.r upon 
which vital warmth depends. Tiie ful!owir)ij eMriicts 
will convince all of its iiDporiance. "A petechia'' [one 
of the spots which occur in typhus] "is a liiiie bloody 
point under the skin, irrogolar ip shr:(;e. It isgcriPrally 
nothing more than exudation of blood from the exirem- 
ities of the cappilluries. It varies in (.uiui ; sometitncs 
it i.s very faint; sometimes vividly red; someumes 
purpleish ; sometimes dark red ; — and the daiker they 
are the worse. Petechia arise almost always, when they 
do exist, in persons who breathe a close atmosphere. — 
They occur, for exaniple, in persons vvho reside in cel- 
lars; while those vvho live in garrets, where thtre are 
plenty of broken panes, and where there is a tolerable 
supply of fresh air, are hardly ever attacked by them. — 
If a person covered with petechia, lying in bed in a close 
apartment, be carried into fresh air, it is surprising how 
rapidly they van'sh." — Dj: Armstrong. 

The following extract not only shows the importance 
of pure air but the lamentable blunders of the regular?. 
"In the Lying In Hospital of Dublin 2,944 infants, out 
of 7,6:0, died in the year 1782, within ttie first fort- 
night from their birth. They almost all expired in con- 
vulsions ; many foamed at the mouth; their thumbs 
were down into the palms of their bands ; their jaws 
wpre locked ; the;r faces were swelled ; and they pre- 
sented in a greater or less degree every appearance of 
sxiffocalion! 

This last circumstance at last, produced an enquiring 
whether the rooms were not insnfficientlv ventilated. — 
The apartments of the Hospital were rendered more 
airy ; and the consequence has been, that the proper- 



154 LOW NERVOUS FEVKR. 

tion of deaths, accoiding to the registers of aucceediag 
years, is diminished from three to ont ! !" 

Here then, were 1,962 helplass infant* aacrificed 
yearly in the city of Dublin, to the violation of physio- 
logical law ; and that too, under the eyes of a ''learned !" 
faculty. Well might Armstrong exclaim, "There is a 
great deal of ignorance in learning." Pbysiciana very 
often nre, what Milton calls 

'Deep versed in books, but shallow in themselves." 



-00- 



INTERMITTENT, OR AGUE AND FEVER. 

This fever has several kinds, name from the length 
of time between the paroxysms. 1st. Quotidian, occur- 
ring every 24 hours. 2nd. Tertian, occurring every 48 
hours. 3rd. Quartan, occurring every 72 hours. 

Symptobis. — The paroxysms commence with yawn- 
ing — stretching — and uneasiness ; soon succeeded by 
slight chills, ending in violent shivering and shaking 
of the whole body — great thirst and sometimes vomiting. 
This is called the coZd! stage. The pulse then rises — 
the skin becomes hot. — pain in the head — tongue white 
— and all the marks of fever. This is called the hot 
stage. The pores then open, and profuse perspiration 
takes place which gradually subsides and leaves the pa- 
tient nearly natural. This is called the sz^eafzwof stage. 
In the intervals the patient exhibits more or less weak- 
ness, and a pale sallow complexion. 

Favorable. — This disease seldom terminates fatally 
in temperate latitudes. The paroxysms delaying their 
usual time — scabby emptions about the mouth and nos- 
tril*, are good signs. 

Unfavorable. — The paroxysms anticipating their 
usual time, in which case it sometimes runs into remit- 
tent or continued fever. 

In warm climates typhus symptoms sometimes occur 
with intermittents, where they are more apt to term.inate 
fatally. And in our own latitude, where there is great 
debility gr a predisposition to appoplexy in the patient. 



INTERMITTENT, OR I55 

death sometimes takes in the cold stage, [Therefore 
fever must be a friend.] 

Causes. — Miasma, or foul air from swamps and de- 
caying vegetable matter. 

Regular Treatment.— '"Fixsi attack — take 50f;or 60 
drops of laudanum and cover warmly- In the hot stage, 
if inflammatory symptoms appear, ftZeei .' and open ths 
bowels with senna and salts. After this quinine mix- 
ture.' "If the disease resists this treatment, try 6 drops 
of Fowler's solution of arsenic!!! three times a day 
with Peruvian bark, gradually increasing it to 9 or [0 
drops at each dose. If the liver and spleen become af- 
fected resource must be had to Mercury ! .'" — Gentle- 
man's Medical Pocket Book. 

Natural treatment. — The paroxysms of this fever 
may be often arrested by the timely use of the vapor 
bath applied about a half an hour before the commence- 
ment of the chills accompanied with a free use of stim- 
ulants composition, cayenne or No. 6. In all cases we 
should give a course of medicine at the recurrence of 
every paroxysm, giving the bath before the cold stage, 
and \he emetic after the hot stage. After the subsi- 
ding of the paroxysm, and the system has been thorough- 
ly cleansed, we may give the ague powder, from 3 to 7 
times a day. 

Regimen. — The patient should take nothing but li- 
quid food for 6 hours previous to a paroxysm, for solid 
food will not then digest. He should take no grease ; 
and avoid much exertion. 

00 



REMITTENT, OR BILIOUS FEVER. 

This fever has various grades, closely allied to ague 
and fever on one hand, and yellow fever on the other. 

It is most common, like all other bilious fevers, in 
the Southern and Western States. A bilious character 
sometimes attends the common synochus fever, which 
has receivpd the name of bilious fever in the Middia 
and Eastern States. 



156 REMITTENT, OR 

Symptoms. — Commencing- with languor — drowsiness — 
pains in the back and head — chills and flushes of heat — at 
length, great heat and dryness of the skin, with severe 
pains in the head back and limbs — tongue at first white, 
bfjcnming brown — vomiting of bilious matter — yellowness 
of the.eyes and skin — pulse quick, hard and moderately 
full — and particularly characterized by slight remissions 
of the fever, mostly in the forenoon. 

Favorable. — Long remissions of the fever — returning 
of healthy functions. 

UNFAvoRAnLK. — Short and almost imperceptible remis- 
sions — sorpness and swelling of the abdomen — watery and 
offensive discharges from the bowels — and continued deli- 
rium. 

Cavses. — Miasma — or the decaying of some organ in 
the body. 

Requ/ar TrcatmeJit. — "Bleed the patient freely and re- 
peat the operation if the pulse seems to require it. The 
next step is to cleanse the stomach v/ith an emetic, [a?2/i- 
OTony o/coz/7'ie] which havmg operated, open the bowels 
with calomel ! The lancet ! ! ! and caloiuel I '. ! are the 
tvjo sheet anchors in this disease-, and irresolution or tint- 
idily ill the emploi/ment oftkem, may cost the sufferer his 
life[ ha! ha!! ha!! !] 

From 20 to 30 grains! of calomel combined with a 
portion or two of jalap, may be given in molasses and re- 
peated until copious evacuations are produced, if the pain 
id the head be very great, shave it and apply a blister ! ! ! 
If, however, in spite of all endeavors to the contrary, the 
complaint seems advancing, endeavor to hrinn on saliva- 
tin^ ! ! .' as quick as possible." [Tell it not in Gath. — 
Pu^-lish it not in ihe streets of Askelon.J — Gentlemeyi's 
Medical Poclid. Book. 

Natural treat menf. — The prmcipol indication in this 
disease is to remove morbid matter from the body, and re- 
slore the functions of the digestive system. Give courses 
of medicine No. 3, every 12, 24 or 48 hours according to 
the case until the fever has abated. During this time wash 
the surface 3 timos a day with weak ley. Give composition, 
white root and cayenne combined every hour ■ and 2 or 3 
stomach pills every two hours during the afternoon 'and 



BILIOUS FEVER 157 

night : or at times when there is no remission of fever. If 
the bowels be costive, give from half to a teaspoonful of 
bitter root and cayenne each, mixed in molasses or cold 
water, at night, assisted by injections in the mornino- • or 
use the bile pills. 

If the disease commences in a mild form, the practitioner, 
or nurse may use the course of medicine No. 1, or 2 at 
their option. If there be pain or swelling about the re- 
gion of the stomach, the extract, or syrup of dandelion 
may be used to act upon the liver ; and foment with smart 
weed. 

When the patient is convalescent, tone and strengthen 
with golden seal, or the spice bitters as usual. 

Regimen. — Let the diet be purely vegetable and very 
light for a few days, consisting of gruel rice &c., afterward 
use butter millc. In this and in all other diseases, endeavor 
to have the meals taken at regular hours. Try to have 
the patient sleep mostly at night by the means of quietness 
and the use of nervines. Keep the air pure ; and let but 
fQVT be in the room. 

00 



YELLOW FEVER. 

Symptoms. — Commencing with sudden giddiness — 
pain in the back and extremities — slight chills and nausea. 
After some hours a sudden increase of heat — eyes red — 
extreme headache — great thirst — sense of weight and ten- 
sion at the stomach. In about 24 hours, bilious vomiting 
— heat and tenderness of the stomach— and delirium. — 
Then an almost entire remission of symptoms — returning 
in a few hours with greater violence — vomiting of black 
matter resembling coffee grounds — and yellowness of the 
face and neck. 

Favorable. — A settled state of the stomach — copious 
perspiration, with warmth of the extremities — prickly heat 
on the surface and sound sleep. 

Unfavorable. — Weak irregular pulse — dilated pupils 
stupor — black and fetril stools — petechia — and hic- 
cough. 



158 YELLOW FEVER. 

Cause. — Disengagement of miasma under a high heat. 

Regular Treatment. — Extremely irregular. Dr. Rush 
practiced the antiphilogistic — bleeding plan, and lost 4 out 
of 6 in his own family, and a similar proportion abroad. — 

"Bleeding cannot be resorted to with advantage." Br. 

Thomas. 

Natural Treatment. — Very much the same as bilious 
fever. At the first attack we must make a vigorous effort 
to remove morbid matter from every outlet, particularly 
the surface, by courses of medicine, injections and a careful 
use of laxatives, diuretics, and hepatics ; for the last use 
dandelion freely. Vinegar tincture of lobelia has been 
known to produce the desired effect in this disease when 
no other would ; and considering the good effect which 
acids always produce upon bilious fevers, it had better be 
preferred. When convalescent, give tomes and the jaun- 
dice bitters. 

Regi7}ien. — Use a very light Indian gruel and lemon- 
ade in the first stage ; a milk porrige or unbolted wheat 
gruel in the second. Fresh buttermilk may be used ; it 
posseses a superior virtue in bilious affections ; depending 
nodoubt on the oxygen it has absorbed ; which Liebig holds 
is deficient in these diseases. "Dr. Nardin [of Charles- 
ton] declared that cases he treated with botanic remedies 

yielded as readily as any acute disease He lost none " 

A. iV. Worthy, M. D. 



CHAP. IV. 

INFLAMMATIONS. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BRAIN. 

Symptoms. — Great determination of blood to the head, 
with a fixed pain — feet cold — eyes in capable of bearing 
the light — sparkling — pupils contracted or varying, bow- 
els torpid. pulse hard quick and corded — tongue at first 
white, or fiery red, then yellow or brown, picking at flocks 
— and often raving delirium. 

Favorable. — Abatement of the fetrile symptoms — he- 
mocrrhage from the nose— remembering dreams—- and de- 
lirium relieved by sleep. 

Unfavorable. — Grinding of the teeth — ash colored 
Btools — hemorrhage from the bowels, starting of the ten- 
dons, convulsions, cold sweats — stupor — and inability — to 
put out the tongue. In children it often results in dropsy 
of the brain, known by a dilated pupil. 

Causes. — Violent fits of passion — intense study, blows on 
the head — excessive venery — spiritous liquors — long ex- 
posure of the head to the sun. Jn children it is often caus- 
ed by long exposure to cold, or irritation of the intestinal 
canal. It frequently arises as an effect of fever or the in- 
flammation of some other organ, when it generally termi- 
nates fatally. 

Regular Treatment. — 'Bleeding the patient as largely 
as his strengfth will permit — from the tcmporaJ artery or 



160- INFLAMMATION OF 

juglar vein — Calomel and jalap — blisters to the back of the 
neck, &c. &c. — Dr. Hooper. 

NaUiral Treatment. — This is a veiy- rapid "'disease and 
if not promptly treated may soon become past cure. The 
practical indications are to increase the circulation in the 
lower extremities by hot applications ; to lessen the de- 
termination to the head by cold ; and to restore the func- 
tions of the bowels. Commence with an injection made of 
a teaspoonful of composition and nerve powder each, and 
half a teaspoonful of brown lobelia. Then put the patient's 
feet in hot water, and apply the vapor bath. In many 
cases it may be advisable to apply the steam only below the 
waist. For this purpose, seat the patient upon a stool, or 
chair without a back ; take the portable bath hereafter des- 
cribed, open the top of the curtain and bring it down to the 
waist and tie ; or if not at hand pin blankets about the 
waist. During this operation, keep the head covered with 
cloths wet in ice Avater ; at the same time giving freely of 
composition. This bath should be applied a longer time 
than usual : but regulate it by the patient's feelings ; then 
put him in bed ; throughly rub his feet with stimulating- 
liniment ; put a steaming stone to them, and keep the wet 
cloths on his head, changing them as often as they become 
warm. 

We must next endeavor to get an emetic operation by the 
repeated injections ; containing from half to a teaspoonful 
of brown lobelia (not the substance ; ) if this does not operate 
give a portion or two by mouth washed down with soda, or 
salseratus water. If this produces prostration, so much the 
better. The sighing breath, nervous agitation, great re- 
laxation, or insensibility which sometimes attend this state 
should cause no alarm ; give strong composition, keep the 
extremities warm ; and in from 5 to 8 hours the patient will 
vomit and be greatly relieved. Prostration by lobelia al- 
ways produces transient, ?nd often permanent relief fiom 
delirium in this disease and generally for a time restore 
even the maniac to a state of sanity. 

The room should be kept warm, and the patient be shield- 
ed with a blanket when up at stool. During steaming, or 
if prostration occur, the air in the room should be kept 
fresh. 



THE BRAIN. 161 

For an intermediate treatment, give a cup full of stimu- 
lating tea once in one or two hours. If the bowels be at all 
costive, give 3 or 4 of the bile pills ; these will cause a 
movement without determining the fluids mward. If the 
affection of the head is not sufficiently relieved in 12 hours 
repeat the above course. When convalescent give poplar 
tea. 

"Keep the feet warm, head, cool, and bowels open" — 
Abernet fly's golden rule of wedicine. 

Example. — We were called to attend, a few months 
since, Mr. Bottom of Shaftsbury, Vt., who was affected 
with this fearful disease, which had arisen sympathetically 
from pleurisy of about a weeks standing. We found him 
with violent delirium, constantly picking at the bed clothes, 
tongue black and dry, bloating of the bowels and obstinate 
costiveness. We placed our chief reliance upon lobelia, 
giving by enema and mouth 6 teaspoonfuls of the brown in 
the course of an hour and a half; also about half the quan- 
tity of cayenne, with bathing the feet in hot Avater and steam- 
ing. The result was complete prostration, when in about 
7 hours the patient vomited large quantities of very foul 
matter, became perfectly rational, and rapidly recovered. 

00 r- 



PLEURISY. 

This is an inflammation of the 'pleura, a membrane lining 
the inside of the chest. 

Symptoms. — Chills — followed by heat— thirst— acute 
pain in the side — hard dry cough — painful stictch in taking 
a full breath — difficulty of lying on the affected side — pulse 
quick, hard, and vibrating— spittle at first thin, becoming 
thicker and often streaked with blood. 

Favorable. — Gradual abatement of the pulse and fever 
— breathing easier— and copious expectoration. 

Unfavorable. — After violent symptoms, a sudden cessa- 
tion of pain — change of countenance— and sinking of the 
pulse. 

Causes. — Exposure to cold — welting the feet— severe 
exertions — stoppage of some evacuation. 



162 PLEUKISY. 

Regular Treatmeni. — Copious abstraction of blood f/oni 
the arm,- immediately afterward 15 or 20 leeches to the 
chest; followed by cupping glasses. If pain continue, im- 
m.ediatcly renew the leeches — and cupping glasses again 
applied as soon as the leeches have fallen off If the symp- 
to;ms all continue after the first bleeding, open a vein a sec- 
ond and even a third time during the first two days. Givo 
tartrate of antimony as a counter stimulant. If the disease 
still contuiues apply a large blister to the side. If the pa- 
tient is now very weak [should'nt \vonder] apply other blis- 
ters to each leg. Injections of antimony and epicac , — if ef- 
fusion has taken place, small bleeding, if not too weak — 
emetics fantimonjr of course,] blisters and seatons to several 
parts of the body at once. Lastly, when every thing else 
has failed, cut an opening into the side.' — MartineC s The- 
TO.feutics. 

Natural Treatment. — This disease generally attacks peo- 
ple of a strong habit, and requires very decided and active 
treatment. 

A thorough course of medicine should be given. Bathe 
the side with stimulating lineament, No. 6, or ihird prepara- 
tion ; then apply a fomentation of smartweed, hops or boiled 
oats ; accompanied with steaming stones to the sides and 
feet. 

Infuse a teaspoonful of composition and pleurisy root each, 
in a cup of hot water and give every 2 or 3 hours ; also be- 
tween these times give a teaspoonful of the cough or fever 
powder, in a tea of pennyroyal, sage, or smartweed. In- 
stead of the cough powder, frequent doses of the vinegar tinc- 
ture of lobelia be given, in quantity sufficiont to produce con- 
stant nausea. Frequent steaming is highly necessary to 
equalize circulation, and determine the blood to the surface. 
If the pain and difficulty of breathing still continue, we must 
repeat the courses of medicine until we have gained the 
victory. 

The perspiration should by no means be allowed to sub- 
side in this disease until the patient is safe. 

The surface should be rubbed over twice or three times a 
day with warm, weak ley or salasratus water ; taking care 
to keep the patient covered at the same time. For drink 
make a free use of slippery elm or flaxseed tea ; these , will. 



PLEURISY 16:5 

serve to loosen the phlegra and promote expectoration. 

When recovering the patient may take 3 or 4 times a day 
of the antidyspeptic powder, or spice bitters, as a gentle 
restorative. 

Example. — A man residing- with jMr. Witherell of 
North Bennington, Vt., was severely attaclced wliu pleu- 
risy ; — employed a regular, Dr. M — , who resorted to 
capious bleeding and the other usual remedies of the old 
school, without removing the disease. We were called on 
the sixth day, and found the patient laboring under a se- 
vere pain of the side, with much difficulty of breathing, 
and extremely weak from, the united attack of the disease 
and the doctor. We ordered 2 stomach pills every 2 
hours, and a dose of composition and pleurisy root every 
2 hours alternately : with steaming stones to his sides and 
feet. 

This treatment operated as an emetic and thorough 
diaphoretic. On our third visit v\re found the patient out 
of doors, and nearly well. '■'■The abstraction of blood some- 
times seems to aggravate the pleurisy.'' — Mariincl. 

_00 



INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS. 

Symptoms. — Very difficult breathing — oppression of the 
chest — dull pain in some part of the breast— cough— pulse 
frequent, full and vibrating— tongue white, and other symp- 
toms of inflammatory fever. It is sometimes complicated 
with pleurisy, and has very similar symptoms excepting 
the pain is more obtuse. 

Favorable.— Mild sweats— copous urine, with a sedi- 
ment— hemcerrhage from the nose— and particularly a free 
expectoration of a white, or yellow mucus. 

Unfavorable.— High fever, attended with delirium- 
acute pain— dry cough — expectoration dark or black— ir- 
ref^ular pulse— purple lips and livid countenance— sudden 
cessation of pain, and chilliness. The last symptoms de- 
note supparation, which sometimes bursts into the cavity 
of the chest, constituting what is called an empyema. _ 

6Vm.s«J.— Sudden suppression of perspiration— wetting 



164 INFLAMMATION OF 

the feet — great exertion in singing or playing on wind in- 
struments — sudden suppression of some accustomed evac- 
uation — translation of rheumatism or gout. 

Regular Treatment. — "When the fever &c. run high 
blood letting may be repeated even 4, 5 or 6 times." — 
"Neither flow of the catamenia, nor the lochia, nor old age, 
nor infancy, should deter us from a general abstraction of 
blood." — Martinez 

Natural Treatment. — This should be very much the 
same as in pleurisy, excepting that we should more par- 
ticular to have the patient inhale the vapor while being 
steamed. He may breathe vapor from the spout of a 
coffee pot at other times. We must besides make a more 
liberal use of expectorants. — For this purpose take liquor 
ice root, skunk cabbage, wild turnip and flax seed — make 
a tea and use freely. If the treatment supposed be not 
sufficient to keep up a perspiration, take smartweed, bone- 
set and mayweed, make a tea and use plentifully. We 
have found this to have most decided benefit in this disease. 
Remember that the sweating must not subside till the pa- 
tient is fairly relieved. 

Example. — We were called to attend a Mr. Potter of 
Shaftsbury Vt. in latter part of Oct. 1842. About 6 or 7 
weeks previous he was attacked by inflammation of the 
lungs, and attended by Dr. M — of this town. He had 
been through the Doctor's usual round of treatment- 
bleeding, purging, blistering — Dovers powders, antimony 
and epicac in broken doses ; together with 20 or 30 anti- 
mony sores upon his chest. Failing in all his attempts 
the Dr. had forsaken him, saying he could not live 24 
hours (very natural conclusion after such a display of 
science.) We found him bolstered up in the front door of 
the house, and the windows open besides, although the 
weather was quite cold ; this was occassioned by the great 
difficulty of breathing. If the doors were shut it produced 
an effect upon him like suffocation. The pulse was quick 
and fluttering ; scarcely perceptible at the wrist — feet and 
legs very much swollen — raising pus streaked with blood 
— left side enlarged ; upon which he was lying — night 
sweats — hectic fever, and diarrhoea. 

These symptoms led us to suspect an empyema, and we 



THE LUNGS. 165 

accordingly advised an operation, to which his friends ob- 
jected. 

Ordering- composition and stomach pills once in 2 hours • 
linament to bathe the surface, and a poultice over the chest 
to heal the antimony sores ; we left. On my next visit, 
the friends had concluded that an operation was the only 
alternative. 

We then proceeded to make an incision between the 
fourth and fifth rib on the affected side. The matter spout- 
ed to the hight of 6 inches, the patient felt immediate re- 
lief, the breathing become easy and he called for the shut- 
ting of the doors and windows. We then left him in the 
care of I. N. Mason, T. P., who applied the usual Thom- 
sonian remedies. During the first 24 hours the patient 
discharged a gallon of matter, and continued to discharge 
from a pint to a quart daily for some time afterward. In 
about 2 months we repeated the operation just above the 
diphragm, the constant bubbling of air from this incision 
showed that the abcess had made a communication into 
the substance of the lungs. In April following he was a- 
bout and is now a laboring man; but he still bears the 
scars of the antimony which are equal to those of the knife 
— a most fortunate escape from a learned student of the 
"seat and cause of disease," the same one who exhibited an 
equal amount of learned ignorance in another case, con- 
cerning which he refused to councel with us, because, for- 
sooth, we might not know how many bones there were in 
the body. 



-00- 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS. 

Symptoms. — Sharp pain in the bowels, shooting round 
the navel ; increased by pressure — belching of wind — sick- 
ness at the stomach — vomiting of bilious matter — obstinate 
costiveness— thirst— heat — great anxiety— quick, hard and 
small pulse. Afterward the bowels are affected with 
spasms ; — very painful to the touch ; — and drawn together 
in lumpy contractions. 

Favorable. — Pain abating gradually — natural stools — 



166 INFLAMMATION OF 

general sweating — copious discharges of loaded urine — and 
a firm equal pulse. 

Unfavorable. — Sudden remission of pain — sinking 
and irregularity of the pulse — shrinking of the features — 
suppression of urine — hiccough — and distention of the bel 
ly which sounds on being struck with the finger. It is 
distinguished from colic hy the pain being increased hj 
pressure, whereas colic is relieved by it. 

Causes. — Irritating substances — cold — wading in cold 
water — neglected costivcness — unripe fruit — strangulated 
rupture — and the use of opium, antimony, and all corrosive 
poisons. 

Regular Treatment.— ^W^^eAmq is the sheet anchor in 
this disease, and the only thing that can be depended on. — 
Fomentations, laxative enemas, leeches and opium — blis- 
ters upon the bowels — in desperate cases, quick silver may 
be given to the amount of several ounces, or even a pound, 
but should not exceed that, [scientific dose that. — Ed.] — 
When it is given in too large quantities it defeats its own 
intention, as it drags down the bottom of the stomach, v^hich 
prevents its getting over the pylorus. 

In this case the patient should be suspended by the heels, 
[shake him well — Ed.] in order that the quick silver may 
be discharged by his mouth." — Buchan^s Domestic Med- 
icine. 

Natural Treatmeyit. — Give a thorough course of med- 
icine, No. 3 for an adult, for a child a lighter course may 
suffice ; commencing with one or more injections. The 
bowels should be bathed with stimulating linament or No. 
6 ; then apply fomentations of smart weed steeped in salt 
and vinegar ; — if the smart weed is not convenient use hops, 
tansy or wormwood. 

Injections are of the highest importance in this disease, 
and should be administered every one or two hours until 
a free operation is produced; usmg in them, slippery elm, 
starch or some other mucilage. If after this treatment the 
bowels have not sufficiently moved, or the pain has not a- 
bated, repeat the course of medicine, and administer the 
following injection ; brown lobelia, myrrh, bitter root and 
slippery elm flour, a tcaspoonful each ; infuse in swart 
weed tea to which add molasses and sweet oil ; given near- 



THE LUNGS 167 

ly cold, and retained or held up some time and repeat for 
the purpose of producing- prostration. 

The vapor bath should be frequently administered, and. 
the patient kept in a free perspiration while in bed by the 
^lse of steaming stones to the feet and sides. If this plan 
does not succeed, make a large poultice of green lobelia, 
cayenne, salt, slippery elm and weak ley— apply to the 
bowels ; and give of the bile pills. The "injections should 
not be administered in substance, excepting the slippery 
elm. When convalescent give the strengthening syrup. ' 

Regimen. — For a constant drink, use pennyroyal, balm, 
sage, slippery elm or flax seed tea. Use none but liquid 
food and that should be very light and digestible. Avoid all 
exposure to cold. 



-00- 



INFLAMMATION OF THE STOMACH. 

Symptoms. — Burning pain in the region of the stomach, 
increased when anything is swallowed — pain increased 
by pressure — vomiting — hiccough — sudden and great 
weakness — small, quick and hard pulse — tongue red es- 
pecially the tip and edges. 

Favorarle. — Pulse becoming soft and full, and dimin- 
ishing in frequency — pain gradually ceasing — and urine 
depositing a sediment. 

Unfavorable. — paintings — cold clammy sweats — cold- 
ness of the extremities — and intermitting pulse-— cessation 
of pain, with a sense of weight remaining — shivering and 
hectic fever,denote its termination insupporation. — Violent 
and unyielding symptoms at first soon followed by a ces- 
sation of pain — the pulse continuing its frequency, but be- 
coming weaker — and delirium, denote its termination in 
gangrene. 

Causes. — Acrid and poisonous substances — arsenic — 
corrosive sublimate — strong alkalies and acids — improp- 
per food — spirituous liquors — cold water when heated by 
exercise — violence from wounds, blows &c. 

Regular Treatment. — Bleed, bleed, bleed ; blister and 
leech. 



168 INFLAMMATION OF THE STOMACH. 

I^atural Treatment. — As in this disease much distress 
is caused by swallowing any thing, our remedial means 
must depend principally upon injections and the vapor 
bath. What medicine is given by mouth must be strained 
from every particle of substance, and mixed with a muci- 
lage of slippery elm, made from the unpulverized bark. 

Commence by giving injections of composition and 
nerve powder strained ; and the same by mouth if it can be 
swallowed with success ; though in this case it should be 
weaker. Then apply the vapor bath, wash off with weak 
ley ; and give an injection containing a teaspoonful of 
brown lobelia, and composition each, infused in smart weed, 
or white root tea. Repeat this until it produces vomiting, 
or even prostration. Afterward apply fomentations of 
smart weed, hops, or other bitter herbs to the stomach and 
bowels, and renew them frequently. Keep the patient in 
a gentle perspiration by keeping steaming stones to the feet 
and sides. 

Bathe the region of the stomach frequently Avith lina- 
ment ; and apply at night a poultice of Indian meal and 
weak ley. Repeat the courses of medicine in this way 
very thoroughly and as often as once a day until the dis- 
ease is abated. For a constant drink, use a tea of white or 
pleurisy root, and slippery, elm combined. Whatever is 
swallowed, should be taken in very small quantities at a 
time. The vapor bath should be applied as often as twice 
a day, either with or without a course of medicine. 

Regimen. — -Use a gruel made by dissolving Indian 
meal in cold water, strain and prepare in the usual way. 

00 



ACUTE INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER. 

Symptoms. — Commencing with chills — followed bv 
pungent pain in the right side, shooting into the shoul- 
der—cough — difficulty of breathing — nausea — vomiting 
of bilious matter — difficulty of lying on the affected side 
— yellowness of the skin and eyes — stools clay colored 
— urine small in quantity and high colored — thirst — fur- 
red tongue and other symptoms of fever. 



AGUTE INFLAMMATION OF 169 

UiVFAvoRABLE. — Ccnslant hiccoughing — violent fever 
and excessive thirst. Chilliness denotes its termination in 
suppuration. It seldom terminates by any immediately fatal 
conscqutnoc^. 

Favorablf,. — Hcmcsrrhage from the nose — sweatino- — 
diarrl.cej — urine depcsitmg a copious Sfdiment. 

Causes. — Application of cold— intemperate use of ppirit- 
ious liquors — high living— violtnt exercise — blows &c. — 
It is mosi common in hot climates. 

Kef^vlar Trtal merit. — -Copious bleeding ; then cupping 
over the Iiver ; should noreln f be obtained, general bleed- 
ing may again be repeated to the extent of 12 or IG ounces, 
drawn from a large orifice, so as to produce fainting even 
to insensibility. Should the inflammation extend it>elf, 
bleeding must not be lost sight of as our sheet r.nchor, but 
must be repeated again and again. After full bleedings 
general and local wilhout alleviation, a large blister may 
be placed over the afTc cted part. Cathartic.-, should be free- 
ly given, consisting of sulphate of potlassa, colocyntli, and 
corrosive subli»m/e .'' [Don't wonder that statistical rtc- 
ords shovv- that the regular doctors kil. more than they cure ] 
• — Fazihhorn on Liver covi'plaints. 

Natural Trea/ incut. —'Vhh disease requires frequent 
courses rvf med cine, repeated from every day to every third" 
day according to the severity of the case. '1 he vapor bath 
should be used as oft' n as 12 or 24 hours putting the fett 
in Lot water at the same time and afterward washing off 
with v.-eak ley or salsratus water; then bathe the surface 
with the gum elastic linament particularly over the part 
afftcted ; afterward apply a fomentation or lobelia poultice 
over the same. Keep ihe patient in a constant gentle pers- 
piration by often repeated doses of compcsilion and nerve 
pow^der; and 2 or 3 ofthestomach pills once in 2 or 3 
hours. Ifthebowelsbe very torpid, give at night, hall a 
teaspoonful of bitter root and'cayaine each in molassts or 
milk, followed by an injection in the morning, "1 he bit- 
ter root" says Dr 'J'r.omson, "is the greatest corrector ot 
the bile I know of; and is an e.xcelhnt medicine to nmove 
costiveness, as it will cause the bowels to move in a natural 
manner." r • 

If suppuration take place, known by remission ot pauj. 



170 THE LIVER. 

—shiverings — softning- of the pulse — and a tumor on the 
nghtside; and there be an indication of its breaking ex- 
ternalh^, apply a poultice of ginger and slippery elm, and 
open it by an incision as soon as advisable. "In this occur- 
rence the patients strength must be supported by the fol- 
lowing tonic, bahnony, golden seal, poplar, and prickly 
ash, equal parts; giving a teaspoonful 3 times a day. 

The extract or syrup of dandelion, or what is much bel- 
ter, the insippisated juice, is an excellent article in this dis- 
ease and may be used freely. If the urine be much sup- 
pressed, making a free use of diuretics, we have found very 
useful in this complaint. 

Regimen. — Abstain from all greacy food ; let what is 
taken be light and digestible ; and make use of acidulous 
drinks, lemonade, an infusion of cranberries, or sumac ber- 
ries, or what is more preferable at meal time, fresh butter- 
milk. 



-00- 



INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNIES. 

Symptoms. — Deep seated pain in the small of the back, 
extending downward and forward — urine small in quantity, 
with difficuliy of passing it ; and sometimes bloody — nau- 
sea, vomiting — and fever. 

Favorable. — Gradual abatement of pain and fever- 
copious secretion of high colored mucous urine and bleed- 
ing from the nose &c. 

Unfavorable. — After the eeventh or ninth day remis- 
sion of pain— shivering — throbbings — and hectic fever, 
denote its termination in suppuration. — Suddenccssation of 
pain after severe and obstinate symptoms — smking of the 
pulse — and cold sweats denote its termination in ganorene- 
which, however is a rare occurrence. 

Causes. — Cold — Spanish flies — intemperance — strainin<^ 
the back — and gravel in the kidnies. 

Regular Treatment. — Bleed — bleed — bleed and leech 
— give salt petre — antimony — opium &c. &c. 

Natural Treatment. — Commence by giving an injec- 
tion of raspberry, nerve powder, and cleavers, mad* into a 



a 



INFLAMMATIONS, &c 171 

tea: add a mucilage of slippery elm, and a teaspoonful of 
?recn lobelia: given nearly cold and retained some time 
Inen place the patients feet in hot water, and give him J 
vapor bath, repeating every 12 or 24 hours ; o'r if the fe 
ver be high give a full course of medicine. 

For a constant medicine, infuse a teaspoonful of compo- 
sition in a tea of cleavers ; add a teaspoonful of cough bal- 
sam, and give every two hours. The back and\oweIs 
should be rubbed freelv with No. 6, or stimulating lini- 
ment ; afterward applying a fomentation of smart ''weed, 
wormwood, or hop?. A decoction of the dried leaves or 
the peach tree have been found highly useful in this dis- 
ease. The uva ursi, or bears Avhortlebury, is also very 
highly recommended. 

Other diuretics may be employed, such as queen of the 

meadow, white strawberry, milkweed root, or parsley. 

The patient should be kept in a constant perspiration by 
the use of steaming stones, and warm stimulating teas, as 
in other inflammations. 

When recovering, poplar is the most suitable tonic that 
cnxx bo ffiven. 



-00- 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER. 

Symptoms.— Pain and swelling of the bladder, increased 
by pressure — frequent desire to make water — urine small 
in quantity, and passed with much pain — great restless — 
vomiting — and delirium. 

Causes. — Spanish flies — ardent spirits — cold — and in- 
flammation ofthe neighboring parts. 

Natural Treatment. — The same as in inflammation of 
the kidnies, excepting that the linament and fomentations 
should be applied over the region of the bladder. 

GO 

INFLAMMATORY RHEUMATISM. 

Symptoms. — Commencing with chills and flushes of 



172 INFLAMMATORY RHEUMATISM. 

heat — acute pain in the laro-e joint', mostlj' — ^joints fre- 
qupntly red — swollen — and tender to the touch — crrcat 
thirst,— loss of appetite — and grnrral symptonis of fever. — 
This disease has a peculiar tendency to shift fiom one 
joint to another ; and sometimes to the membranes of lungs 
and heart. — The Pulse is quick full and re^ulir, except- 
ing when it afF cts the heart or lungs, when it is intermit- 
ting, slow, or otherwise variable. In this change there is 
slso much difficulty of breathing — raising of frothy mucus 
— and pain in some part of the chest, 

Favorarle. — Free perspiration — hemoerrhage — sedi- 
mentous urine. Although it is sometimes tedious to cure 
it is seldom fatal. 

UiVFAVOEABLE.—When it is translated to the chest or 
head. 

Causes. — Sleeping in damp b'^ds — living wiihin damp 
walls and other exposure, to cold after the joints are weak- 
ened by severe exercise. It generally occurs in people of 
a muscular make, or ful! habit. 

Regular Treatment — Bleeding, cupping, jpccbing 
issues, digitalis, hvocyamus, cicuta, antimony, salt petre, 
opiun:!, calomel, blisters and arsenic. — See Thomas' Prac- 
tice. 

The foUowmg is Bouillaud's treatment ; 1st day, bleed- 
ing from 16 to 24 ounces. 

2nd day, 2 bleedings, from 12 to 16 ounces each ; and 
cupping flora 12 to 20 ounces from the affected joints and 
region of the h^art. 

3rd day, 1 bleeding, and 12 or 16 ounces by cupping. 

4th day, bleeding 12 or 16 ounces. 

5th day, bleeding 12 ounces [if the disease or patient ex- 
ist of course. In all, amounting to about 1-3 of the blood 
of an ordinary person! ! — See select Medical library Vol. I. 

Natinal Treatment. — Ifthe attack is mild, place the 
patients feet in a vessel of hot water, being near the fire 
and well shielded with a blanket ; 2-ive him freely of com- 
position and nerve powder, or the stimulating tea and No. 
6 ; add hot water to the vessel in which his ifcet are placed 
until a free perspiration is had; then bathe the afi^ected 
parts freely with rheumatic liniment, or No. 6; and re- 
peat 3 or 4 times a day, At night the diseased joints 



INFLAMMATORY RHEUMATISM, 173 

should be bathed with weak ley previous to applyino- the 
liniment. In obstinate cases, thorough courses of medi- 
cine should be given every 1st, 2nd or 3rd day accordino- to 
the case. " ° 

For an intermediate treatment, a dose of composition 
and No. 6 may be taken once in 4 hours ; alternating with 
th s, give once in 4 hours two thirds of a teaciipful of the 
following tea: 2 table spoons full of black cohosh, 1 of 
prickly ash bark or berries, 1 of nerve powder, and a hand- 
ful of cocash root; 2 or 3 of the stomach pills may be giv- 
en at the same time. The bowels should be kept open^ by 
injections, or the bile pills. If the patient is much debili- 
tated, the entire surface of the body may be bathed with 
the Kheumalic liniment after each course. 

Keep the affected joints covered with the stimulating 
poultice, particularly at night. The oil of origanum, 
hemlock, ceader. brinish oil. are all highly recommend- 
ed in this complaint. Cloths wet in hot beef brine 
and applied, although rather droll, has been found very 
serviceable. Cloths wet in a strong tea of hemlock 
boughs, may be wrapped around heated stones, and ap- 
pli*-d to the patient's feet and sides to keep him in a per- 
spiration. 

Example, — We were recentlv acquainted with a case 
of this disease that unfortunately proved fatal. It may 
not be generally known that the pericardium or heart 
case, and the pleura, be'ono- to the same systemof mem- 
branes, (the synovial,) which are the seat of this disease 
in the joints ; and that the heart is often primarily af- 
fected. This latter circumstance was evidently the 
case in the patient to which ^e allude ; as was evinc- 
ed bv the palpitation that occurred from the fir.st. A 
post mortem examination of this case, showed the hearf 
to be somewhat enlarged, with an extravasation of blood 
on the surface ; and strong adhesions between the or- 
gan and the pericardium. 

There were also extensive adhesions between all the 
lobes of the lungs and the pleura ; and some between 
the diaphragm and the liver. These were followed by 
an effusion of water in the chest, which terminated life. 
This case shows the importance of withdrawing- dis- 



474 GOUT. 



eased action, or rather the morbid fluids from the cen- 
tral organs and givini^ them vent at the extremities and 
surface. The greater and more constant effort of na- 
tnre we can induce in joints of the extremities, the 
more safe will be the heart and lun^s. 



-00- 



GOUT. 

SvMPToMs. — Commencing, or preceded by symptoms 
of dispepjia, followed by acute pain in the small joints 
of the hands or feet ; particularly the great toe — swel- 
ling — redness — soreness — The paroxysm coming on at 
night — A disposition to change situation ; particularly to 
the corresponding joints of the opposite limb. It is 
sometimes repelled to the stomach, chest and head. — 
After a long continuance chalky concretions from about 
the joints ; and 2:ravel often occurs. 

Favorable. — Free perspiration — increased flow of u- 
rine — the effected parts becoming itchy — and the cuticle 
falling ofTin scales. 

Unfavorable. — The disease suddenly leavinjr the 
joints, followed by nausea — vomiting — anxiety — and pain 
and coldness in the region of the stomach, show it has 
fallen on the latter organ — Fainting, palpitation, and as- 
thmatic symptoms, show it has fallen on the chest ; pain 
in the head, giddiness, palsy, o- apoplexy, show that it 
has fallen on the head. 

Causes. — Hiah livinsj^, spirituous liquors and indo- 
lence ; with the more immediate exciting causes of cold, 
faligne, fasting, ^c. Some are predisposed to it. 

NaLural Treatment. — The true way to cure this dis- 
eise is by perspiration, and temperance. Keep the dis- 
eased joints well covered with flannel ; washed with 
weak ley ; rubbed with liniment or I^o. 6 ; fomented ; 
and kept constantly sweating. Make a constant drink 
of stimulants, astringents and tonics; say composition 
and poplar combined. The proximate cause of this dis- 
ease is vitiated, or morbid substance in the fluids ; there- 
fore for a quick and efl!ectual cure we must depend 



ERYSIPELAS 175 

on cNMirsea of medicine. If the disease is trans lated to 
some vital organ, apply steam, vinegar and cayenne to 
the lower extremities, keeping the head and cliest cool 
RegimExN.— "Live on brun bread and earn it."— ^A^ 
bcriietfiy. 



—00- 



ERYSIPELAS. 

This is an inflammation of the skin. 
Symptoms.— Commencing with fever ; in a few days 
swelling and redness lakes place in some pirt of the 
skin ; spreiding, and followed by small eruptions, end- 
ing in branny scales. It sometimes attacks the face, 
spreadmg over the head, causing so much swellincr al 
to produce blindness; and occasionally effects the mem- 
branes of the brain ; in which case the disease subsides 
externally ; in fact, like some other diseases, it seems 
to be repelled by unfavorable circumstances, to the in- 
ternal and more vital organs. It is a disease easily 
re-produced. 

Favorable. — A vvarm spontaneous perspiration and 
other symptoms that characterize the substance of oth- 
er inflammations. 

UNFAVORABtE. — Very high fever.stupor and delirium, 
deiio:e that it has affected the brain. It may also fall 
upon the organs of the chest and abdomen. 

Causes. — Application of cold to the body after severe 
exercise, intemperance, acrid substances applied to the 
skin, and irritating food. 

Regular Treatment.— 'E\ei;d,\x\g, purging, with salts, 
Dover's powders, blisters, opium, nitie, and washing the 
parts with laudanum and lead water , generally irregu- 
lar and uncertain. 

Natural Treatment. — Keep an open outlet in the 
cutaneous system, with a constant determination from 
centre to surface. Give constantly a cup ot Composi- 
tion, and 2 stomach pills, once in 2 hours. Use the 
vapor bath once or twice a day, according to the case. — 
Keep the bowels open by the use of injections and un- 



176 ERYSIPELAS 

bolted wheat bread. And upon the inflammed surface 
keep cloths wet in a strong tea of raspberr}', sumac, or 
wilchhiizle, to which is added cnstile soap and salt 
applied cold. Put on the diseased part, and the adjacent 
sKin two or three times a day, eqcul parts of third 
preparation and sweet oil ; this, Matison says, will 
slop its spreadinor. If ihis treatment does not seem suf- 
ficient, we should add, to it ccmplete courses of nriedi- 
cine. Remember to keep up a constant perspirntion. 
The wilted leaves of plantain, basswood, beach, striped 
maple, &c , have been found to be very useful in this 
complaint. When the disease appears in a chronic 
form, we should use occasional courses of medicine, aod 
other treatment liUe that above, with the addition of a 
glass of the JliUiscorhutic Syrup, 3 or 4 limes a day. 

00 



INFLA!Vi\1AT0RY SORE THROAT; OR QUINZY. 

Symptoms. — Chills and hot fiashes, p^iin and heat \n 
the tonsils, or "almonds of the ear," and (he throat, fjreat 
difficulty of swallowing, hoarsness, shooting pains, and 
sometimes suppuration. 

Favorable. — Eesolution, or gradual abatement of the 
inflammaiion, or early suppuration. 

Unfavorable. — When the swelling is so great as to 
prevent swallowing, or produce suffocalion. It seldom 
proves fatal. 

Causes. — Cold — damp clothes — wet feet, &c. 

Treatment.— In mild attacks of the disease, bathe the 
feet in hot water ; and drink freely of composition and No, 
6; apply the stimulating liniment or No. 6 to the throat; 
moisten a flannel cloth with same and bind tightly around 
the neck ; and rub the glands internally with No. 6 or 
cayenne. 

If this does not succeed, give thorough courses of medi- 
cine as often as necessary. Gargle the throat with salt 
and vinegar and water , or bayberry and cayenne. Steam, 
or foment the throat externally ; and apply the stimulating 
poultice. Inhaling; the vapor of vinegar and water is very 



INFLAMMATORY SORE THROAT, &z. 177 

servicable. A coffee pot, or an inverted funnel in a basin 
containing the liquid, may be used for this purpose. If 
there be much difficulty of swallowing, take 2 tablespocns- 
ful of vinegar tincture, and 2 of vinegar, add water enough 
to fill a teacup, with a teaspoonful oi salt, and a half of cay- 
enne; svveaten with honey, and swallow a table spooniul 
at a time, frequently. A swab may be made by stnppino- 
a feather excepting the tip, with wiiich to apply this and 
other medicine, if the glands suppurate, lance them as 
soon as practicable. The bowels should be kept open with 
injections. 

Regimen. — Use water gruel, crust coffee &c. If a 
case should happen where the patient could not swallow 
nuiricious injections should be used; made of thiri poirige, 
or chicken soup. 



-00- 



INFLAMMATION OF THE EYES. 

Symptoms. — Pain — swelling redness and a sensation re- 
sembling sand in the eyes — intolerance of light, copious 
flow of tears — pain in the head and sometimes ulceration of 
the lids. 

Causes.— Cold after excessive hetit, exposure to wind, 
intemperance, long reading, loss of sleep, sudden changts 
from light to darkness, foreign substances, vitrol, calomel 
and lard, and other ncstrurlrisof the regulars. Measles, 
small pox, scrofula, and sometimes, contagion. 

Regular Treaimenl. — BiecJmg, leeching, purging, 
blistering, opium, belladonna, Z!nc, copper, lead, aJum, 
Calomel, blown into the eye, opium dropped between, the 
eyelid;', caustics andseatons. — iceMarti/tet's Tkeiapciiiics^ 

JSalural Treat me>}l.. — If the inflammation is of recent 
orio-in, place the feet of the patient in hot water; shield 
him from the air with blankets ; continue to add hot water ; 
give freely of composition and nerve powder, and a dose 
of the stomach pills, until a free per.-piration is had. Then 
let the patient recline upon some chairs, or a sofa, near a 
fire take a sponge, or several thicknesses of linen, or cot- 
ton 'baiting, and lay it over the eyes ; wet with cold water, 



ITS INFLAMMATION OF 

and continue to pour it on until the pain has abated; keep- 
ing up a perspiration at the same time. Then make a 
poultice of slippery elm and pounded cracker, moistened 
with a strong tea of red raspberry or wifchhazie ; ap- 
plied to the eyes ; cold. If the pain and inflanimatiou re- 
turn, repeat the operation. If this docs not sufficiently 
succeed, give a full course of medicine. While giving the 
bath (which may be continued from a half to an hour,) 
keep the patients feet in water as hot as he can bear ; ap- 
plying the cold compress, as above, for a few minutes, or 
until the eyes and head are cooled. Then expose the head 
to the steam until a perspiration is produced, and again put 
on the cold application. If the patient should be faint, 
throw a little cold water on the face and stomach. Whila 
in the steam, the patient should open and shut his eyes fre- 
quently. _ After this operation bathe his eyes with a tea of 
green osier, and a little of the tincture of myrrh, and ap- 
ply the above poultice. Repeat this operstion as often as 
thecase may require. After the rednction of the inflam- 
mation, if there should be a film over the eyes, take hens 
oil 2 oz., 3rd preparation 2 teaspoonsful ; shake well, and 
apply to eyes.2 or 3 times a day. Before the application 
they should be cleansed with a tea of the bark of green 
osier. 

Too much reliance cannot be placed on this treatment. 
ns we have prescribed it in more than 40 cases during the 
last 9 years without a single failure; many had be'en a- 
landoned by the faculty as incurable. A tincture of gold- 
en seal and the eye water may be used to strengthen the 
eye. Diluted white of egg has been highly recommended 
for this purpose. 

Ifthe inflammation should arise from scrofula, or other 
constitutional disf as.s, the general treatment should be the 
«ame as proscribed in those cases. 

Example.— In the fall of 1837, we were called to visit 
Mr. M. Hurdofihls town, who had been afflicted for 7 
-years with this disease and the regular doctors, many 
whom he had consulted in this state and New York, all 
tonoeflTect. During this period, he had not been able to 
labor, or travel without the use of goggles. At the time 
W« were called, he had beeo confined°about 3 months iM- 



THE EYES. 179 

der the care of Dr. M— . of P— . He was perfectly blind, 
vyith excessive pain and swelling in the eyes and head be- 
sides, loss of appetite, vomiting, bloating of the bowels and 
great weakness und loss of flesh— the natural result of so 
Jong a regular treatment. But through the urgent soUci- 
tatiori of himself and friends we were induced to try the ex- 
periment ; for such it must be considered. We commenced 
by giving him a reg,ular course of medicine ; this afforded 
temporary relief, but in the course of 24 hours the pain had 
returned with its former violence. We then adopted the 
course above recommended with great success; the paria 
and inflammation immediately abated ; and he was able to 
open andihut his eyes for the first time in three months. 
They were covered with a white film ; and upon the cor- 
nea of one was an ulcer which obscured the sight ; and 2 
more upon different sections of the other. The films 
speedily disappeared en the application of the medicina 
described. His sight, and his general health were res- 
tored; and ha has had no return of the disease to the pr»- 
eent time. 



-00- 



INFLAIVI!\^ATION OF THE EAR. 

Symptoms. — Soreness, stiffness, at^d acute pain in 
the ear. It frequently ends in suppuration, and some- 
times causes deafne.ss. 

Causes- — Partial application of cold to body — tn- 
juries — hardened wax — scarlet fever and small poX. 

Regular Treatment. — Blood letting, blistering and 
opium. 

Natural Treatment.— T)\sso\v^ some camphor in 
sweet oil ; pour a suitable quantity into the ear; rub 
the tonsil on the affected side tvith No. 6 ; drink free- 
ly of the composition or stimulatiig lea \ get into bed ; 
put a steaming stone to the feet, anotller to the ear, 
covering :he whole head ; and lake a l.%roueh sweat. 
If this does not answer the purpose, give*a fjH course 
of niedicine. 



CHAP. V. 



BLEEDING FROM THE LUNGS. 



a 



Symptoms. — Dischargino- blood from the moiilh of , 
bright red color; — brought up with more oi less conoh 
ing ; — sometimes preceded by a salt taste in the spittle . 
— nnd oppression of the chest with more or less pain. 

Causes. — VVeukneiS, receding of blood from the sur- 
face, pulmonary consumption, loud speaking, sensuality, 
excessive exertions, blows on the chest, and suppression 
of some accustomed evacuation. 

Regular Treatment. — Bleeding, suffar of lead, cold, 
digitalis, henbane, opiurn. blisters and sealons [Bleed- 
ins Cor bleedinor — rneans to ends — but quacks use one 
medicine for every ihino-.] 

Nafnial Treatvient. — The principal indications in 
ihi.? difficulty, are to remove the original cause, equalize 
the circulation, and astrin^e the rupiursd vesseLs. The 
treatment for the first must consist in a frreat measure 
in a proper reo:|iT|en ; for the second, and third, place 
the patients feet in hot water, cover warmly, give freel}' 
of a strongtea of witchhazle. sumac or the like, with 
the addition of nauseating doses of 3rd preparation.— 



BLEEDING FROM THE LUNGS. 18l 

This will g^enerally give immediate relief ; but if it i» 
not sufficient, the addition of an emetic of brown lobelia 
-will rarely fail. It is a fact that astrmgent medicines 
may be received into the system by the way of the 
stomach, and produce their specific effect upon hemosr- 
rhagic vessels. The vapor bath, and a free use of cay> 
cnne, or even a full course of medicine may be added to 
xhis treatment. 

If a cough occurs in this difficulty, the cough balsam, 
or ccugh drops should be used. A strong solution of 
common salt will frequently stop bleeding from the 
lunps. 

When the hemorrhage is stopped, the patient may in- 
hale the vapQf of tar, and make a gentle use of the lung 
ivflaler to heal, strengthen, and expand the lungs; and 
also take some mild tonic to restore the general power 
of the system. 

Regimen. — Avoid wetting the feet, being chilled or 
any excess. Use a light, but strengthening diet; aiid 
frequently sponge the surface with salt and vinegar and 
water, followed by brisk rubbing with a dry towel or 
flesh brush. If oppression of the chest, palpitation, or 
faintness occur, allow no fear, make a vigorous effort of 
the uiil fo dispel the sinking feeling, and take a do«e of 
composition. 



00 

BLEEDING FROM THE STOMACH. 

Symptoms. — Vomiting blood in a considerable quantity ; 
— of a dark color, somewhat clotted, and mixed with the 
contents of the stomach ; — preceded by a sense of weight, 
pain and anxiety in the region of the stomach;— and un- 
attended with coughing. 

Cavses. — External blow?, poisons, inflammation, can- 
cer or shirrus, suppression of some accustomed evacuation, 
and the typhus state. 

Treaimeut.—\n this difficulty it will be necessary to 
take very similar means to equalize the circulation as that 
prescribed in preceding sectioa A strong decoction of 



182 BLEEDING FROM THE STOMAOH. 

sumac or witrh hazle, thickenpd with a mucilage ofslippe 
ry elm. should be taken into the stomach, and aL-o given by 
injection. If it hns arisen as a symptomatic affection of 
some other disease, antisceptics should be given; No. 6, 
tar water, ^Yhile root, or milkweed root tea may be used. — 
If it has arisen from schirrus, cancer, or some casualty, the 
cough balsam will prove a very healinir remedy. 11 cos- 
tiveness exists in any degree, the bile pills should be used ; 
for besides their loosening effect, they heal, and mitigate 
pain. 

Regimen. — The diet should consist of liquids, or pud- 
dings ; and much exertion should be avoided. 



-00- 



BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE. 

Symptoms. — It is sometimes preceded by pain and heavi- 
ness in the head, "dizziness, flushing of the face, heat and 
itching in the nose, quickness of the pulse, cold feet and 
chills. 

Caztscs.— Determination of blood to the head, violent ex- 
ercise, stooping, suppression of menses, and blows on the 
head and nose. 

Treatment. — Keep the head and body erect ; apply- 
cold water to the forehead and back of the neck ; take a 
dose of composition or cayenne, and snuff up thenoso some 
of the fine flour of slippery elm. This will generally stop 
it ; but if not, put the patients' feet in hot water, and give a 

teaspoonful of the tincture of lobelia. 

A snuff made of the marestail {hippurus vulgaris) is 
said to cure it immediately. 

Holding npthe arm on the affected side is a cure recent- 
ly discovered. The column of blood in the artery of the 
arm pressing down upon blood of the aorta, prevents it 
from ascending in i'S usual quantity, as well to the head, 
as to the arm. Where it is habitual, taking a do.se of cay- 
enne at meal lime for a short time has been known to ef- 
feet a cure. 



BLEEDING FROM THE URINARY ORGANS. 183 
BLEEDING FROM THE URINARY ORGANS. 

SvMPTOM:^.— Discharain? blood aitenried wiih acute 
pain in the baric, indicates ihnt i( comes from the kid- 
nies or ureters.— Auended only wiih heat and pia'm in 
the bottom of the belly, ind'caies iluii it comes f.om the 
bladder. In these cases the blood is flakv and mixed 
with urine. If it passes j)iire, it indicates'thai it comes 
from the urethra. 

Causes.— External injuries, hard liftintr, stone in th> 
Kidneys or bladder, and Spanish fties. 

_ Treatment. — U it has arisen from a fad or bruise, 
give freely of composition and slippprv elm, equal parts, 
and administer ihe vapor baih and an injection, Ifihe 
hemoerhajre is profu.ve and dangerous, pin the patient's 
feet in hot water, and apply the steam, at the same time 
givino^ tincture of lobelia, and cayenne until sickness or 
Cferj vomi-.insr is produced ; and al>o a tea of juniac, 
cocosh or b?lh roof, with «ome nncilap-e, as slippery elm, 
or gum arable. If it arises from stone or gravel, th« 
cause tnu5i be removed : See that disease. 



-00- 



UTERINE HEMOERRHAGE. 

When the monthly evacjaiion of females occurs of- 
tener, or in greater qaoniiiy than natural, it frequently 
occasif>ns extreme debility. 

Symptoms. — In the robust, if is attended with head- 
ache, dizziness, pain in the hack and loins, symptoms of 
fever. In the debiliiaied, it is attended with paler.esg 
of the countenance, la.viiy of the muscles, easv fatigue, 
coldness of the exiremiiies, pains in the back on re- 
maining some time in one posture, indigestion, and ner- 
vousness. 

Causes. — Violent expr<^ise of d.nncinir or walklnjr, brui- 
ses, vjolent passions of ni ind. light lacinjr, application 
of cold to the feet, excessive venery, abortions, indo- 
lence, despondency, low diet, lea and coffee, close waria 
room?', schirrus, cancer, and polvpi. 

Treaijmnt. — Previous to the turiis, ihe patient ihould 



184 UTERINE HEMCERRHAGES, 

take a dose of composition and stomach pills 2 orStimps 
a day ; nnd make a frequent use of the vapor bath, fol- 
Joived by a wash of salt and vinegar and water with 
brisk ruhbinnf. If there are febrile symptoms, give a 
course of medicine. During the flow, a tea of sumac, rasp- 
berry, or beth root may be used, with frequent astringent 
and stimulating injections, per anum. When the flow 
has ceased the patient should take a dose of female restO' 
raiioe 3 or 4 times a day. 

If the hemoerrhage arises from cancer or the like, take 
freely of the antiscorbutic syrup, and the bile pills. 11 from 
polypi, they should be removed if possible. In either 
case, astrinoent and healing injections will prove highly 
useful, applied directly to the affected parts. 

FLOODING, is another species of uterine hemoerrhage, 
which generally takes place in some degree after partu- 
rition; and sometimes to such an extent as to bedanoeious. 
This is a flow of pure blood, and may be distinguished, in 
any case from the meustrual flux, by its quality of coagu- 
lating, which the menses have not. 

Treatment. — Profuse flooding should be immediately 
stopped by putting the patient in a recumbent pojture, give 
a dose of composition with a tenspoonful of the tincture of 
lobelia, put steaming stones to the leet ; and let the patient 
drink freely of a lea of cocash ; or some other a.stringent 
ifthat cannot be had. The case is rare where this will 
not be effcciua! ; but if not, increase the quantity of lobelia, 
and give an enema of witch hazle or cranes bill, weU 
strained, per vagina. 

TURN OF LIFE.— The habitual evacuation of fe- 
males begin to cease between tne 45th and 50th year, when 
they become irregular — often painful, profuse, and attend- 
ed with various derangements of the general system, con- 
stituting a very critical ptriod in their lives. 

Treatment. — The vapor bath and the salt and vineffar 
wash, are valuable remedies in this case. Emetics,"or 
courses of medicine may also be- occassionally required ; 
followed by tonics, nourishing diet and exercise. The 
bowels should be kept open with injections and an apa- 
rient diet, such as indian corn and unbolted wheat. In 
l>ad cases, injectiool, per vag^i&a, of witch hazle, cranss- 



UTERINE HEMCERRHAGES. 1S5 

bill, or beth root, should be used ; and a strong- tea of 
raspberry used for a constant drink ; with a regular dose 
of stomach pills. 2 or 3 times a day washed down with 
the female restorative, or composition. The unicorn 
(Helonias dioicin) is justly celobraied in female weak- 
ness; we have known it produce most surprising and 
agreeable effects ;— it is contained in the female re- 
storative. ' 

Regimen. — The best means of curingr an immoderate 
flow of menses is by adopiiofr such habits as will estab- 
lish the general strength and regularity of the system. 
The diet should be nourishing — easily digested — taken 
in temperate quantity, and at regular hours. Tea and 
coffee should be rarely used. The patient should be 
much in the open air, bathe frequently and take consid- 
erable daily exercise, either in vvalking, or riding on 
horse back; and avoid exciiertic-nts that produce a de- 
terminal ion of blood to the uterus. The same regimen 
will greallv prevent the danges of parturition. 

Example. — We were opce calkd to attend a lady in 
Pownal, Vt., who was attacked with a severe Uterine 
Hemoerrhage about the cessation of the menses ; and had 
been attended by Dr. Morgan, of the same town. We 
founti her in a complete state of exhaustion from the great 
loss of blood ; so weak as to be unable to speak ; and some 
one constantly fanning her, or holding some reviving vapor 
to her nose. The regular had bled her ; given antimony, 
James' powders, and salts ; ordered cold applications to the 
bowels, thin cl'jthing and water gruel for nourishment. — 
We at once resolved to reverse his whole process, fn- 
stead of his cooling treatment, we put warm fomenta- 
tions upon the bowels, increased the bedding and warmed 
the room. Instead of hi< cooling cathartics, we gave an 
emoiic and stimulating injections. Instead of bleedmg. we 
produced sweating. Instead of mineral stypics, we used 
vegetable astringents, particularly crane's bill and witch- 
hazle combined, with tincture of myrrh, by injections, 
and also for a drink. Instead of water gruel, we gav i 
milk porridge. And instead of the patient's constantly 
sinking under the treatment, in four hours she could talk. 



186 UTERINE HEMCERRHAGES. 

itud afterward rapidly recovered ; has since had an attack, 
but by the same simple means, relieved herself ; and novr 
bids defiance to the regulars. 

For Hemoerrhages from wounds, see Cuts and Bruises. 



CHAP. VI. 

CONGESTIONS. 



CONGESTION IN GENERAL. 

This kind of affection is probably the sioiplest form 
of disease that exists ; although often highly dangerous. 
It consists in nothing but weakness — deficiency of ac- 
tion — or want of tone in the vessels to propel the blood 
to the surface , consequently there are central collec- 
tions of blood, varying according^ to the circumstances 
of the patient ; — sometimes in the general venous sys- 
tem — sometimes in the bead — or in the lungs and heart 
— or in the liver and spleen. In fatal cases, these are 
attended with an effusion of serum and sometimes of 
blood into the organ concerned. This affection frequent- 
ly forms the most striking symptom in the bilious fevers 
of the Western and Southern States; and is then cal- 
led congestive fever. It seems that all fevers are pre- 
ceded by some degree of congestion ; at\d the state of 
fever, or excitement, is the effort of Nature that succeeds 
that stage. Where there is not vigor enou^'h in the 
body to produce this excitement, an intelligent regular 
recommends the administration of stimulants internally, 
and the application of heat externally— a Thomsonian 



188 CONGESTION IX GENERAL. 

ireatment — However, he considers that congestion is an 
exception to all other diseases. — But why aid nature to 
produce an excitement, and then turn about and attempt 
lo repress it — why apply the aniiplilogistic treatment — 
Here we discover the opening of the path where the 
regulars have mistaken iheii fatal way. The course in 
which Nature begins is the onward vvay for us lo pur- 
sue. 

Symptoms of congestion will be found in the preced- 
ing sections. 

Causes. — The most common is a long application of 
cold to the body j which presents it in its simplest form ; 
also, excessive evacuations, loss of blood, fear, anger, 
sedative poisons, miasma, cholera morbus, parturition, 
drunkeness, overeating, falls and bruises, and any de- 
pressing agent — Children, and old people are the most 
liable to congestions. 



-00- 



APOPLEXY. 

This is a congestion in the hend. 

Symptoms. — Sudden suspension of sensibility and mo- 
lion of the limbs, someliiries falling down, pulj:e small at 
first, slow and full afterward, laborous breathing, and 
often snoring. It is often preceded by dizziness, ring- 
ing in the ears, dimness of sight, pain and heaviness in 
the head, numbness of some of the limbs, and difficulty 
of speech. 

Favorable. — The power of speaking and noticing 
surrounding objects, spasm, fevpr, nose bleed, and o- 
ther critical evacuations, partitularly warm sweating. — 
It does not alw»ys prove fatal on the first or second at- 
tack. Sometimes, they recover entirely, and some- 
times, palsy of some part and loss of memory foUovvs it. 
Fever often oucceeds. 

Unfavorable. — Perfect stupor resembling a deep 
heavy sleep, from which the patient cannot be aroused, 
<he pulse becoming small, quick and irregular, much 



APOPLEXY. 188 

coldness of the extremities, and interuptod breethine* 

They seldom live through the third attack. 

Causes.— U\gh living-, too full eating of animal, and 
greasy food, use of wine and spirits, stooping, sedentary 
habits, strong tea and coffee, exposure of Ihe head to 
the sun, extreme cold, violent passions, suppressed e- 
vacuations, translation of gout, and miermittent fevers. 
Excessive loss of blood, and profuse evacuations have 
al*o produced it. Ii generally occurs in people of a 
short, thick staure, fleshy constitution, large heads and 
sanguine temperament ; in whom there is often a hered- 
itary predi-sposition to it. 

Regular Treq.tment. — Very copious bleeding, leeching 
and cupping: See Martinet. In serous apoplexy the 
use of bleeding is doubtful. See Thomas. Bleeding 
will actually cause apoplexy. Sec Marshall Hall. 

Natural Ireatment. — If the patient is natrally sub- 
ject to this affection, ahd feels the premonitory symp- 
toms, the adoption of a very light diet, a course of med- 
cine, an emetic, or a vapor bath, will be likely to prevent 
an attack. When it occurs so violently ihat the patient 
cannot swallow, injections, made strong with cayenne 
and third preparatiori should be given, and often re- 
peated ; elevate the head and cover it with a cloth wet 
in vinnegar ; bathe the feet in hot water, rub them thor- 
oughly with cayenne and vinnegar, No. 6, or stimula- 
ting linament ; then put steaming stones to them and to 
the sides and sret the patient into a perspiratio.t as soon 
as possible. Whenever the pati?nt can swallow, give 
a teaspoonful of 3d preparation in a strong tea of com- 
position or cayenne, every ten minutes until active vom- 
iting is produced. Then give freely of composition, 
nerve powder, and white root ; two or three stomach 
pills every hour ; and with the steaming stone, keep up 
a copious and long-continued perspiration. Injections, 
containing cayenne and lobelia, should in no case be o- 
milted, as they possess the hii»hest value in all deter- 
minations to the head. If injections do not suffii'ient- 
ly move the bowels, a dose of castor oil, or some other 
suitable cathartic may be administered ; taking care to 
keep up a determination to the surface. If the pat:em 



190 APOPLEXY. 

becomes convalescent, give several courses of medicine. 
It is best to give the medicine in but little fluid. 

Regimen. — Rice, or Indian pudding, or some other 
very light diet that does not contain much fluid, should 
be used while the attack iasis. A person who has recov- 
ered from this malady, should ever after use but little 
animal food ; avoid full eating, and late suppers ; re- 
nounce tea and coffee ; and take frequent exercise. 

Example. — Since commencing this article we were 
called to attend a Mrs. W" — in her third attack of apo- 
plexy- The symptoms were very discouraging, and we 
nearlv dispaired of her restoration ; but fortunately the 
family were thorough Thomsonians, and faithful/y car- 
ried out our prescriptions, giving her thorough and long 
continued steaming; with emetics, injections, &c. — 
The result is that in one week she is restored to a de- 
gree that surprises even a steam doctor. Steaming ia 
this case is a thousand times better than bleedino'. 



-00- 



FAIV'TING. 

This difficulty is attended with both a loss of ner- 
vous action, and a general congestion of blood upon the 
centre of the system. 

Symptoms. — Commencing with anxietv about th« 
chest, swimming of the head, weakness. darkness before 
the eves ; followed by a sudden loss of sensibility and 
motion, cessation of the pulse, and of breathing. 

Causes. — Violent emotions, injuries, loss of blood, af- 
fections of the heart, <^c. 

Treatment.— SprwkUng cold water upon the face and 
breast is a very common and successful remedy. Com- 
position, No. 6, camphor and smelling salts are also 
very servicable. In bad cases, thp 3rd preparation mav 
be ^iven. If a person feels a fainting fit approaching, 
he should throw himself upon his back and it will al- 
most invariably prevent it. If the affection has arisen 



SUSPENDED ANIMATION. 191 

from debility, some bitter tonic, and a restorative regi- 
men should be used. 



-00- 



SUSPENDED ANIMATION. 

In most cases of death the blood gradually leaves the 
cappillaries, and returns into the large veins, for some 
hours after life has become extinct. This is to some 
extent the case in all kinds of suspended animation ; 
and is a most important idea to be borne in mind by 
those who attempt the resuscitation of life. 

DKOWNING. — Persons who have not been under 
water over 15 minutes, may often be restored to life; 
and even some after a half an hour and upwards. 

Symptoms. — Apparent death, purple or blue color of 
the face and neck, and bloating of the bowels, are the 
most remarkable. 

Favorable. — Some degree of warmth and relaxation, 
convulsive starting of the muscles of the face, or feet, 
spasmod/c shiverings, &c. 

Unfavorable. — Livid, and dark brown spots on the 
face, glassy appearance of the eye, flaccid state of the 
skin and perfect coldness of the body. But the only 
hopeless signs, are actual putrefaction and long and 
repeated efforts to restore life without effect. 

Treatment. — Take the patient carefully oui of the 
water, strip off his wet clothes ; wipe him dry, and if 
possible, put him in a warm bed, with his head eleva 
and cover him with blankets; give a leaspootsf 
preparation, or if not at hand a tea of cayenne 
belia; and repeat every 10 minuu-s o scir - b "/ 
limes; give in an injection a strone infusio'^ •■■ 
and a table spoonful of 3rd preparation. ■■ 
eral times. While these things are cloin:j : -ifii- 
stones be prepared and put to his feei ano - ' - 
great care must be taken to apply th b-: 
ately at first; gradually increa.siog it. R ■ 
stream must not be raised above the fountain, o. v. ...i- 
wi^e, the tideof life cannot f!ovv. With this in view, 



1^2 SUSPENDED ANIMATION 

let some one keep his hands beneath the bed clothes to reg- 
ulate the heat. At the same time, let some one take a 
piece of flannel, wet with cayenne and vinegar, and brisk- 
ly rub his feet, legs, hands, and arms ; keeping them cov- 
ered with the bedding. And also let another inflate his 
lungs by blowing into his nostrils,and then gently press the 
air out of the chest ; and repeating, so as to produce an ar- 
tificial respiration. A tube fitted into one nostnl, while 
the other is held tight, may be used. Sneezing may be 
excited by introducing into the nostrils, a little bayberry 
on a feather. The soles of the feet may also be struck with 
the palm of the hand; and gentle shocks of galvinism or 
electricity be applied by those who understand them. — 
When the patient can swallow, give a little nourishing 
soup, well seasoned with cayenne. 

Suffocation. — This too often occurs by breathing car- 
bonic acid, generated by burning coals in tight rooms ; or 
from the limestone in wells, mines and lime kilns; or 
from fementation, in brewries and cellars. 

Symptoms very similar to drowning. 

Treatment. — Never descend into a well, or other place, 
to rescue a person suffocated with this gas, until cold water 
has been freely dashed upon him from above ; this will not 
only arouse the nervous power of the patient, and give his 
central heat a predominance, but it will carry down pure 
air, and enable others lo descend in safety. When he is 
taken out, let the treatment for drowning be applied. No 
one should enter a place suspected to contain carbonic, with- 
out first sending forward a lighted candle; if it burns bright- 
ly, It may be followed with safety. 

LIGHTNING — The safest place for a person durino- 
a thnnderjitorm, is in the centre of a room, and remote from 
metalic conductors ; wetting the floor around the borders, 
will also add very much to safety. A feather bed is also 
thought very safe ; but it should not be in contact with the 
walls. Many people suffer much from the fear of light- 
ning when there is no danger. It always strikes where 
it rains the hardest ; and therefore often follows a certain 
range. If there is a long interval between the flash and 
report, the striking point is at a distance ; if it approaches 



SUSPENDED ANIMATION. 193 

near, and in your direction, then precaution will be pru- 
dent. ^ 

Symptoms.— Apparent death by a stroke of lightnino-, 
is characterized by a rigidity of the muscles, and va- 
rious spots caused by the fluid. 

Treatment. — Dashing cold water over the body is the 
best means that has ever been discovered. But 3rd 
preparation should be administered at the same time ; 
with injections of nerve powder, cayenne, and lobelia. 
When resuscitated, give a course of medicine. 

FALLS AND BLOWS.— Suspended animation 
from these causes, is the last resort from which the 
faculty attempt to draw an excuse for bleeding. But 
their best authors disapprove it, until a reaction is pro- 
duced in the system ; and most certamly, after that, as 
Thomson says, "there is a better way to start the blood. 

We have heard of a well attested case of this 
kind, where a regular could not get blood, until a Thom- 
sonian friend kad administered some No, 6. 

Treat7nent.^— Very much the same as in drowning ; 
excepting that the surface may be bathed with weak 
ley and cayenne. 

HANGING. — Treatment. — Very similar to the pre- 
ceding, excepting that cold fresh butter milk may be 
applied to the head and neck, and heat or steam to 
the lower extremities. 

EXTREME COLT).— Treatment.— Give freely of 
3rd preparation and cayenne, both ways. Rub the 
limbs briskly with snow or cold water ; then with weak 
ley and cayenne ; then with warm vinegar and cay- 
enne; at the same time continuing to administer stim- 
ulants internally ; at length gradually apply the vapor 
bath, and give a course of medicine. 



CHAP. VII. 

OBSTRUCTIONS.-Acute. 

STRANGURY. 

Symptoms.— Ffpquenl inclinaiion to make wator;— 

aiirnded wiili Miiaitin? pain, hrai, nnd difficulty in voi* 

dine It — and ^o^letillle8, rompleie retention of urine, 

wiih exirfuie pain and swelling of the bladder. It u 

'seldom ait»»ndeil with dnnppr. 

Causes. — IiiflrfniniHtion of ihe ur»ihra.svphillis — ulcer 
of the pro!'tr;i!o eland— infl imnriiition of «he bladder, or 
kidniea— -blisters of spani>h flies — cpiriiuoiis liquors— 
nnd parfirles of gravel in iht- bladder and ureiha. If it 
is riu^ed by Mnne or gravel in ibe kidney or ureter— 
arine pains in ihe loins, with nausea nnd vomiting.— 
If in (he bladder or urethra — p»in will be felt at the end 
of the penis, after urinating ; and the stream of water 
will be divided or ttvi^'led. If from diseased prn.Mirate 
ernnd— an indolent tumor will be found in the perin* 
ium. 

Trtatment —In this disease, in it? mild forms we may 
rely principally upon diuretics. The patient tihould 
mnke a free use of rkavrrs, queen of the meadow, and 
juniper berries. A strong decoclioti ('f the above arti- 
cles may be tl^ed several times a diy; losieiher with 
composition or v«pice bitters. A tea of the honev bee 
arts like a ch«rm in strangury. The cough balsam is 
highly beneficial in this cas*. If the attack !>hould be 
eevere, and accompanied with much inflammat'on, a 
thorough course of medicine Khniild be giren ; the in* 
jrction» to be made of snap M)da> or Halscntus water, 
and a large portion of lobelia. Frrqueni steamines with 
the hip bath should be used. If i here be much pain, 
the back and bowels mar hk rubbed with liniment, and 
foraented with aoitrt weed. A common driok of tb» 



STRANGURT. IfS 

mucilage of sl'pperv elm. or pum arabic. should be us«d. 
SUPPRESSION OF URINE 

This" is an in;ibilii;' of the kidnies in excrete the u» 
rit;p ; and is <»fi»'n nii»taken for strani?urv. 

SwiPTDMi — ReNi|»*sness, head arh^*, nausea, fever, 
p^iiii^ ill tht> hiick, and vvhit little urine i* voided. pro> 
diice'* a hnrninur '»r sr^ldinaf sensation. At len<Tfh the 
p<»r-5oira'ion sinelis of urine ; and soiiictimes &tupor, de* 
liri Mu. riinvi>l''i »n?. and deiith is the re«ijlt. 

Causes. — Infl tinm t'ion nf ihM k;d'ii«»-», «0T'isH fli<»s, 
mprcury, an 1 gravel in thp ki Inies. In feiniles it is some- 
times caused by taking colJ at the time of the m.nstrual 
fljvv. V 

T/fo/we^/.—UiJlpss thi* affection be slight, anl yields 
readily n diirptics. full an I ippvated coiiss of medicine 
should b^ TiministrcJ Thp !Tpn>ni principles of the 
treatm'>nt sho-il I b'^ very mich th • sime as in Stran^^ury. 
In th^ s^ippression that occurs in the dropsy that succeeds 
the scarlet fpv^•r, the honey b-^e has been used with good 
success. It is favorably spok ^n of by Worthy an I Hearsy, 
Thomsonian M. D's., but let it be well proved before it is 
adopted among Thomsonians. 



00 ■ 

SUPPRESSION OF MENSES. Jf 

Symptoms. — Non appearance of the discharge at tS 
wonted time ; or sad len stoppage alter it has commenc^ 
accemptnied with chills, fever, head-ache, loss of appetite, 
ten! 'rn"ss in the region of the uterus, anl pain in the loms, 
b:ok an I limbs. If it continues sometime, hernoerrhage is 
apt to tdke place from the nos3 or lungs. 

Causes —Careless w.-tting of the feet, putting on damp, 
orthinclothmg, anl oih-r exposures to cold, especially 
da ing the fljvv. Also, fear, disappomtment, pulmonary 
con Mimpiion. and other causes of weakness. 

A species called PAivroL mp.n-truation, attended with 
a scanty di.-charge, falsa membrane, and bearmg down 
pains, iJ cans id by abortion, ani other vioUtions, cominoa 
to very artificial life 



196 SUPPRESSION OF MENSES 

When the menses do not appear at the proper time oi 
life ; or have been long suppressed it is called a retention 
OF MENSES. — See Chlorosis. 

Treatment. — In recent cases, but little more is required, 
than bathing the feet at night in hot water ; or using the 
hip bath, and drinking freely of composition and No. 
6 ; and using the spice bitters through the day. If the 
patient is not relieved by this, a thorough course of medi- 
cine should be given and repeated once or twice a week ; 
bathing the feet at night, and taking composition and 
nerve powder during the day. For a specific, take black 
cohosh, balmony, golden seal, quassia wood, and myrrh, 
equal parts; of this 2 oz. may be steeped in a quart of 
Avater ; strain, and add a pint of brandy and sugar to make 
it palatable. Dose, a wine glass full, irom. 3 to 5 time^ a 
day. A strengthening plaster may be worn upon the 
back. 

Regimen. — Cheerful exercise alone will cure many 
cases and is the greatest preventive known. 

00 



COMMON COLD. 

This is at first simply an obstruction of the perspiration ; 
but it is often followed by a sympathetic obstruction of the 
i«|cous membrane of the lungs,and other secreting organs; 
t^Ki various derangements of the weakest parts of the sys- 
t^m thus becoming the exciting cause of nearly all "the 
ilTlrto which flesh is heir." 

Regular Treatment. — Where 1 

Natural Treatment. — In this every person should be 
wholly and faithfully his own physician. When any one 
discovers, that they have taken cold, they should go at 
once and take /tec?.— Drink freely of composition, or cay- 
enne, if not at hand, peppermint herb, pennyroyal,'or some 
other stimulating medicine ; — then take the vapor bath, and 
bathe the feet, or take an old fashioned sweat ; and if nec- 
essary an emetic of lobelia, boneset, or blue vervain. If a 
cough attends, the cough powder, or some mild expecto- 
rant may be used ; but do not doctor alone for that, in that 



COMMON COLD ^97 

way ; lor the original difficulty is in the skin, and to that 
must the main cure be applied. With those who will be 
about the whole, or part of the above prescription should 
be applied every evening, until welf; rememberino- to 
steam thoroughly, sleep warmly, and be careful the next 
day. It costs far more care to cure a cold, than careless- 
ness to take one. Any person, by a little observation, may 
know by their feelings, when they contract disease in this 

way ; and therefore, know how and when to avoid it. 

"An ounce of preventive is worth a pound of cure."— TAom- 



son. 



00 

CROUP. 

This is an affection of the wind pipe and broncial 
tubes. 

Symptoms. — It mostly attacks children, often commen- 
cing suddenly, with a spasmodic cough, and great diffi- 
culty of breathing. The voice and cough has a peculiar 
ringing, or brazen sound ; and the breaching is often at- 
tended by a sonorous noise compared to the crowing of 
a cock. Sometimes it comes on more gradually ; and 
has premonatory symptoms, such as drowsiness, fretful- 
ness, watery and heavy eyes, and some degree of a 
shrill cough. It occassionally arises m the course of 
measles and scarlet fever. 

Favsrable. — Cessation of the inflammation, breath- 
ing becoming easier, free expectoration of matter from 
the trachea, and raising of the membrane formed there. 

Unfavorable. — Much difficulty of breathing, great 
anxiety, violent fever, frequent coughing, no expectora- 
tion, livid countenance, and weak and irregular pulse. 

Cause. — Exposure to cold. The more immediate 
cause, is inflammation of the windpipe and its branches, 
followed by an exudation of lymph, which lines it with 
a false membrane, and produces suflbcation. This ob- 
structing substance is the most remarkable feature of 
the disease. 

Regular Treatment. — The following is the testimo- 



|98 CROUP. 

ny of Dr. J. Andrews, of VV«llin^ford, Conn. 'Th* 

CPtiio preViilled (>;ijil*'iiijriillv Hi W.illiri.lnrd inlll^^VOJir 

1775. Mv r.i'.hfr iintl Dr. Poller weie ihe phy>iriiin.«, 
sum! it is b»*liev«-d n"» a rliild recoveit'd. for ihey b«- 
lifvpd it iiirur.ihlp. Am old livitjij ■•hrouicle has civrn 
Mi«* 'lie naiiif> uf ihc (iinnlies who horied 16 rliildren 
who dtfd wiih it in ihiii year. The course ot pr«iMice 
pursued, was «o i.'iv*' eutetics, c«loiiiel in repe.i'*"'' diMPt, 
with . I free Use of^en^kn and blsiets. In 1801 it »• 
gain bet'Hiiip rpideniic. For lh^ first 3 th<tt I itten ied,( 
prrscribrd the abore freainient ; and ihev died I uf* 
lerwards iejirned the use of blood root and cured several 
with this qlone. But in one cas,; -f<nind it would not 
produre the desired effect wihout st-neka and the usual 
remeflies. The patients skin was «lrv (I Un<\ observed 
in ininv cases, where there wa* a free perspiration, that 
the breHihini; was much more easy, thaiT wh^n 'h** skin 
wasdrv) I then adopted m?asur»'s to produce a frre 
pHr.spirHiion ; and no .soont-r was this effecietl, <han loud 
raitliiig,hrHaihinj: ciine on ; I th^n t> peaied the eiiieiic 
of blond mot with the desiretj »«urce.ss ; larjje q-iantilies 
of viscid pliejin, with blouiy inattrr, and portions of 
false inein''rii(«e were thr'iwn up, and the patient recoT. 
er^d. Aftf r thif Tadopted the wariri bath, steam and 
o'ber swf-atinj; methods. And from that time there were 
80 ca>e? in my nei2hhorho(»d, and but one proved fatal ; 
and that wa« not attended until the fourtS riav. vvhen 
fiio hi^v.'—Medicai Rtpotitory Vol. Vlll Ji'o. 3, Nm 
Her its. 

H»*re wp ttfe. that bv theirfdd treatment, the Rpjju- 
l. r^ lo>t all i but bv iu\op*in,f nearly a Thoini<onian prac* 
tice tliey lost, in reality, »one. 

In view of ihe^e firiM, liow Hhred Hie Regulars, 
Ibrotigh their or'.'ans mi the Leifi-laiure of Nrw Y<'ik, 
pronounce the Ttiomsonians, " ignorant quacks ;" not 
onlv 50 but prohibited them from collecting iheir pay by 
Irtw : ye^ more, fined cheni for pncticine at all. 

One of tliPPe fines was actually eXf-cuted upon a «0R 
of Samuel *l homson ; whiV another of his sons wa» 
three Mmes prosecuted for murder or maPfclaughter ; be- 
ing for tbt only tbr«« pali^aii h» lost in tbrto yean.«-» 



CKOUF 119 

O, Shame t it it lime thj emblem w ti m braien atatue 
iVa/ura/ Treatment.— VJh*n this disease k taken in 
season but little ii:ore is required than a cofnmon coursr 
of iiiedicide ; keeping up for sometime afit- r. a free 
perspiration. But when it has continued a leniith of 
time, and the false nifnibrane is extensively foimed and 
attached ; or if the atiark be very violent, a ttiuiongh 
emelic, composed of brown lobelia 2 p;tris, and blood 
root 1, should be civen and repeated ev ry 2 hour* ; to- 
gether with iiijecjionsof lobelia, sevenii times repeated, 
wiih the design of producing |-rosiration. A repetition 
of tlie vapor batn should iii.ide evt^ry 4 or 6 iiours:, ac« 
cordintTio the d^^gr^e of the dis^a^e, supporiinir the in- 
ternal t.eal nt the ^anle linie wnh con po.-iiion or CiiV 
enne ; and in the .nierviils ketpinij up a pet'^piraium 
with sieatr.ing si, met*. The ihio>i:. nerk and l.re,i>t 
should he frequently haihed with litiiuieiii ; t.|ieu\ard, 
applsinga poulii.-e made of lobelia, c.tyemte. triii|i;er, 
sli|)pery eini.aiid s;ilt, and inoijiened wiih weJk lev and 
applied as vvarin a< the piiiient cm be.ir. T'le ab.ive 
tieaim-nt, persevered in. \ve have never known to fiil 
of proiluci'ii; iininediate relief. 

KxAMPLE. — We vffTf Ciilled, ahotii a venrKio e. to ai. 
lend upon a child wi'h this cnutplaiin. who had been 
undef2oin<» a preiiy thorousjh Ttioin^onian ireaiuieiii for 
24 hour;*, biji \*iihou» p°iinannit relief; we found the 
patient in iinmiuent daiitrer, hut the fimilv haviu.^ the 
ntiito.'tt coiifiifence in our (ne<licinfs. aduiini.>t<'red hin»vn 
lobelia by iijeciions until pro>iraii<in wai* iTodmed fo- 
lowed bys'eariiinc ; in 4 huuis th^ chill voniiied, threw 
up (he faite ineinbrane and rapidly recovered^ 



en A p. VIII. 

POISONS. 

MINERAL POISONS. 

AKST:mc.— Symptoms. — Pricking, burning sensation in 
the stomach, sudden and excrutiating pain in the bowels, 
severe vomiting, sharp taste in the mouth, tongue and 
throat parched, anxiety and restlessness, thirst, heat and 
pain at the pit of the stomach, black offensive stools, small 
pulse, breathing diflicult, irregular palpitations, delirium, 
convulsions of the epileptic type, and death. Introduced 
into the system more gradually, it produces irritation of 
the stomach, swelling and stiffness of the eyelids, itching 
over the surface, soreness of the gums, and head-ache ; af- 
terward diminution of cappillary action, paleness and gen- 
eral debility. 

OccAssioNs. — Ratsbane taken by accident, carelessness 
of druggists. Fowler's solution, and other regular prescrip- 
tions, rust of german silver, French and Scheele's green of 
the painters, and malicious intention. 

Tests. — Arsenic, when laid on burning charcoal ex- 
hales the odor of garlics. The dried powder of any sus- 
pected substance, or liquid, from the stomach or elsewhere, 
may be reduced to the metallie form, as follows: Mix the 
powder with equal parts of fine charcoal and potash ; put 
it into a glass tube open only at one end, close the other 
loosely, and expose the closed end to a gradual heat. The 
arsenic will rise and line the upper end of the tube with a 
brilliant coating. Or put of the suspected substance into a 
solution of pearlash; after standing an hour or two, put in- 
to it a solution of blue vitriol; this will produce a bright 
green sohition and precipitate. 



MINERAL POISONS 201 

Treatment. — An Qmetic oi^^rd preparation as soon as 
possible, washed down with the strongest astringents and 
injections of the same ; both faithfully and largely repeat-i 
ed, and accompanied with large draughts of molasses and 
water, with composition and nerve powder. Lime water 
prepared chalk, or salaeratus may be used with advantao-e. 
As soon as the stomach is sufficiently cleansed, slippery 
elm or linseed tea should be used. Steaming should be 
omitted until the alimentary canal is cleansed ; but if the 
limbs are cold rub them with viiaegar and cayenne. Alka- 
lies are thought very servicable in mineral poisons. Use 
astringents freely in all internal poisons ; and cathartics 
when done with emetics. 

Antimony. — Symptoms. — Copious and obstinate vom- 
iting, abundant stools, constriction of the throat, cramps, 
appearances of intoxication, prostration of strength, other 
symptoms of corrosive poisons, convulsions, and death. — 
Externally applied, it produces ulceration. 

Occassions. — Tartar emetic, James' powder, antimonial 
wine, glass of antimony, with other prescriptions of the 
regulars, and Printers' type. 

Tests. — Sulphuric acid, or lime water, put into a solu- 
tion of tartrate of antimony, occasions a white precipi- 
tate ; an infusion of nut galls, a copious yellowish white 
precipitate. All the preparations of antimony are readily 
reduced to the metallic state by calcination with charcoal 
and potash. 

Treatment. — Give emetics of lobelia, with a strong de- 
coction of cranesbill, witchhazle, or gall nuts ; these are a 
chemical antidote to antimony ; also the same by injections, 
together with mucilaginous drinks, stimulants and nerve 
powder . 

Copper. — Symptoms. — Acrid coppery taste in the 
mouth, tongue parched, constriction of the throat, severe 
vomitings, or fruitless efforts to vomit, dragging at the 
stomach, dreadful colic, bloody stools, abdomen distended, 
small quick pulse, fainting, thirst, cold sweats, convulsions 
and death. 

Occasions. — Blue vitriol, verdigris, food cooked in cop- 
per or brass vessels, pickles made green with copper, brass 
cocks in beer and wine casks, &c. 



202 MINERAL DISEASE. 

Tests, — The salts of copper are mostly of a bright greeo 
or blue color ; and are easily reduced to their metallic 
state by means of chaicoal at an elevated temperature. — 
Ammonia in sufficient quantity, will turn any coppery so- 
lution blue. 

Treat mail. — Emetics and injections of 3rd preparation; 
followed by large draughts of water and whites of eggs, 
well sweetened. Also stimulants and nerve powder; and 
if the extremities are cold, rub them with cayenne and 
vinegar. 

Lead — Symptoms. — When taken in large quantities, 
a sugary, astringent, metallic taste in the mouth, constric- 
tion of the throat, pain in the region of the stomach, ob- 
stinate, painful, and often bloody vomiting, hiccup, convul- 
sions and death. When taken gradually, it produces, 
emaciation, painter's, or Devonshire colic, and palsy. 

Occasions. — Sugar of lead, used for a styptic — diacu- 
lum or lead plaster, white lead upon chafes and sores — 
painting with white lead — some kinds of water coming 
through lead pipe — wine sweetened with lead — glazing 
of earthen ware &c. 

Tests. — All preparations of lead are easily reduced to 
the metallic slate by heat. Sugar of lead has a sharp 
sweet (aste. To test wine adulterated with lead, mix 
equal weights of lime and sulphi;r, expose to a red 
heat in a covered crucible , lake 16 grains of this, 20 of 
cream of tartar, put into a small via), fill with water, 
ajid keep it tightly clo.sed. This liquid will produce a 
black precipitate from liquids that contain lead. 

Treat rncnt .— Give thorough courses of medicine. In- 
jections should be freely used, and if the bowels are 
much obstructed some active cartharlic should also be 
employed. It is said that both s-ulphuric acid, and glau- 
ber salts (sulphate of soda) will decompose the salts of 
lead in the system, and render them inert. Let it not 
be supposed that these article.-? are opposed ta a natural 
practize; for they contain nothing that is not found in 
the uhimate elements of the human body, and are not 
radically poisonous ; besides, to arrest a deadly chemi- 
cal agent in the body, it is not absurd to use some more 
mild chemical substance, as a counter agent. 



MINERAL DISEASE. 203 

Mercury. — Sym-ptoms of corrosive sublimate — a- 
crid metalic taste — ihirst — fullness and burning in the 
throat — pains in the siontjach and bcwels—vomiiing-, 
sometimes bloody — strangurv — pulse, quick, small and 
hard, fainting, or cramps, difficult breathing— cold sweats 
— and death. When it effects the system gradually or 
in smaller quantity, the above symptoms may not all 
nppear, but then is added — salivation, and sloughing of 
the gums, and-flesh from the face. The oiher prepara- 
tions of mercury are similar ; but calomel is more mild — 
producing purging — salivation — caries of the bones — 
weakness — liver afTpctions — Hypochondria — and a hun- 
dred nameless disordcos. 

Occ.4SioN3. — Corrosive sublimate, calomel, red pre- 
cipitate, blue pill, and unguentum of the regulars. Also 
vermilion paint, wafers colorad with vermilion — silver- 
ing of looking glasses — and various articles whitened 
with quick silver. 

Tests. — Heat volalilizes it very easily and convetts 
it into the meialic form from any of its preprraiions. 

Treatment. — For corrosive sublimate, albumen, or 
the white of eggs, is an excell&nt antidote ; it reduces 
the poison to calomel, and should be used in large quan- 
tity. But besides this, vomiting with lobelia should bs 
excited as soon as possible ; accompanied with mucila- 
gineous drinks. Where the system is impregnated v.'ith 
calomel, frequent and thorough steaming, is the best 
way to remove it. 

Mercurial Diseases. — As humbling as it may ap- 
pear, many of the Regulars have actualy acknowledged 
a class of disease caused by mercury ; such as, "JMercu- 
nal ulcers in mouth," known by large dark looking sores 
in the mouth, horrid smell of the breath, teeth loosened, 
and copery taste; "Mercunial disease," much reiCtn- 
bling syphilis ; this, says a regular author "is now a 
common disease ; and frequently confounded, by medi- 
cal men, with genuine venereal diseases," ; "Mercunial 
erysipelas," characterised by heat, redness, ro'.i£;hness ; 
commenring either on the groin, inside of the thigh, or 
bend of the &xm ; extending over the body, wiih swel- 
ling, soreness, and dreadful itching j the roughness is 



204 MINERAL DISEASE. 

caused by small pustules, which break and corrode the 
skin, so that the patient is almost raw from head to foot ; 
and sometimes occasions the loss of the hair; "Mercu- 
rial erethismus." characterized by cr^at depression of 
strength, sense ofj^aRxiety about the breast, frequent sigh- 
ing, trembling, small quick or intermitting pulse, pale 
contracted countenance and sense of coldnes. (Hooper, 
M. D.) "Salivation," which the regulars often purposely 
produce, known by an excessive flow of spittle (rom the 
mouth, soreness of the gums, looseness of the teeth 
which sometimes drop out, and a disagreeable, and pecu- 
liar sraell of the breath. It appears to be Nature's mode 
of expelling the poison from the system. 

Example. — Mrs. Judge N , was, for 15 years, un- 
der regular treatment for spinal disease, mflamed eyes,&; 
other affections. 8 or 9 years of this time she was con- 
fined to her bed, or a dark room ; sometimes unable to 
speak. Her physicians /lad applied their usual treat- 
ment of minerals, cupping, leeching, and blistering ; 
and in her own language, she had taken blue pills (mer- 
cury in one of its worst forms) by the peck. We found 
her a perfect picture of mercurial disease, extremely 
weak, bloated in the limbs and body, ulceration of the 
throat, gums so decayed that the alveolar processes ex- 
hibited the bare bone in their whole extent ; the mouth 
and lips had a dark purple hue ; and were covered with 
a sort of tubercles. We consented, with reluctance to 
treat the case, after obtaining a promise of perseverance 
on the part of the patient and friends; for we foresaw, 
that to arouse, and remove so much poison from the sys- 
tem, must produce unpleasant and perhaps discouraging 
efTects. We began by giving composition, cayenne, 
nerve powder, and stomach pills ; and every 3 or 4 
days, a course of medicine. But little effect was at first 
produced upon her system, 7 or 8 teaspoonsful of brown 
lobelia beisg required to produce vomiting ; and teas- 
poonful doses of cayenne, seemed to have only an ordi- 
nary effect. After about 3 weeks, active salivation com- 
menced, and for a long time she continued to discharge 
from a pint to a quart a day ; a vessel being constantly 
kept at her raouth. This reduced the bloating, and she 



MINERAL POISONS. 205 

became emaciated in '.he extreme. For aomu time af- 
ter this we continued to prescribe an emetic every dav, 
per enema ; the medicine continued to have a 
more sensible effect, until very small doses would suf- 
fice ; the ulceration healed ; the mouth returned to its 
natural state ; and the salivation gradually subsided. — 
Winding up with the restorative and syrups, she was by 
the 5th month, restored to a comfortable state of health, 
to the surprise of all ; and now superintends her domes- 
tic concerns. 

This is but one of the many cases that have fallen 
under our care, whose constitutions have been ruined, 
and life made a burden by the poisoning faculty ; and 
restored to health by the congenial powers of the Thomso- 
nian remedies. 

Nitre, or saltpetre. — Symptoms. — Heart burn, nau- 
sea, painful vomiting, purging, convulsions, fainting, 
pains in the stomach and bowels, difficulty of breathing, 
a species of intoxication and death. 

OccASsroNs. — Accidentally taking it for salts, and 
the pernicious practice of putting it into beef, povk, and 
butter to preserve them. This custom is severely cen- 
sured by Professor Rafinesque. Thomson, says no min- 
eral produces a more cold effect upon the body, and none 
ia more difficult to eradicate. 

Test—^Sa\t petre, laid on live coals, burns with a yel- 
low dame, somewhat resembling gun-powder, in its ac- 
tion. . 

Treatment. — Courses of medicine are amply sufhcient, 
accompanied with a plentiful use of astringents and stim- 
ulents. 



VEGETABLE POISONS. 

These comprise a larg-e number of vegetables, narcotie 
and irritant. In the first class, are opium, poison hem- 
lock, foxglove, laurel, tobacco, henbane, &c. In the 
last, are ivy, poison sumac, parsnip,, scoke, toBdsloola 
^c. 



206 VEGETABLE POISON. 

Tests. — Plants having 5 stamens (fine threadlike or- 
gans, surrounding the germ, or seed pod) and 1 pistil 
(an organ springing from the germ,) with ffovvers of a 
dnll lurid color, and disagrciihle smell are usually pois- 
onous ; as ll)e thorn apple. The umbiliifrTOUs (having 
clusters of flowers on siems diveri>ing from one point, 
like the brdces of an umbrella) plants, wliich grow in 
wet places, linve usually a nauseous smell, and are pois- 
onous as the water hemlock. Labiate (having flowers 
formed like a tube, and opening with a mouth.) plantij 
containing their seeds in a capsule, are ofiea po son- 
ous ; as the the foxglcve. Also those which contain a 
milky ji'ice, unless compound flowers (composed 
of many little florets, like the dandelion.) Such as have 
horned or hooded nectaries (organs generally containing 
honey) are mostly poisonous. Care, in studying the na- 
ture of plants, and banishing poisonous ones from our 
yards and steels miclit save manv lives. 

Opium. — Symptoms. — When taken in large quantities, 
dizziness, tremors, convulsions, sometimes vomiting, deli- 
rium, stupor, loud breathing, and fatal apoplexy In small- 
er doses, it produces nervous insen-ibility, intoxication, 
spasms, and a variety of uncertain effects. 

Treatment. — Large doses of 3rd preparation, or lobelia 
in some form. In cases of narcotic poisoning, it requires 
5 or 6 times the usual quantity of medicine, supported by 
a cautious, but thorough application of heat or a warm va 
por ; and rubbing the surface briskly with salt vinegar 
and cayenne. Striking the soles of the feet, and dashing 
cold water over the body, have each been found success- 
ful in restoring persons from the stupor of opium. 

Other NARCOTIC poisons. — Syinpfoms^and Treatment, 
the same in general principle as those for opium. 

Ivv ^-c. — Symptoms. — Swelling and scabby errQp- 
tions of the surface. 

Treatment. — The tincture of lobelia, us;d as a wash, 
is probably the most sovereign antidote for these pois- 
ons, known. Full courses of medicine should be given 
in bad cases. Copperas (sulphate of iron) water has a 
decided eflfect, as a wash, in arresting them. 



VEGETABLE POISOxVS. 207 

Oxiitii IRRITATING POISONS. — Symptoms. — Pain, in- 
flammation, ulceration, vomiting &c 

Treatment. — Most of these when taken internallv, 
require vigorous courses of medicine. Acids 'lave form- 
erly been considered ery essential for vegetable poisons, 
and alkalies for those that are min<;ral. 

Essential Oils. — These are sometimes taken in such 
quantity as to destroy life. 

Treatment. — Give alcohol, or fourth proof brandy, suf- 
ficient to cut the oil ; and ut the same lime an emetic. 



-00- 



VENOMOUS BITES. 

Symptoms. — Pain, inflammation and swelling of the 
part bitten ; extending over the body — stagnation and 
putiidity of the blood, hemoerrhages, and various nervous 
phenomena. Sometimes a sudden and easy suspension 
cf all the animal powers. 

Tests. — Serpents which have fangs, or long hooked 
teeth in the upper jaw are poisonous ; as the ratile-snake 
and coppor-head. Those which have several rows of 
even teeth, and lake their prey by twisting around it are 
harmless ; as the black snake and anaconda. 

Treatment. — Since these miifortimes are generally 
encountered remote from medical aid, it is very fortu- 
nate that the most immediate, and e/Tectual cure known, 
is simply the suction of the bitten part by the mouth.— 
if the patient is alone, and cannot reach the wound with 
his mouth, let him rub it with urine or spittle, and then 
wash it faithfully with cold water; squeezing out the 
blood at the same time. The plan of treating veno- 
mous bites by suciion, is very ancient, though but liille 
known. If the mou.h is rinced afterward, it will do no 
harm to the operator, unless he have a sore in his mouth, 
and perhaps not then, ^or the structure of these subtle 
poisons are so fragile that, as it appears, almost any 
chemical age.it, as common salt, or spirit, will decom- 
pose them. Dr. Worthy states thdt lobelia, applied in- 
ternally, and externally has often cured the bite of the 



203 VEGETABLE POISONS. 

rattlenake, and the copperhead, at the South. Spirit of 
hartshorn is a good antidote for animal poisons. 

00 



ACIDS AND ALKALIES. 

These are sometimes taken by accident in such quantity 
as to destroy life. 

Treatment. — The mode of practice in these cases, 
should depend upon the chemical law that adds and alka- 
lies neutralize each other. If a person has swallowed an 
asid, give calcined magnesia, salaeratus, or weak ley • and 
cause vomiting with lobelia. If an alkali, give vine-^ar 
and lobelia. 'too 



-00- 



MILK SICKNESS. 

Symptoms.— Weakness, pain and soreness in the Jeo-s 
disagreeable sickness at the stomach, and tremblinrr "in 
walking. ° 

After a time they increase in violence, attended with 
vomiting, retching, distress and burning sensation in the 
stoniach,costiveness, a peculiarly disagreeable breath, re- 
mitting fever, appearances of inflammation of the brain and 
death. ' 

^^"^^•^This disease, found in several parts of the 
Western States, is caused by eating the flesh, milk, or but- 
ter of cattle that have eaten some poisonous plant. 

Treatment. — Vigorous courses of medicine ; usino- the 
vinegar tincture, and vapor bath freely. Give pepper 
sauce plentifully ; this, in conjunction with lobelia and 
steam, has been very successful. 



-GO- 



CHOLERA MORBUS. 
Symptoms.— Coming on with little warning— com- 



CHOLERA MORBUS. 209 

mencing with nausea oppression at the stomach — and 
griping pains in the bowels ;~-soon followed by excess- 
ive vomiting and purging — prostration — thirst — pur- 
ging of blood, and cold extremities. 

Cause. — This disease is closely allied to poisoning, 
not only in its sudden vomiting and purginn;, but in 
being caused by unripe fruits and vegetables — lurge 
draughts of cold water and other impropper ihin^rs ui the 
stomach. Sometimes the effect does not follow until 
24 ni 48 hours. War.m weather favors its production. 

Trtatmcnt. — Give freely of compositioh, or cayenno 
and bayberry, with an occasional dose of No. 6; followed 
by an emetic, or full course of medicine. Chicken, or 
beef soup is very good to allay the vomiting, and re- 
store the natnral action of the stomach and bowels. — 
It should be remembered that steaming has much in- 
fluence over excessive vomiting. Keep the feet warm 
with steaming stones, bathing in hot waier, or cayenne 
and vinegar. But do not rely to much upon palliatives, 
Give the alimentary canal a thorough cleansing with e- 
metics and injections. Afterward use the dysentery 
syrup, and a careful regimen. A drink made of the 
peppermint herb, with a little soda or saleratus, is an ex- 
cellent remedy, and in mild cases will ure it alone. 



CHAP. IX. 

INJURIES. 



CUTS AND BRUISES. 

Wounds are divided into several classes, as follows ; 

1st. Incised wounds. — made with a knife, or some 
other cutting instrument. When these wounds occur 
without severing an artery of any importance, they should 
be washed with cold or slightly warmed water ; bring- 
ing the edges together, and fastening them there with 
strips of sticking plaster. Afterward, the borders of the 
wound may be bathed with No. 6, tincture of myrrh or 
balm of gilead ; and then firmly bound up with strips of 
linen. If the bleeding does not cease, after closing it 
up, sprinkle the wound with flour of slippery elm. If in- 
fiamation follows, keep it wet with cold water, occa- 
sioniy applying No. 6. 

When an artexy is cut, the blood that flows, is of bright 
scarlet color, and springs out in jets corresponding with 
the beat of the pulse. These frequently require to be 
taken up or tied. But previous to attempting this, an ef- 
fort must be made to stop the blood by other means : 3st 
by positzon, if the wound is on the hand or arm raise it 
above the head ; if it is on the foot or leg, lay the pa- 
tient on the floor, and lift the foot upon a chair ; if it be 
on the body below the heart, elevate the hips above the 
head; or if it be on the body above the heart, let the 
patient sit upright. The object is in all cases to get" 
the wound as high as possible above the source of circu- 
lation. This was introduced by Thomson, and will in 
many cases very nearly stop the bleeding of itself. The 
next means, is compression. If a large artefy be 'cut 



CUTS AND BRUISES. 211 

apon the leg or arm, pass a handkerchief around it a- 
bove the wound, tie it loosely, put a stick between it 
and the limb, and twist it firmly until the blood stops — 
If the wound be too high up for this, press hard upon 
the groin, with the rin^ of a door key, if it be on the 
thigh ; or above the collar bone, about mid way, bear- 
ing downward upon the first rib, if it be on the arm.— 
By these means any person may preserve a patient from 
bleeding to death untill a surgeon arrives ; and a little 
further knowledge may often dispense with him alto- 
gether. 

To tie anarteiy, take a small pointed hook (one may 
be prepared by sharpening- the end of a knitting needle, 
and bending it,) or a pair of forceps of suitable size ; un- 
loose the handkerchief by a few turns of the stick ; the 
flow of the blood will show the place of the artery ; seize 
it with the hook or pinchers; draw it out, and tie it with a 
waxed uncolored thread. The smaller arteries may be 
closed by twisting them. 

To sew wp a wound, for they cannot always be held 
together by sticking plaster, wax together several threads 
of white sewing silk, or uncolored linen, so as to make 
one of sufficient strength, cut it into pieces, of a length 
that may be doubled in the needle and tie easily ; and 
as many as there are stiches to be taken. Then with one, 
arm a common needle, pass the point through the skin 
at a little distance from the edge 'of the wound, and out 
at the same distance on the other side ; cut off the nee- 
dle, thread it again, and take another stitch leaving the 
ends of the ihread loose until all are taken ; finally tie 
them, bringing the edges of the wound evenly together,, 
and taking care to tie the knots on one side 

2nd. Punctured wounds — made with pointed instru- 
ments, and leaving only a small opening. These, although 
sometimes apparently unimportant, are apt to result in 
locked jaw and other dangerous consequences. The plan 
of treatment , is to keep down the inflammation, by moist 
applications, and cause the wound to heal from the bottom 
upward. For the first object, keep the wound covered 
with wet cloths, or a slippery elm poultice. For the se- 
^.©Hd. wax a strip of linen, twist it to a point nnd introduce 



212 CUTS AND BRUISES 

into the puncture to a suitable depth, and renew it daily. If 
nervous symptoms, or locked jaw appear, immerse, or 
bathe the part in weak ley, and give lobelia ; this is in- 
fallible. 

3rd. Contused wounds, and lacerations — caused by 
blunt bodies, musket balls, and parts being violently torn 
asunder. Thoy seldom bleed much. These, as well as 
all other wounds must be freed from dirt, hair, or any ex- 
traneous matter that may be driven into them ; with cold 
or hike warm water, wash away all clotted blood, and 
close the surfaces with sticking plaster. If the bleeding 
is not stopped, sprinkle it over with slippery elm flour, or 
instead wet it with a strong as^tringent ; then cover it with 
a compress of wet cloth, bound on, and kept wet. If in- 
flammation appear, wash. with, weak ley, followed, by 
No. 6. 

Wounds of joints and tendons. — These are difficult 
to treat, and often dangerous. An opening into the cavity 
of a joint, lets out the synovial fluid, which is extremely 
debilitating. To prevent this, keep the incision upper- 
most, and bind it in such a manner as to bring the wound 
together. A thick slippery elm poultice made with a 
strong astringent decoction, should be kept on it. A fluid 
like the joint water sometimes flows from wounds of the 
tendons. Wash. Avith astringents, and apply the above 
poultice. 

Wounds of the Head. — These are often dangerous^ 
not only from the injury, but the surgeon. Dr. Beach, 
says, "Formerly, it was very fashionable to trephine for 
even very trivial injuries of the head. I think it has 
killed ten where it has cured one ; and I am not surpris- 
ed that Desault, in the last years of his practice, should 
abandon the use of the instrument altogether, in conse- 
quence of the fatal efl^ects which followed its use." All 
that should be done surgically in fractures of the skull,is 
to elevate any depressed portion, when it can be done,and 
take away detached portions. Besides, a treatment 
to subdue the inflammation, and the work of nature will 
accomplish much more than is generally supposed. 

Remark. — Thousands of limbs and lives have been de- 



CUTS AND BRUISES 21J 

stroyed by surgeons, where a simple natural or Thomsoni- 
an treatment might have saved both. 

Bruises. — These are occasioned by falls and blows from 
various means, and leave a purple or black and blue ap- 
pearance. If the surface is not much broken, baihe the 
part well in weak ley, and afterward apply No. 6, lini- 
ment, or tincture of myrrh. This may be followed' by a 
fomentation of wormwood or tanzy"; or cloths wet in 
cold water ; giving No. 6 or composition. 

The principal philosophy in treating all injuries that 
inflame, consist in the evaporation of water from the part; 
it not only carries away the heat, but opens and molhfies 
the vessels, and promotes healing. 

Many surgeons, though very skillful with their instru- 
ments, are miserably deficient in their after treatment, and 
many a limb and life has been lost simply Jor the want 
of water. Dr. Armstrong, an experienced physician of 
London, who had seen several deaths from the ignorance 
of phy.siology in surgeons, says ''No surgeon, unless he be 
a good physician, can understand the after treatment, when, 
inflammation occurs. A surgeon who takes a mere ex- 
terna! survey of the body, is really a very dangerous char- 
acter." 

If a person is bruised so as to be stunned, apply a treat- 
ment similar to those under the head of "Suspended An- 
imation." 



-00- 



FRACTURESAND DISLOCATIONS. 

A Fractuke — is known by the sudden pain — and 
inability to move the part, naturally — by running the fin- 
ger along the bone ; and sometimes by »he limb being 
shortened ; — but the most certain sign is tho grating of 
broken ends, when the different parts are moved. This 
should not be mistaken .^or the crackling noise^ that 
sometimes occurs in dislocations, occasioned by the es- 
cape of the joint water into the surrounding tissue. 

The replacement of a broken, or dislocated bone, 
Tveuld be. an easy task, were it not for the contraction of 



214 FRACTURES AND DISLOCATIONS 

the muscles, which hold the parts firmly in their unnatu- 
ral position. These contractions were formerly reduced 
among the regulars, by pulhtig — often requiring the 
strength of several men, besides straps and pulleys. — 
But Thomson introduced a new era in to the art of bone- 
seiting. which has received the highest encomiums 
from those regulars who have shaken ofTtheir prejudice. 
His plan consists in wrapping up the injured part in sev- 
eral thicknesses of cloth, and pouring on warm water 
until the mucles are well relaxed; at the same time giv- 
ing lobelia so as to nauseate thoroughly. These means 
will relax the system and enable any common person 
replace a fracture with ease. But if the bones have not 
slipped by each other, or the contraction be not strong, 
this trouble will be unnecessary. 

Fractures of the thigh and arm, require an angular 
concave box or splint, the angles to correspond with the 
knee, or elbow. They may be made of wQod, tin, or 
binders paste boar*! ; should be lined vvith a compress 
of tow or cotton ; and applied with bandages in such a 
manner as to secure a uniform motion to both parts of 
ihe limb. Support the fore arm in a slingjand the leg on 
a pillow. 

Fractures of the leg and fore arjn, require long nar- 
row splints of wood, or strips of past board. Sometimes 
a part of the bandage should be put on before the 
splints. 

Fractures of the jaw, require a compress put in the 
angle of the jaw, and a bandage carried over the head. 
Nourishment must be sucked between the teeth. 

Fractures of the collar bone, require a compress put 
in the arm pit, a bandage carried over the opposite 
shoulder, and the fore arm put in a sling. 

A strengthening plaster may be applied with advan- 
tage to some fractures. The bandages and compre-sses 
should be occasionly wet vvith No. 6. and water, or a 
vinegar tincture of hops and wormwood. The bandages 
should not be too tight. 

"All that art can do toward the reunion of a fractured 
bone, is to lay it perfectly straight in its original position, 
keep it easy, and moderate excessive inflammation, — 



FRACTURES AND DISLOCATIONS. 215 

All tight bandages are injurious. It is in this way that 
excess of art does mischief. Indeed, fractures-may be 
successfully treated vvithout either the use of splints or 
bandages." -TF Beach M. D. ^ 

A DISLOCATION, may be known by the deformity of the 
joint, compared with that of its fellow; by the limb be- 
ing longer or shorter than usu'al ; by the pain and ina- 
bility to move it ; particularly in certain directions. 

Dislocation of the shoulder, is the most common acci- 
dent of this kind and very easily reduced. After relax- 
ing the system, as before described, bend the elbow to a 
right angle, place the left fist, or ball of yarn in the arm 
pit, seize the arm near the elbow, and use it as a lever 
to move the head of the bone into its socket. 

Dislocatio of the jaw. Put 2 corks between the double 
teeth, and press upward on the chin. 

All other large joints may be set without difficulty, 
by first relaxing the system, then bending the limb as 
much as covenient, judiciously move it in diffierent di- 
rections, and with the right hand guide the bone into its 
place. It is the latter principle that has given such ce- 
lebrity to the "Sweet Family," as bone setters. 



-00- 



BURNS AND FREEZES. 

The great remedy recommended by Thomson for 
burns.is cold water. Although it has been used for this 
purpose through all time, it is strange that so few know 
the extent of its virtues. It must be evident to an ex- 
perimental physiologist that nothing in nature can be more 
appropriate for a burn than cold water. It prevents the 
determination of the blood to the part ; it carries of the 
superabundant heat ; and at the same time it relaxes 
the cuticle and restors the suspended functions of perspi- 
ration ; thus, preventing the collection of serum and 
perspirable matter between the cuticle and the skin, pre- 
rents blistering ; and when the cuticle is destroyed it is 
the best artificial substitute. When a person is burned 
or scalded, never stop to take ofTthe cloths, but dash on 



216 BURNS AND FREEZES. 

the cold water j wrap up the part in a wet towel, and con- 
tinue to pour on cold water as often as the smarting re- 
turns. Spirits of turpentine, is a favorite remedy vviih 
the regulars, and produces some little good, by its relax- 
ation ; it is a harsh remedy alone, when the skin is brok- 
en, but it may be useful where the parts are seared, pre- 
vious to applying cold water. When the smarting has 
ceased, apply a mixture of sweet oil and balsamfir, or 
sweet oil and lime water shaken togeiher, then cover it 
wilh a poultice of slippery elm and ginger. Whenever 
the poultice is renewed, cleanse the sore with soap suds, 
and afterward wash it with a tea of red raspberry or some 
other astringent. 

Freezes produce an efTect similar to burns and require 
the same treatment. If ihey are warmed suddenly, 
mortification is apt to follow. Put the pans into cold 
water for sometime ; then poultiice, &c. Both in burns 
and freezes, the patient should takssome warming med- 
icines. 



-00- 



CH0KIN6. 
This too often occurrs from eating beef and other food 
that is not sufficiently cut and chewed. When there is 
food lodged in the throat, look into the naouth, and if it 
can be got hold of, seize it wilh the fingers or a pair of 
slender pincers, and pull it out; if this cannot be done, 
attempt to thrust it down with the finger ; this, if it does 
not succeed, may cause gagging or vomiting,and by that 
means throw it up. If still unsuccessful, let the patient 
gurgle in his mouth and throat, some lobelia, prepared ia 
a mixture of castile, or soft soap, in order to produce re- 
laxation, and vomiting ; an enema of lobelia may be giv- 
en for the same purpose. Then take a candle, and 
warm it to make it flxible ; or a peice of whale bone or 
■wire suitably crooked, with a piece of candle wicking or 
cloth wound around, and fastened to the end, and oiled 
and carefully push the substance down the throat. If 
$sh bones, pics, or anything^ that would be dangerous to 



CHOKING. 2ir 

pass into the stomach, stick in the throat, fasten several 
loops of thread to the end of a piece of whalebone or 
wire, pnss them below ihe substance, and by brinping 
Ihem up again it may be broupfit up ; or, after « loop 
has caught it, twist ii. by '.urning the handle, un(il ii is 
the offending substance is fastened ; (hen it mr.y be moved 
in any direction. A sponge fastened in a simi!:.r wav, 
passed below the substance, nnd then saiuralrd with wa- 
ter, has been successful. Striking the patient sncirily 
Upon the back lias some lirnes thrown up articles that 
lodged in the gullet ; but this is still more successful, 
if they are in the windpipe ; in which case, the breast 
and back may be struck simultaneously, after the patient 
has inflated his lungs. Sneezing or coughing may be ex^ 
cii«d in the latter case. 



CHAP. X. 
[NERVOUS DISEASES— Acute] 

SPASMODICS."Aciite. 



HYSTERIA. 

Symptoms. — This disease is considered peculiar to fe- 
males ; and appears in such a great variety of forms as 
to be difficult to desccribe. It comes on with parox- 
ysm, or fits ; somtimes preceeded by depression of spir- 
its, — anxiety of mind — affusion of tearsr— difficulty of 
breathing — sickness at ihe stomach — and palpitation. — 
Frequently there is a pain felt in the left side, with a 
sense of distension extending upward into the throat, 
and occasioning a sensation as if a ball were lodged 
there. The disease having arrived at its height, the pa- 
tient appears to be threatened with suffocation — becom- 
es faint — stupid — convulsed — with alternate fits of 
laughing, crying, and screaming. When the paroxysm 
subsides, a quantity of wind escapes from the stomach 
with frequent sighing and sobbing, and the patient, re- 
covers without a reccoUection of what had occurred. 

Sometimes there are no convulsions, and the patient 
sinks into a peculiar insensibility. 

Sometimes it is attended with violent hiccough. And 
sometimes other slight spasmodic affections, wholly 
form a fit of hysteria. A laughable fear of death often 
attends it. 

Causes. — Sudden grief, fear or joy — menstrual irregu- 
larities — luxurious living — crowded and heated apart- 
ments, — sedentary habits — indigestible food — worms — 
suppressed perspiration, and diseases of the spine, uterus, 
and ovaria. 



HYSTERIA. 219 

Treatment. — Mild case may be removed by bathim^ 
the 'eet in hot water, and drinking freely of stimulants', 
and nervines — composition and nerve powder, or pennv 
royal and motherwort. In more violent cases give an 
active emetic, and if necessary a full course of medicine. 
If there is a determination to the head, use injections 
freely. Afterward make a plentiful use of the female 
restorative ; occasionally taking light courses of medi- 
cine. 

Regimen. — Use neither a high or low diet — find 
cheerful occupation — bathe frequently — excercise much 
in the open air, particularly on Iiorseback. 

00 



SPASMS AND CONVULSIONS. 

Spasms, are a iixed contraction of the muscles ; re- 
maining sometime, gradually, or suddenly subsiding, and 
frequently attended with danger. A serious kind called 
cramp in the stomach, is caused by offending; food, drink- 
ing cold water in hot weather, gout translated to that or- 
gan, and other irritants of thenervous system, Another 
very dangerous kind, is a spasm of the larynx in a spe- 
cies of croup. An unimportant kind, called cramps 
in the legs, occur generally in the night. 
' GoNVULTioNS, are alternate spasms and relaxations of 
one or more muscles of the body, producing various con- 
tortions, and involuntary motions. They are symptomat- 
ic of various diseases ; and frequently attend the irrita- 
tion from indigestible substances and worms m the intes- 
tines of children. 

Treatment. — In this department we need to say but 
little more than that lobelia is the most infalible anti- 
spasmodic known ; as it not only relieves the effect, but 
removes the cause. In spasm and convulsions of the 
more violent cases it should be given in the form of 3rd 
preparation ; and by injection asjwell as otherwise. Be- 
sides the effected parts should be thoroughly rubbed 
with some preparation of cayenne ; and if necessary be 



220 LOCKED JAW. 

foUoived by the vapor bath, or fomentations of bitter 
herbs, particularly hops. 



•00- 



LOCKEO JAW. 

SfMPTOMs. — Generally commencing gradually, with 
stiffhessin the neck — distress in the stomach — and diffi- 
culty of swallowing — at length the muscles of the jaws 
become rigidly contracted and the teeth firmly set togeth- 
er; with spasms ol many, or ail of the mnscl s of the 
body ; and occasionly convulsions. Sometimes the 
sypnitoms all come on suddenly. It occasionly cootinues 
from 5 to ]0 days ; and generally subsides gradually. 

Causes. — Mos;!y wounds that injure the tendinous 
parts, particularly punctures in the hands or feot. 

Treatment. — The prevejitive means are indicated by 
the observaiion, that, when wounds are indolent— or not 
attended with infl;immation and suppuration — efforts of 
nature that lorked jaw occurs ; therefore we should, 
in those cases, apply stimulants and fomentations ; with 
warming medicines internally. When the disease oc- 
curs afier surpjcal operations, and gunshot wounds, it 
has heen i;pnerjilly fatal nntler regular treatment ; but it 
iiivariaMy vif Ids 10 lobelia, and i he vapor bath. Give 
li.e 3d {ffperaiion or hrottn loheliaand rav^nne in large 
ijips'es ; immerse ihe injured part in weak Itiy, a.s hot as 
caii bo home ; and immf (liaiely app's the vapor bath. — 
Injections r<)ni;iiniiig lobf lia and cayenne, should not be 
emitted. W Ken ilio vomiiing fub>idps, continue to give 
lobelia, in nfujscac'ng doses, once in 2 hours, until all 
Fpi!»n!f)(!ic sympiottis subside. Abo, mnke u liberal use 
of l.i(l\ -ilipf er or £cull-cap, as a common drink. Keep 
tip a per&piraiion. 



CO- 



PALPITATION OF THE HEART. 
Tbis is distinguished by a rapid and irregular beating 



LOCKED JAW Hi 

or fluttering of the heart. It seems to be produced by ati 
irregularity of the nervous circulation ; and is inoslly 
sympttmatic of fear, weakness, hysteria, dyspepsia, sick 
head ache, &c. In some eases it attends organic derano-c- 
ments of the heart. 

Causks. — Strong tea and coffee, tobacco, violent exer- 
tions, sedentary habits, excessive sensuality, and iiny debil- 
itating habit. Also, the use of opium, mercury, and other 
mineral poisons. 

Treat merit. — To relieve a paroxysm, take a dose of No. 
6 and nerve powder; and if the appetite be deficient, or 
the stomach be deranged give a course of medicine; fol- 
lowed by a use of poplar, bayberry, balmony, golden seal, 
unicorn, or the spice bitters, or female restorative. 

Regifnen. — Much is depending on this. Avoid all de- 
bilitating indulgence*, tobacco, tea or coffee, and poisons. 
Use coarse bread ; bathe frequently ; and excercise much 
in the open air. Without preventing it, enlargement, and 
other diseases of the heart may ensue. 



-00- 



WATER BRASH. 

Symptoms. — Pain and spasm in the stomach, mostly 
when it is empty, followed by a discharge of watery fluid, 
often tasteless, but sometimes acrid. 

Treatment.— Take a dose of composition before eating ; 
2 or 3 stomach pills after, and from 4 to 6 of the bile pilb 
at night. 

.00 — 



HEART BURN. 

Symptoms. — Uneasy sensation in the stomach, anxiety, 
difficulty of breathing ; and particularly acrid and burning: 
eructations from the stomach into the throat. 

Causes. — Oily food, costiveness, and indigestion. 

Treatment. — Soda or Salasratus will be found to be & 
present relief; but a cur 6 must be sought in the usa of the 



222 HEART BURN. 

stomach, and bile pills, an apparient diet, courses of med- 
icine ; and such other means as will restore the digestive 
powers. 

Regimen. — When heart burn is discovered, fast one or 
two meals, and avoid greasy food. 



-00- 



HICCOUGH. 

This well known aflfection, is sometimes very trouble- 
some. To remove it, take a small dose of the tincture of 
lobelia ; or eat a few peach kernels, or bitter almonds. A 
sudden fright, or even a drink of cold wator will some- 
times remove it. In bad cases, give tincture of peach ker- 
nels and No. 6 with a little soda. 



CHAP. XI. 

NERVOUS PAINS. 



NEURALGIA. 

SvMPTOMs.-This disease is characterized by a most ex- 
crutiating pain that seems like the cutting of a knife, 
and darts along the course of the nerves with the rapidi- 
ty of lightning. It mostly affects the face, and seems to 
rise about the angle of the jaw ; but it sometimes at- 
tacks the neck, breast, legs and other parts. It comes 
on in paroxysms; and sometimes returns periodically ev- 
eryday, like an intermittent. When it is very severe, 
or has continued sometime, swelling, and tenderness a- 
rise in the affected part. 

Causes. — Tea and coffee used to excesss, sedentary 
habits, excessive aansual indulgence, expossure to cold 
and any injury of the nerves. 

Treatment. — Courses of medicine, sometimes cure it 
promptly. Steaming and fomentation seldom fail to re- 
lieve it. Bath the parts with No. 6. to which add a 
1-4 part of spirits turpentine ; also take a teaspoonful of 
the same mixed with sugar from 3 to 6 times a day. — 
Tonics have been found very beneficial ; and seem to 
be particularly indicated in the periodical species, — use 
the the spice bitters or female restorative. 



-00- 



SCIATICA OR HIP DISEASE. 

SyMPTOMs. — A neuralgic pain, perceived at first in the 
knee ; but the seat of the difficulty lies in the sciatic 
nerve, near the joint of the hip. At length the hip be- 



224 BILIOUS COLIC 

comes affected with excessive pain, 8welling,tcnderne»a 
and somelimes, dislocation of the joint. 

Treatment. — The same as for neuralgia, excepting 
that the hip bath may be used. A thorough, prostrat- 
ing operation of lobelia pet injection, has beenknawa to 
work wonders in this case. 



-00- 



BILIOUS COLIC. 

Symptoms. — This disease is generally preceded by gen- 
eral derange(rient,coslivenes9,and symptoms of fever ; fol- 
lowed by nausea, vomiting of bilious matter, sharp cut- 
ting pain in the bowels, which at length become inflam- 
ed and lender to the touch It is attended with a spas- 
modic constriction of the bowels, so that their contents 
cannot move ; and a jaundiced complexion. 

Cause. — Probably some derangement of the liver. 

Treatme^U. — A vig-orous course of medicine, with a 
free use of brown lobelia in soap suds, used by injection, 
will cure it if seasonably applied. If after this, the bow- 
els hive not sufficiently moved, give a dose of castor oil 
the cathartic pills or some other safe cathartic ; but sec 
that the system is previously well relaxed. In the mean- 
time fomentations of hops or other bitter herbs must be 
applied (0 the bowels. If the symptoms continue, per- 
severe with t/ie courses of medicine, using soda, saaelra- 
lU5,or weak ley, with the emetic; but beware of giving 
too freely of cathartics ; an active dose for a 
strong persDn is enough ; its opperation must be aid- 
ed by the ordinary Thomsonian medicines. Much 
will be gained by persevering fomentations, washing 
the abdomen occasionally with weak ley. If it be very 
obstinate, give the injections, containing a large dose of 
brown lobelia, nearly cold, so as to be retained as long 
as possible, apply a lobelia poultice to the bowels and eo- 
deavor to produce prostration. 

FLATULENT COLIC. 

Symptoms. — Commencing with symptoms of di|t«A-° 
ion, m^ uneqi^j^es^, in tbe siomactu oi^ bowglf ; smw 



FLATULENT COLIC. 225 

followed by a peculiarly distressing and sickning pain, 
which continues to increase until it becomes very severe, 
then subsides more or less ; and so continues its parox- 
isms of pain and ease ; the times being various in diff- 
erent cases. During the paroxysm of pain, the patient 
leans forward and presses his abdomen with his hands, 
whish mitigates its violence. Occasionly more or less 
wind escapes from the stomach, or bowels, attended 
with a relief of piin. The bowels are torpid, and the 
tongue covered with a white fur. 

Causes. — Indigestible food, unripe fruit, sudden check, 
of perspiration, and costiveness. Some persons are pre- 
disposed to it. It is most common with children. 

Treatment.'— DrmVmg freely of a tea of cayenne 
composition, ginger, or some aromatic herb, will often re- 
lieve it. Essence ef peppermint is very good ; but care 
must be used in giving it to children. If these means 
fail, give a treatment similar to that for bilious coh'c. 



00- 



TOOTH ACHE. 

In severe cases, the most effectual way is to have the 
offending tooth exti acted, but oftentimes, the preserva- 
tion of the tooth is desirable ; and other circumstances 
render extraction not advisable. 

Treatment. — Fill the cavity vifith cotton moistened 
with oil of summer-savory, cloves, or some other essen- 
tial oils : drink freely of composition, apply a flannel to 
the face, wet with vinegar and cayenne, get into a bed 
nnd lake a sweat. This will often cure for the present. 
When the pain is caused by an inflammation of the 
socket of the teeth, fill a small muslin bag with cayenne, 
and put it between the teeth and the cheek To kill 
the nerve of the tooth, fill the cavity 2 or 3 times a day 
with oil of cloves, or the juice of the root of the yellow 
daisy (ranunculus.) Filling the cavities with gold, is 
a well proved preservative; but beware of the composi- 
tion which some dentists use, for it will gradually taint 
the system with mercury— also the arsenic which they 



226 SICK HEAD ACHE. 

use to destroy the nerves of the teeth — kreosote.too, 
which has several times destroyed life. 



-00- 



SICK HEAD ACHE. 

SyitfPTOMS. — These are various, sometimes commen- 
cing, with langouv — cold feet — confusion of mind — dim- 
ness of sight — pain in the head, sometimes confined to 
one side — loss of appetite — inactivity of the stomach and 
"bowels — disagreeable nausea ; — continuing for 1 or 2 
days, and frequently terminating in vomiting, followed 
by sleep ; which is succeded by a soreness and disagree- 
able feeling in the head, that gradually subsides. Many 
persons are peculiarly subject to it ; in some it is period- 
ical, an in others it comes on at irregular intervals. 

Causes. — Peculiar state of the aervous system, tea and 
coffee, too much greasy and animal food, studying with a 
full stomach, and anything that weakens and disturbs the 
nervous power. 

Treatment- —Take an emetic, followed by an injection ; 
and a protracted use of the hip bath, with a cloth wet in 
salt water applied to the head. Afterwards, take 4 or 5 
of the bile pills 2 or 3 times a day, with the spice bitters be- 
fore eating. This treatment, applied on the first symp- 
toms of the attack and supported by habits calculated to 
avoid the exciting causes, and wisely husband the vital 
force, will, in lime, fortify the constitution against this 
distressing malady. 

Regimen. — Stimulating and desirable food should be 
used, providing it be easy of digestion: Salt codfish and 
pepper sauce, will relieve it alone. 



-00 — 



VARIOUS SPECIES OF HEADACHE. 

The com,mm, coiisisting generally of a pain through 
the temple, and increased by a change of poBition^is caus- 



VARIOUS SPECIES OF HEAD ACHE, 227 

€d by taking cold, loss of sleep, indigestible food, fasting 
&c. It may be removed by a free use of composition 
and stomach pills. A tea of the sweet scented goldea 
rod is recommended by Thomson. 

Pain in the brow, at the root of the nose, consisting 
of an inflammation in the mucous membrane that lines 
the cavity there, communicating with nose, is caused by 
taking cold. 

Treatment. — Use the vapor bath, and catarrh snuff. 

Hysteric head ache, consisting of sharp and capricious 
pains in different parts of the head, unattended with 
appearances of inflammation or congestion. 

Treatment. — Remove the cause. See hysteria. 

Pain in the head, from irifiammation, and congeS' 
Hon. 

Treatment. — See inflammBtion of the brain, and ap- 
oplexy. 



[PROPOGATED DISEASES— Acute] 
CHAP. XII. 

CONTAGION S--Acute. 



SCARLET FEVER. 

Symptoms. — Commtnencing with languor, chilliness, 
pains in the back and head ; followed by a hot and dry 
skin, and sometimes nausea and vomiting. In abuut 2 
days a scarlet eruption appears on the face and neck, 
and in the course of 24 hours, diffuses itself over the 
•whole body. The eruption is like the color of a boiled 
lobster; and not raised above the level of the surface, 
more visable in the evening than in the morning. The 
face is usually swelled and sometimes the throat is sore. 
The pulse is qnick, and the tongue is covered with a 
white coat in the middle, but the point and edges are of 
a deep red color. Delirium sometimes occurrs in the ^ 
evening. In 5 or 6 days the eruption subsides, accom- 
panied with a scaling of the surface. 

But it often appears in a more violent form ; when 
the throat becomes red and much inflamed, voice hoarse 
swallowing painful and difficult, skin very hot, tongue 
red and dry, thirst great, the eruption comes out irregu- 
larly, and not unlill the 3rd or 4th day. If the fever, 
and inflamation is not checked, little grayish ulcers form 
in the throat, and render the breath offensive. It is 
sometimes followed by dropsical symptoms. 

Favorable. — The eruption coming out uniformly over 
the surface in the begining ; towards the close, a moist 
and clear tongue, pulse more full and regular, returning 
appetite, and the cuticle falling off in scales. 

UwFATORABLE.— -Eruption assuming a dark livid color, 



SCARLET FEVER 229 

small feeble pulse, involuntary discharges from the bow- 
els, bleeding from the mouth, nose, or other passages, 
purple spots on different parts, prostration, stupor, and 
constant delirium. The canker occassionly makes great 
inroads, and destroys the heating or sight. 

Cause. — Undoubtedly contagion, but governed bysuch 
unlimited conditions, that, there is but little use for per- 
sons to endeavor to avoid it, who remain in the infected 
district. 

Treatment. — In all ordinary cases, if some mild and 
constant means be taken to keep up a perspiration, if 
the patient take several times a day of composition and 
stomach pills ; and if the case be rather bad, every oth- 
er day a course of medicine, and keep warm and well 
covered, there will be but little danger. In this class of 
diseases, cathartics are not admissible ; but on the con- 
trary, their secret of cure depends upon a constant de- 
termi«ation to the surface. See that the bowels are 
kept open with injections. Much advantage will be 
found in the following medicine ; salt and cayenne, each 
1 teaspoonful, vinegar 2-3 of a cupful, giving every hour 
from 1-2 to 2 tablespoonfuls, according to the age of the 
patient ; for infants, it may be diliited with warm water. 

When it assumes a putrid and malignant character, 
vomit the patient freausntly with the 3rd preparation, 
keep a steaming stone to the throat ; give of myrrh, 
and baybarry 1 teaspoonful each, and cayenne 1-2 tea- 
spoonful,steeped in hot water, 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls eve- 
ry hour,alternating with the salt'and vinegar dose. Steep 
the the same in tar water and use it for injections. — 
To abate the fever, sponge the surface occassionly with 
weak ley. 

A gargle of vinegar and water, honey, cayenne, gold 
thread, and alum, may be used to rinse the mouth : and 
be applied with a swab. 

When dropsy follows it, use the] vapor bath, diuretics, 
and cough balsam. 

Uegimen.—G'we light palatable food ; neither starve 
the patient, nor give to much. Make it a point to re- 
store the appetite, and supplv it as soon as possible — 
Two patients with the same disease should not be kept 



230 SCAKLET FEVER. 

in the same room ; nnd the air must be kept pure. — 
When convalescent, take care against cold, eise dropsy 
is endangered. 

Examples. — In 1840 this disease prevailed in this and 
the adjoinino: towns. The Regulars lost 60 cases. Out 
of 140, bull died under our treatment. During the 
past summer, the Regulars attended 2 cases in the fam- 
ily of Esq., Kellogg. One died of the supervening drop- 
sy. The other was dispaired of from the same canse. 
We were called ; and found the patient with so much 
water in the chest as to be unable to lie down, or even 
recline ; and supporting his body with his hands, in a 
most uneasy posture By the means of constant sweating 
the use of diuretics, and the congh balsam, the patient, 
an intelligent little lad, was snatched from the brink of 
the grave, and is now well. 



-00- 



PUTRID SORE THROAT. 

Symptoms. — Shiverings; anxiety; nausea; — followed 
by heat; restlessness; thirst; hurried breathing ; flushing 
of the face ; redness of the eyes ; stiffness of the neck ; sore- 
ness of the throat and hoarseness. The back of the mouth 
has a fiery redness ; with some slight swelling, but not 
much difficulty of swallowing. After a little time, gray- 
ish, aphthous specks appear in the throat, which spread, as- 
sume a darker hue ; new ones appear, and at length the 
whole fauces are covered with thick sloughs. Little vesi- 
cles appear on the inside of the lips, which break, and ex- 
coriate ; and a corroding humor flows from the nose. A- 
boutthe 2nd, or 3rd day, patches of a dark red color make 
their appearance on the face and neck. The tongue is 
covered with a dark fur; the breath offensive; the pulse 
small, weak and irregular ; and other typhus symptoms 
appear. These symptoms are sometimes milder, and 
sometimes much more aggravated. 

Cause. — The same as that in scarlet fever, of which it 
seems to be a variety. 

Treatment. — Keep up a perspiration, Give courses of 



MEASLES. 231 

medicine. Apply the stimulating poultice to the throat • 
and other treatment similar to that for scarlet fever ' 

00 

MEASLES. 

SYMPTOMs.-Oon.mencing with head ache ; chills • 
followed by feverish symptoms ; hoarseness; difficul't 
breathmrr, dry cough ; drowsine.ss ; redness of the eves • 
and thin watery discharges from tho eyes and nose • 
vomitmg ; and sometimes convulsions. The lontrue has 
a white coat, and the breath is offensive. On thl 3rd or 
4th day an eruption appears, resembling- flea bites 
which run together and form patches. The rash disap-' 
pears in 3 or 4 days, accompanied with a scaling of the 
cuticle. In severe cases, the face and eyes are much 
svvolien, the tongue brownish, and the rash of a dark 
color— sometimes called black measles. 

FAvoRAfiLE.— The erruption appearing on all parts of 
the body ; with little swelling, or canker. 

Unfavorable.— Striking in of the rash ; copious dia- 
rhoea— hemoerrhages and a pallid or livid color of the 
skin. 

CaM5e.— Contagion ;— taking effect in 6 or 7 days af- 
ter exposure. 

T7eatme7it.— -Make a drink odbe black cherry bark, 
saffron, and sage, and use it freely. If the case be bad 
give a treatment like that for scarlet fever. Use canker 
medicines freely ; and keep the surface warm and moist 
untiU safely well; for a cold in this disease is apt to be 
followed by dangerous affections of the lungs, eyes, or 
some other part. Thomsonian treatment is almost 
infallible here. 



-00- 



SIVIALL POX. 

Stmptoms.— Chills ; fever ; pains in the back, head 
and stomach; soreness of the throat; thirst; vomiting ; 



232 SMALLPOX. 

and tongue covered with white fur ; which gradually as- 
suoies a bright red color. On the 3d day, an eruption 
of small red points appear. These, on the 1st and 2nd 
days, are hard, globular, and painful. They enlarge 
gradually, and on the 3rd 4ih and 5lh days, contain a 
little yellowish ftuid ; the intervening spaces becoming 
red. On the 6lh and 7th days, the pustules are distin- 
guished by central indentations on their tops. On the 
9th and 10th days, the indentation disappears, and they 
present a full rounded appearance. On the 11th and 
12th days, they begin to dry up, and are followed by 
hard scabs, which fall off, and leave the skin of a brown 
or red color. The face and eyes are often much swol- 
len. 

Favokable. — When the pustules are ^seperace, and 
if the case is reasonably treated, the termination is gen- 
erally favorable ; this is termed the distinct species. 

Unfavorable. — When the pustules run into each oth- 
er, forming large patches, the case is severe ; this is 
called the conjluent species j and is frequently followad 
by putrid symptoms, such as a dark tongue, livid spots, 
bleeding from the eyes, mouth and other parts. 

Cause. — Contagion ; easily avoided, by shunning a 
close approach to patients ; or a contact with any thing: 
that comes from them. It takes effect in 12 or 14 
days. 

Treatment. — This disease seems to be very much 
modified and in some cases almost destroyed, by thor- 
ough steamings at its commencement. A course of med- 
icine will be required every 2 or 3 days supported by a 
constant use of composition. For ai| constant dose, in 
bad cases, steep myrrh, and bayberry a teaspoontul 
each, and one half teaspoonfui of cayenne, in a cup of 
vinegar and water ; sweeten, and give 2 or 3 swallows 
every 1 or 2 hours. Also 2 or 3 stomacti pills 3 or 4 
times a day, washed down with a glass of tar water. — 
Raspberry, or some pleasant astringent should be used 
as a constant drink ; the berries and leaves of the sumac 
infused and sweetened, are very fine. Let the surface 
be daily washed over with warm water made a little al- 
kaline ; taking care that the patient is kept warm at the 



SMALL POX. 235 

»me time. If the pustules ulcerate, dress them in a lini- 
ment of olive oil and lime water- Cathartics must not ba 
used, but the bowels must be daily moved with injections 
of tar water &c. 

To prevent pitting, ^vGi the face m stSLTch, made sticky 
with a little molasses ; then cover it with several thick- 
nesses of gold leaf. This, when applied in season, has 
been quite successful. 

If the face become badly swollen, cover it with a slip- 
pery elm poultice. When convalescent, give the bitters. 



•00- 



VARIOLOID. 

Symptoms. — This appears to be a species of the small 
pox ; but it runs its course in about half the time of that. — 
The pustules begin to dry by the 4th or 5th day, and soon 
fall off, without being accompanied with a secondary fever 
as in the small pox ; and seldom leave permanent pits. — 
The symptoms are more variable ; the pustules often ap- 
pear in successive crops ; and it is generally much more 
mild than the small pox. 

Cause. — Contagion. 

Treatment — Very similar to that for small pox, where 
the case is severe ; but in many cases, composition and 
•tomach pills 3 or 4 times a day, will be sufficient. 

-00 



KINE POX. 

This disease was originally derived from the udders 
of cows, is very mild, yet so near like the small pox, as 
to generallyprevent its introduction into Che body where- 
ever itbas preceeded it. The objections lately raised 
against it,seem to.be rr.'Ostly founded on the fact, that the 
matter by which it is propcjated, is sometimes _tuke» 
from unhealthy persons. That is a qneslton by itself; 
and the danger should, by every means be avoided. 

SYKFTOMa ot the genuine disease. — About the 4th or 



234 KINE POX. 

5th day, a small point appears at the place where it was 
introduced ; enlarging in 2 or 3 days to a small pustule, 
which is depressed in the centre. By the 7th or 8th 
day, there is an inflammatory circle around the edge of 
the pustule ; sometimes enlarging to 2 or 3 inchas in di- 
ameter, but remaining circular. By the 11th day, the 
pustule begins to thicken, and form into a dark crust ; 
and the inflammation subsides, begining at the centre. — 
At length the scab falls off* and leaves a permanent 
scar. 

Spurious. — Inflammation on the 2nd day — no depres- 
sion of the pustule — running its course sooner than com- 
mon — irregular margin — much swelling, erysipelatious, 
inflammation, and blue appearence of the pustule. 

Vaccination. — This term implies the method by 
which the kme pox is communicated. It consists in in- 
troducing a portion of the pus or moistened scab of the 
pustule beneath the cuticle, by the least possible punc- 
ture, 

The scab, sealed in a vial, and put in the dark, will 
keep for years. 

The small pox was formerly communicated in this way, 
because it mitigated its symptoms ; this is called innoccu- 
latzon. 

Treatment. — The kine pox seldom requires medicin 
• — if any. similar to that for measles. 



-00- 



CHICKEN POX. 

SyMPTOMe. — This is a mild disease ; commencing with 
chilliness ; slight feverish symptoms ; and pains in the 
back and head ; followed by small pimples, filled with a 
whitish fluid, which changes to a straw color ; and in 3 
or 4 days dry up, leaving small black scales. 

Cause. — Contagion. 

Treatment. — Composition ; or warming herb tsa. If 
the case is bad-^a course of medicine 



MUMPS, 235 

Symptoms.— Pain and inflammation of the parotid gland 
which lies near the ear ; more or less fever, and sometimes 
slight delirium. 

The pain and swelling increases, so that the patient can 
scarcely move his jaws ; and begins to abate by the 4th or 
5th day. Sometimes it is translated to the testes of males, 
or the breast of females. It is not dangerous, excepting in 
the latter cases. It never appears but once, excepting 
Avheri only one gland Avas affected. 

Cmise. — Contagion. — The translation is caused by ex- 
posure to cold, or great debility. 

Trmtmtut. — This seldom requires more than an oc- 
casional dose of composition, or stomach pills ; but when 
at falls on other parts, courses of medicine should be used ; 
with slippery elm poultices to the sympathetic part ; and 
vinegar and cayenne rubbed on the^facAfcnd throat, and 
gargled in the mouth ; and a steaming s^ic kept under 
the chin. 



-OG- 



WHOOPING COUGH, 

Symptoms commencing like an ordinary cold. About 
the end of the 3rd week the spells of coughing continue 
longer, are more severe, and attended by a peculiar sound 
called whooping. During the paroxysm of coughing, the 
face is suffused with blood, and the patient seems in danger 
©f suffocating ; and frequently ends in vomiting. It often 
lasts 6 or 8 weeks ; but is seldom dangerous. 

Cause. — Contagion, which mostly attacks children, and 
takes effect but once. 

Treatment. — Nauseating doses of lobelia ; assisted by 
an occasional thorough emetic, or course of medicine, will 
very much mitigate the disease. The cough powders, or 
balsam may be used instead of the lobelia in common form. 
For a common drink, use a mucilage of slippery elm, flax 
seed, or gum arable. Tonics, will occasionly be neces- 
sary. If the child is difficult to take medicine, give it by 
injection, or apply a lobelia poultice upon the breast. 



CHAP. XIII. 



EPIDEMICS. 



ASIATIC CHOLERA. 

This very fatal epidemic first appeared in India in 1817, 
and spread we^jrarituntil it reached America in 1832. — 
It still occasio^f^ prevails in some parts where it has for- 
merly visited. 

Symptojis. — Commencing with lassitude ; rumbling in 
the bowels ; nausea ; moderate diarrhasa, or inclination to 
go to stool ; tongue furred in the centre, and red at the tip 
and edges. These premonitories may last for several 
days : but sometimes are followed by the more violent 
symptoms in a few hours ; as follows : violent pains in 
the stomach, bowels, and head ; almost incessant vomiting 
and purging of a rice water fluid ; inordinate thirst; and 
spasms of the extremities. If recovery does not take place, 
which is generally attended with feverish reaction, and bil- 
ious discharges, the skin becomes cold, wrinkled, bluish 
and covered with a clammy sweat ; then the pulse is lost 
in the wrist ; the nails are blue ; the eyes are sunk ; and 
death, without impairing the mental faculties, closes the 
scene. 

Cause. — A peculiar principle in the atmosphere, most 
common in populous places. 

TreatmeJit. — At the commencement, give alternately ev- 
ery hour, a cup of composition, and a dose of cholera or 
dysentery syrup. If this should not arrest it, give courses 
of medicine, repeated according to the nature of the case ; 
using plentifully of cayenne. Great effori must be used 
to keep the blood in the surface and extremities, by putting 



ASIATIC CHOLERA f37 

steaming stones about the patient ; and bathing and rub 
bing the surface with vinegar and cayenne. 

Examples. — InAlbanj', 1147 cases of cholera were re- 
ported by the Regulars, and 417 deaths — lost over 1 
in 3. 

A Thonrisonian of Cincinnati, attended 96 confirmed 
cases, and over 100 in the premonitory stage, and lost 
but 18—1 in 11. 

According to Worthy, Dr. Dodge Sweet, a botanic of 
New York, had 63 cases, and lost but two. 



■00- 



DYSENTERY. 

Symptoms. — Sometimes commencing with loss of 
appetite, nausea, and vomiting ; followed by griping 
pains in the bowels, small but frequent stools, attended 
with pain, frequently passing nothing but mucous, wnich 
is often streaked with blood ; sometimes the stools are 
acrid and resemble the washings of meat ; sometimes 
pure blood ; natural feces seldom pass, and when they 
<lo, they are in hard balls; their passage occasioning 
pain, followed by relief . There is a frequent desire to 
move the bowels, with unavailing efforts. Considera- 
ble fever prevails, especially after 1 or 2 days. 

Favorable. — Fever subsiding after a few days ; e- 
vacuation of bile and other healthy symptoms with the 
stools. 

Unfavorable. — Great excitement and tenderness of 
the bowels; much depression of strength ; fetid stools; 
bloating of the abdomen; hiccough; petechie ; and a 
■weak and irregular pulse. 

Cause. — This appears to depend upon a peculiar stata 
of the aimospere. It occurs most frequently in warn^ 
weather, and warm climates. 

Treaimant. — If the bowels have not already been e- 
vaouated, and relieved of their hardened feces, it should 
be immediately accomplished with injections. If this 
«hould fail to produce the desired effect, give but otice 
a mild aparient, »uch aa rhubarb and soda. Then girt 



238 DYSENTERY. 

composition and No. 6, once in 2 hours, and the dysen- 
tery syrup in the intervals. If this should not succeed, 
give a course of medicine, and repeat every 24 hours. — 
Injections containing No. 6 and astringents, should be 
given several times a day. Use a coustant drink of rasp^ 
berry or some other astringent ; and take especial pains 
to keep up a perspiration. Steaming, foliov^^ed by rub- 
bing the surface with cayenne and vinegar, has a pow- 
erful effect in removing the griping pains and determi- 
nation to the bowels. 

Regimen. — The food may consist of milk porrige, well 
boiled, and seasoned with black pepper. Ripe and 
wholsome fruits have been found very beneficial. 

Examples. — In 1838 this disease prevailed quite ex- 
tensively in Shaftsbury, where several deaths occurred 
under the regular treatment. The people were alarmed 
and calling us, we treated 45 cases, all of whom speedi- 
ly recovered. In 1842, it visited this town, with a sim- 
ilar result under regular treatment. Out of 300 cases, 
we lost but 1. 



-00- 



EPIDEMIC ERYSIPELAS. 

This is a peculiar disease, that has proved very fatal 
(with regular practice) in several sections of the United 
States, for a few years past. 

Symptoms. — Sudden langour, and fever ; a pain seiz- 
ing some part of the body, followed by inflamation, swel- 
ling ; and in many cases mortification and death. It 
frequently attacks the throat and mouth, for which it is 
called, by some, the black tongue. The symptoms at 
first, are of an inflamatory character, which often col- 
lapse into those of a typhus, and alarming kind. 

Cause. — A peculiar unknown principle in the atmos- 
phere. The only way to avoid it is lo leave the infect- 
ed district. 

Treatment. — From the success of the Thomsonians in 
this disease, it is believed that little danger need be ap- 
prehended from it, under an early, and natural treat- 



DYSKNTEKV^. 239 

inent, Give cources of medicine. To the inflamed 
parts apply slippery elm poultices ; washing with weak 
ley whenever they are changed. If it attacks the throat, 
give a treatment similar to that for putrid sore throat. 

00 

EPIDEMIC INFLUENZA. 

This disease, called by the French, la grippe, has sev- 
eral limes travelled over Europe and America ; and du- 
ring the past summer prevailed throughout the civilized 
world. 

Symptoms,— Feverishness and head ache ; followed 
by sneezing, hoarsness, cough ; and constant discharge 
from the nose ; its efiects lasting from 1, to 2 or 3 weeks. 
It is seldom dangerous, excepting to the aged, and con- 
sumptive. 

Treatment. — Make a frequent application of the vapor 
bath ; inhale into the lungs and nostrils, the vapor of tar 
and cayenne ; use the composition and stomach pills 2 
or 3 times a day; and courses of medicine, if neccessary. 

Remark. — A great number of scrange epidemics, or 
pestilences, very different in their nature, have arisen at 
different times, then disappeared forever. The subject is 
highly curious. 



[CHRONIC DISEASES] 

CHAP. XIV. 

DISEASED VISCERA 



PULMONARY CONSUMPTION. 

Symptoms. — Usually commencing with a dry, hacking 
cough, increased by exposure to cold ; pain and tight- 
ness in some part of the chest ; especially on taking a 
full breath ; breathing made difficult by exercise ; face 
flushed after eating ; and a peculiar whiteness of the 
eye, resembling the inside of an oyster shell. As the 
disease advances the cough becomes more troublesome ; 
particularly at evening and morning ; the expectora- 
tion increases and becomes thicker, until it has a green- 
ish purulent appearance. Profuse sweating occurs at 
night ; acute pain is felt in the breast and sides ; burn- 
ing in the feet and hands, emaciation comes on ; the 
eyes are sunken, but expressive; the breathing quick 
and short ; the pulse weak, and generally exceeding 
120 beats in a minute ; and a circumscribed patch of red 
is often seen on the cheek. Finally .there appears drop- 
bIcqI swellings of the feet and legs ; copious diarrhoea ; 
•ore mouth ; failure of the voice ; cadaverous expression 
of countenance ; and after a period, varying from weeks 
to years, death itself. 

These are the symptoms of the tubercular consump- 
tion ; but there are several other varietes, which termi- 
nate in similar effects ; one arises from an affection of 
the larynx; another from ulceration of the lungs; a- 
nother from chronic inflamation of the pleura resulting 
in an effusion ol water in the chest ; and another, the 
next raost common variety, arises from a pro- 



PULMONARY CONSUMPTION. 241 

traded bronchitis, or chronic inflammation of the wind 
pipe and broncial tubes.called catarrhal consumption; and 
distinguished from the tubercuiar.by the face being more 
pallid, and the lips of a bluish hue, soreness in the up- 
per part of the chest, coldness in the begining ; by the 
expectoration being free, and containing a large portion 
of transparent, or frothy mucus. But it is ofien blend- 
ed with the former, and with dyspepsia, and liver affec- 
tions. The pus which comes from tubercles, sinks in 
water, especially when disengaged from mucus. 

Causes. — The proximate cause of tubercular consump- 
tion, is the formation of a peculiar matter in the lungs, 
in the form of white lumps of various sizes, called tuber- 
cles, which soften nnd discharge. They are supposed 
to be of the same nature, with the indurated lumps of 
scrofula. The proximate cause of catarrhal consump- 
tion, is an inflammation of the mucus membrane of the 
lungs, a deficient action of the skin, and a determination 
of perspirable, and other fluids to the lungs. The re- 
mote causes of each are a peculiar predisposition, expo- 
sure to cold, excessive venery, tight lacing, breathing 
particles of dust, a cold climate, poisons, and every de- 
bilitating thing. 

Treatment. — The general indications in the cure of 
this disease, are to regulate the stomach and bowels.by 
an occassonal course of medicine ; and strengthen the 
system with appropriate tonics, such as the dyspeptic 
powders, spice bitters, poplar and g-olden seal ; and e- 
qualize the circulation, by bathing the feet in hot water, 
and applying the stimulating liniment over the surface at 
bed time'. The composition should be taken from 3 to 
5 times a day ; together with the vapor bath, occasionly 
followed by a brisk rubbing with liniment, or cayenne 
and vinegar. A stimulating plaster.applied to the breast 
and back, may be found very beneficial. No means 
should be omitted to determine the blood to the surface. 
Tbe cough powder, drops, or balsam may be used sever- 
al tunes a day to promote a free expectoration ; or the 
stomach pills may', be used along with the composi- 
tion The medicated wrapper we have used with good 
success- See recipe. Faraages tube, or the lung mHa- 



242 PULMONARY CONSUMPTION. 

ter, has produced the best results. They are sold in 
our principal cities. A substitute maj' be found by in- 
flating the inngs full of air, and gradually expelling it 
through the nostrils. This exercise will very much 
strengthen and expand these organs ; but it must be 
regulated according to their strength. Catarrhal con- 
sumption receives great benefit from inhaling the vapor 
of tar. Alone, it has cured 8 out of 32 ; and with cours- 
es of medicine, no doubt would do much better. This 
vapor stops the discharge, which should be substituted by 
producing a healthy perspiration. Il aggravatcii thesyrap- 
toms of tubercular consumption; and is a good test. — 
But even the latter case might find benefit by inhaling 
the vapor of myrrh ;uid cayenne, and burning wool. 

Another remedy, introduced by Dr. John Thomson, we 
have found of the highest vr.lue in this disease. It is a foot 
bath, consisting of warm soup, prepared as though, it were 
to be ep.ten, from the hock joints of beef, or such peices as 
contain the most gelatin ; the isinglass of the druggists is 
very good, in this, the feet of the patient are to be bathed 
from one to two hours; keeping it as warm as it can be 
borne. It fills up the veins, causes a lasting perspiration, 
and invigorates the system. The length of time that its ef- 
fects lastjis a good criterion of a patient's probable recoverv. 
According to the reasoning, and experiments of Liebig, it 
seems probable that the cellular tissue, which is much in- 
jured in this disc:ise, may receive support from gelatin, its 
basis, without that element undergoing any change in the 
body If so, the mysterious, modus operandi of the soup 
bath, will appear very simple. Would not gelatin be 
highly seivicable, applied to all ulcerated and abraded sur- 
faces? 

Example. — Mii^. Monroe of Shaftsbury had been for 
some months afilictfd with very alarming symptoms of this 
disease ; so low that a dark room was deemed necessary ; 
and her physician said that she could live but a very short 
time. 

Through the pressing solicitation of her friends, we con- 
sented to treat her case. In 2 or 3 weeks, she was able to 
leave her room j in two months rode out ; and is now well. 
This is but one of the many cases of consumption, that, 



LIVER COMPLAINT. 243 

notwithstanding its obstinacy, iias been cured by us and o- 
ther Tliomsonian practitioners. 

Regimen. — This is of grout importance in the cure of 
consumption. Use a regular and strengthening diet, 
that no way disagrees with the stomach, Wash the 
slcin frequendy with castila soap and water, followed by 
salt and vinegar, and rubbing with a coarse towel, or 
flesh brush ; wear flannel ; and exercise much on hoise 
back. Avoid taking cold, or breathing- very cold air in- 
to the lungs ; for the latter purpose a very useful iasliu- 
raent, called a respirator, made of several layers of wira 
gauze, may be found in the medical markets. 

00 



LIVER COMPLAINT. 

Symptoms. — These vary much, and are often obscure 
and uncertain ; but certain it is that enlcirgement, ab- 
scesses, and particularly a chronic infianmiation or torpid 
state of the liver, are the foundation of many common 
complaints. 

It is known by a pain in the right side, shooting into 
the shoulder, though sometimes it is in the left side ; 
a sense of fullness after eating; costiveness, heart burn; 
clay colored stools, loss of appetite, though it is some- 
times voracious ; bad taste in the mouth ; dry harsh 
state of the skin ; belching of wind ; nervous and dys- 
peptic symptoms ; languor ; drowsiness ; disagreeable 
dreams ; irritability and hypochrondiasis, When the 
bile is absorbed into the system, the skin and ejes are 
yellow ; but when the liver is torpid, the complexion is 
often fair. The organ is sometimes enlarged, so as to 
be felt below the ribs. 

Causes. — Obstructed perspiration, overeating, seden- 
tary habits, gallstones, malaria, ardent spirits, mercury 
and other poisons. 

Treatment. — Where the case is mild, 2 or 3 stomach 
pills with composition several times a day, and a teas- 
poonful of cayenne and bitter root, equal parts, at 
ni^ht, will have a decidedlyr good effect. The express 



244 DYSPEPSIA. 

«d juice of the dandelion, root and tap, will be found 
very effectual in opening the secretions of the liver; it 
should be taken largely. The bile piHs will be found 
servicable to open the bowels. In bad cases, add to 
the above treatment courses of medicine ; repeated once 
or twice a week. The vapor bath at least should not 
be omitted ; as it possesses the most valuable powers in 
this disease ; especially, if caused by mercury, which is 
not at all uncommon. Bathing the feet in hot water 
should also accompany the steamiug, or mav be substi- 
tuted for it. These operations may bs followed by bath- 
ing the whole surface with the stimulating liniment ; as 
it is of the greatest importance to induce a healthy state 
of the skin , for it is ascertained that ia many diseases, 
the exti:'rnal and internal secretions are apt to coincide. 
A plaster may be applied to the right side. As the dis- 
ease is often attended with nervous and hypochrondial 
symptoms, nerve powder should be added to the compo- 
sition, especially at night. The spice bilt«ers,or dyspep- 
tic powders should be taken at meal times ; and if the 
urine is scanty, diuretics will be fosnd beneficial. Time, 
exercise, and a harmless diet is required for the complete 
removal of chronic affections of the liver. 

00 



DYSPEPSIA. 

SxMPTOMs.-Weakness of the stomach, pain and unea- 
sy sensations in that organ, especially after eating, some- 
tim.es the food is thrown up a short time after meals, and 
often passes the boxvels undigested. In some cases there 
IS a constant* diarrhoea attended with cold hands and 
feet, a great susceptibility to cold, ani., a dull pain be- 
tween the shoulders. More commonly the bowels are cos- 
tive, attended with an acid stomach, flatulency, and 
belching of wind, heart burn, and head ache ; and sorae- 
tiines they vary from one state to another. There is 
generally, a long train of symptomatic affections, vorying 
much in different patients ; such as chills and flushe.«; of 
heat, languor,despondency, palpitation of the heart,dizzi- 



DYSPEPSIA. 245 

nes3, melancholy, night mare, and frightful dreams. — 
There are also more or less evidences of liver affections. 
It occurs in all ranks of society, comes on slovirjy and is 
slow to cure. 

Causes. — These are many things that weaken the 
general strength of the body, as the sedentary habits and 
unnatural posiures common to many mechanics, and fe- 
males, hard labor, excessive venery, habitual use of ca- 
thartics, ardent spirits, tobacco, coffee, tea, mercury, o- 
pium,and blood letting, hard indigestible food,new-bread, 
raw fruits, grease, butter, and exposure to cold. 

Treatmeni. — The dyspeptic powder or composition be- 
fore eating, and 2 or 3 stomach pills after, will be found 
of essential benefit ; the anti-dyspepiic conserve may al- 
so be eaten in the intervals. These medicines, with a 
proper regimen, will cure many ordinary cases. But it 
wiH be advisable to give an occasional course of medi- 
cine : and in bad cases they should for no reason be o- 
mitted. Due attention to the skin, bathmg, and rubbing 
it with liniment, will do much good particularly if diar- 
rhoea exist. The acidity of the stomach, or heart burn, 
will easily be relieved for a time, by the use of soda, 
salasratus or weak ley ; but these should not be depend- 
ed upon for a cure. The bile pills will be found superi- 
or to any other aparient for opening the bowels, when 
the regimen does not snffise. Cathartics should be a- 
voided, as they injure the tone of the stomach. Cayenne 
pepper is a valuable medicine in dyspepsia, and may be 
used freely upon the food, and in variety of ways to suit 
the taste of the patient. Any other formula of bitters, 
besides the dyspeptic, used among- us, may be employ- 
ed. 

Regimen.— On this depends the main part of the cure 
of dyspepsia. Fasting 1 or 2 meals, every 3 or 4 days, 
may cure it alone, new bread and grease must be avoid- 
ed." The food must be well chewed ; and every species 
of intemperance abandoned. Exercise is indispensible, 
particularly, riding tn horse-back. Change of climate, 
and sea voyages are more beneficial in this than in con- 
sumption. 



246 DISEASES OF THE HEART. 

Symtoms. — These are various and rather uncertain — 
pain in the left side, palpitation. intermission of the pulse, 
difficulty of breathing, purple hue of the lips, livid com- 
plexion, puffy appearance of the eyes, and haggard coun- 
tenance. The purplish hue of the countenance, and pal- 
pitation occurs in hsthma, but in the former there is not 
that peculiar wheezing, which attends asthma. Some 
of the symptoms may be permanent, and some occur in 
paroxysms. In bad cases there is a labormg, irregular 
action of the heart which may be both seen and felt in 
its proper region. There is sometimes a violent palpita- 
tion, accompanied with a spasmodic pain in the breast, 
called ajigina pectoris. 

Causes. — The proximate, are enlargement, or soften- 
ing of the heart, ossification of the valves, or aorta, chron- 
ic inflammation, and dropsy of the pericardium. The ex- 
citing, are various diseases, and particularly excessive 
sensual indulgences, and passions. The organ.no doubt 
has a predisposing weakness in some persons, Real dis- 
eases of the heart are rare ; yet there is sometimes a 
pain in the left side, from liver and other affections ; and 
it often has an irregular action from sytrtomatic causes, 
vviiich is the occasion of ungrounded alarm. 

Treatment. Much may bo effected in this complaint, 
by equalizing the circulation ; for in its paroxysms there 
is a congestion of blood about the heart ^nd lungs. A 
free use of stomach pills and nerve powder, composition, 
or stimulating lea, accompanied with bathing the feet, 
or the vapor bath, will generally relieve the severer 
symptoms, especially if it be ordidinary palpitation. — 
Courses of medicine have been used with complete suc- 
cess in several cases of apparent disease of the heart. — 
By the aid of such assistants, and a careful regimen, 
real diseases of this organ though, generally incurable, 
may be bettered, or held at bay nn'.il old age. 



-00- 



SCURVY. 

SyMPTOMS. — Debility and prostration of strength ; 
bleeding from the gutns ; spots of different colors on 



SCUKVY. 247 

the skin generally livid, particularly at the roots of the 
hair ; old wounds, which have been long healed up 
break out afresh severe wandering pains prevail.partic- 
u^rly at night; the teeth are loosened ;* the breath is 
oHensive ; the urine has an akaline quality ; the joints 
become swelled and stifl'; fetid stools and other putrid 
symptoms close the scene. 

Causes—Some deficiency in the food. It occurs most- 
ly among sailors, aud particularly those that live mostly 
on animal food, and are deprived of fresh vegetables. /♦ 

Treatment.— It was strongly proved, in the long v^- 
ages of Capt. Cook, that a frequent use of fresh ve'cr- 
etables, particularly of cabbage, mustard, scurvy-rrras^s 
and others of the cruciform family, would prevlht this 
disease. Lemon juice, and other vegetable acids, are 
also very efTectual. These articles not only prevent 
but cure the scurvy. ' 

The disease seldom occurs on land ; and we have 
mentioned it on account of its peculiar remedies, as i 
hint to the treatment of other similar diseases— those 
of a putrid kind. Besides the medicines mentioned, 
scurvy will undoubtedly derive much benefit from usu- 
al Thomsonian remedies. 

— 00 

CHRONIC RHEUMATISM. 
^ Symptoms.— This well known affection has several va- 
rieties. One consists of a pain, particularly on moving, 
in the hip, shoulder or back ; sometimes changing from 
one to another, and occasionally attended with some 
degree of swelling. Another species, has pain accom- 
panied with stiffness, only discovered on motion, 
and has no swelling. A third kind has little, or 
no pain, and is distinguished by enlargements, or nodes 
of the joints. 

Cflwscs.— Exposure to cold ; hard lifting ; spiritous 
liquors ; much animal food ; and mercury ; the last is 
particularly the cause of the nodes. 



248 CHRONIC RHEUMATISM. 

Treatment. — The first two kinds of this disease may 
be cured, or much bettered by courses of medicine, ac- 
companied with a free use of No. 6, or the tincture of 
myrrh ; followed by bdthing the parts with a lini- 
ment, containing oil of origanum. Fomentations of bit- 
ter herbs, followed by rubbing with salt, vinegar, and 
cayenne, may be very useful. The stimulating poultice 
may also, be applied. Steam frequently. The follow- 
ins; i^a fine preparation, and very effectual: Black 
cohosh, prickly ash, nerve powder, and pipsisewa, e- 
qaalpaiis; boil in one quart of water, add one pint 
orgin, and sweeten. Dose — a wine glass full from 
three to five times a day. 



CHAP. XV. 

DROPSIES. 



DROPSY OF THE CHEST. 

Symptoms- — Sense of tightness and oppression in the 
chest, difficulty of breathino-, inability to lie horrizontal- 
ly ; the patient, either silting uprielit, or teqiiiiing his 
8houlder3 to bt- elevated, sleep disturbed bv sudden start- 
ing,anrl sense of alarm, pul^e irreguhir, and conriinonly 
hard, thirst urgent, urine scanty, hioh colored and jedi- 
menious, su'elling of the feet, aitxielv of countenance, a 
dry, short couoh ; .'ind particularly the perceplible mo- 
tions of a fluid in the chest. 

Favo'>ablc. — When the di.*ease has not been preced- 
ed by iiny severe inflatnulion of the che?t : spontaneous 
pcr.-p'ratioii, or nn increased f}i)xv of urine. 

TJiifacorahle. — It i.-; freqiieiitiv incurab'e. e.«rcciiii!v if 
preceded by anv serious affection of the part. Spitting of 
blood, a livid countenance and a sudden sub>idence of 
the swelling o( the feel or linibs, wiiliotu an increase of 
urine. 

Caifses. — Thi immediate cause,, is i weakness, or an 
obstruction of the veir>s, winch produce a irans-idaiiun of 
the seriirn. Ji ^eems that (lrop>le> in general, are pre- 
ceded, or attended liy an itifl.nnalory aclio'i: The exci- 
tiiij; causes are, ''old, iMieiii[)t ranee, and the general 
causes of other ('. i-enses. 

Tieaimenl. — This disease requires thorough courses 
of inedicine ; for they are t'le most (ffectual means 
known, to ilirowout the fluid by pr r^piraticn, to promote 
absorption, to the restore the suspended secreiioos, and to 
establish the tone of ile llcod vessels. Tlie^e may be 
aided by several specifics ; as the while root, and milk 
weed, to induce perfpiraticn ; cleavers, queen of the 



250 DROPSIES. 

meadow, parsley, Stc, to increase the flow of urine ; 
and the bile pills, or bitter root and cayenne, assisted 
by injections, to keep open the bowels. Great advan- 
tage will be found in the vapor bath, independent of 
the courses. A liberal use of cayenne should be made 
throughout the treatment. As the water is evacuated, 
the advantage should be maintained by the use of some 
tonic. An effort must be made to restore the vigor of 
the skin, by bathing with the stimulating liniment, salt 
and vinegar, and friction. The diuretic cordial may 
•be used several times a day, instead of other diuretics. 
The Cough Balsam has a very fine efTrct upon this 
disease. Bathing the surface with weak ley, will be an 
important aid to precede the vapor bath, which should 
te followed by the cold dash. The medicines should 
be given m as small a quantity of water as practica- 
ble. 



00 

DROPSY OF THE ABDOMEN. 

Symptojvib. — It is sometimes preceded by loss of ap- 
petite — dryness of the skin — costiveness — and dimuni- 
lion of the urine. The abdomen becomes swelled, and 
continues to enlarge — and the motion of water may be 
perceived by placing the hand on one side, and striking 
the abdomen with the other. The urine is more high 
colored, and the bowels more sluggish in this species of 
dropsy, than any other. 

Favorable. — The severest symptoms of this kind of 
dropsy, are, short and difficult breathing — inability to 
take but little drink or food — swelling of the limbs — 
and soreness of the abdominal walls. Subsidence of the 
dropsy in the limbs, without an increase of urine, is 
very unfavorable. 

Cause. — The immediate cause, is, generally a diseas- 
ed state of the liver, or spleen. Remote causes — ma- 
ny. 

Treatment. — This requires the same treatmervt as for 
the preceding •• excepting that a large uw of the ex- 



DROPSIES. 251 

pressed juice of the dandelion, or sontie other appropri- 
ate hepatic, js required to open the secretion of the liver. 
Bathing with the stimulating liniment over the surface 
of the bowels, followed by long continued friction, will 
do much good ; after which a swathe of flannel may- 
be put around the body. Tapping, or making an incis- 
ion into the cavity, to let out the water, is sometimes 
necessary to relive this species ; but it is only tempora- 
ry, the wound is sometimes dangerous, and should be 
avoided, if possible. 

Dr. Thomson was once enquired of, by a reoular, 
how he cured the dropsy, in a case which he had just 
reduced 15 inches in size. "You know, Doctor," said 
Thomson, "that the heat had gone out of the body, and 
the water had filled it up; and all I had to do was to 
build fire enough to boil away the water." The regu- 
lar burst into a laugh, and said that was a system very 
short. 

00 



DROPSY OF THE BRAIN. 

Symptoms. — This generally occurs in young children ; 
and is most commonly preceded by more or less appear- 
ance of inflammation of the brain; such as irritability 
of temper — starting in sleep — flushing of the face — oc- 
casional frowning expression of the countenance — evi- 
dences of pain in the head — wakefulness — torpor of the 
bowels — a disposition to lay the head low — and nausea 
and vomiting when it is elevated — and pupil of the 
eye contracted. As eflusion takes place, the spraptoms 
change ; such as stupor, or continual delirium — convul- 
sions — palsy of the eyelids, or of one side of the body 
— the pupils are generally dilated — and in protracted cas- 
es, there is an evident swelling of the head, and pro- 
trusion of the bones. 

Favorable. — Urine having a heavy sediment.and fe- 
tid smell— softning of the pulse, and a discharge from 
the nose. 

UNFAvoRABLE.—Blindness, or deafness— deep stupor 



252 DROPSIES. 

— a copious discharge of pale urine — watery discharges 
from the bowels — and twitching of the muscles. 

Ca7/5C5.— Exposure to cold — difficult leethinjT — irrita- 
tion of the bowels — slrikmu in of eruptions and in some 
there seems to be a niiluriil predispoiiiion ; such, be- 
ing oenerallv of ?i scrofu'ou.s habit. 

Trtaime,nt. — During: the firs^t s;:i(Te, ci^'P courses of 
medicine, and Mause)uiM!j doses of lobeli;i.bnthe the feet 
Ions', and repealeilly in hot wjiier, followed by rubbing 
with the vine2;iir linciure of cavenne, and drafts con- 
tainincf cayenne to the feet. Durin^ the whole lirne, a 
Wft cloili should be kept on the head. The bovvtls 
must not be neyilected. 

In the second staoe, the same means must be used, 
and increased if possible ; besides there may beadded, 
a free use of while root, or some oiht-r sudorifiic ; the 
bowels kept more freely open with injections ; and in 
some cases an aperient may be necessary. The hy- 
drogoaue cordial, or some other diureiic, will also be ad* 
visable. 



00 

DROPSY OF THE CELLULAR MEMBRANE. 

Symptoms. — This is an effusion of the serous fluid 
in the looie membrane beneath the skin ; sometimes 
e.xtendlng, nearly over the whole body ; and sometimes 
confined to local parts. It commonly commences with 
the feet and proceeds upwurd ; and is often connected 
\vi h a sluggish languid stale of the system. Its most 
distinguishing symptom, is a pitting from the press- 
ure of the fingers, which remains sompiiine after they 
are removed. It is often connected with dropsy of the 
abdomen and chest. 

FavoicaBle. — When the disease is unattended with 
ony other serious complaint ; and is a general affection, 
(.aused by cold, scarlet fever, hemcerrhage, or arsenic, 
jl is quite frequently cured. 

Unfavorable. — When it arises in diseases of the 
heart or lungs ; and is attended with great debility 



DROPSIES. 253 

Causes. — Loss of blood- 

ury 



—suppressed perspiration, par 

ticularly after the scarlet fever, or the use of mercury 



— intestinal irritation — repelled cutaneous eruptions 

•chronic gout— organic diseases of the heart, lun^s, or 

liidnies — excessive diarrlioea, and other evficnaiiotis 

the longconiinued Mse of arsenic — pregnancy — and any 
thinjr that obstructs the return of the blood through the 
veins. 

Treafmenf.—FuW courses of medicine, wiih a pro- 
tracted use of the vapor biith, is the first thiuL' in this 
coinpliiint. Bathing and briskly, rubbinor the skin with 
sliiDulatins liniment, or the vinejjar tincture of cavenne 
is very important. Diuretics may be freely used. Af- 
ter a few courses of medicine, thi- bitters shoulJ be em- 
ployed. 

'Jhe Dropsies, like most other diseases, will require, 
more or less use of aslrinsrents, to detach the ranker 
and false memtrane from the stomach and bowels, and 
cleanse and resiiore tone to the generjil system. For 
this puriwse, the suin"c is the most appropriate ; as ii is, 
a diuretic ; the roots are bal amic.lhe leaves asirinjrent, 
and the ber'ies acid. Unite the three; add E^'m to pre- 
serve, honey to sweeten ; and take a winneglass full 
4 or 5 times a day. The alkaline wash, to relax and o- 
pen the pores, preceding the vapor bath, tvill be advisa- 
ble. 



CHAP. XVI. 

OBSTRUCTIONS-Chronic. 



C0STIVENE88. 

Symptoms. — Hardened state of the feces, the bowels not 
moving off every day, acid stomach, heart burn, loss of ap- 
petite, head ach, foul breath, flatulency, piles and nervous 
affections. It is often symtomatic of other aflfections ; but 
it frequently seems to be idiopathic and constitutional. 

Causes. — The immediate, are, the loss of the peristalic 
motion of the bowels, and a difficult secretion ot 
bile. The remote,are,the use of fine flour bread, sedentary 
habits, the employment of opium, astringent condiments, 
drastic purges, mercury, fat meat, spirituous liquors, over- 
eating, and any thing that injures the action of the li- 
ver. 

Treatment. — Ahogether too much reliance has been 
placed upon cathartics, for the removal of this difficulty. — 
It is true that they relieve ; but in the end they increase the 
complaint. A proper regimen is the only true cure. How- 
ever, cathartics may be employed for present relief, where 
enemas will not suffice. After this, keep the bowels open 
a few days, by the use of the bile pills, or bitter root and 
cayene, equal parts, taken once a day. Or, what is more 
purely an aperient, and also a tonic, cayenne and golden 
seal, equal parti, 3 or 4 times a day. It should be remem- 
bered that cayenne taken cold, is more laxitive, than when 
scalded. The following, will be found a very convenient 
medicine for habitual costiveness. Bruise onions in a mor- 
tar to a pulp, add a large portion of golden seal, seasoned 
well with cayenne and oil of peppermint, sweetened liberal- 
ly with sugar,thickened with slippery elm flour,and formed 
into cakes. Eat freely at meal time. 
Eegimm, — A diet of unbolted wheat bread, is now very 



COSTIVENESS. . g^$B5 

popular, and found to be a very effectual remedy for this 
complaint. 

Bathing, and other means to invigorate the action of the 
skin, has a decided effect upon it. Shampooning — (or 
rubbing, pressing, and kneeding the bowels with the hands) 
— has been used with success ; but active labor, is a more 
satural substitute. Riding on horseback, we have known 
to produce a free bilious discharge, after torpidity of the 
liver. Use but little animal food; eat more freely of 
fruits, fresh vegetables, and indian corn ; and avoid fine 
flour bread ; especially that of the bakers, which often 
contains alum, and other unwholesome articles. Fast fre- 
quently ; and eat no piece meals. 

00 



JAUNDICE. 

Symptoms- — It generally comes on with languor, drow- 
siness, costiveness, acidity of the stomach, and pain in the 
right side; followed by a yellowish color of the skin and 
eyes, sometimes every object seems to have a yellow hue; 
and occasionaly the skin has a dark or greenish appear- 
ance, called black jaundice. There is a yellow coat on 
the tongue, a bitter taste in the mouth, itching over the sur- 
face, and the feces are often clay colored. Sometimes it 
lasts but a few weeks ; in other cases, it is very chronic. 

Causes. — Any thing that obstructs the ducts of the liver, 
and causes the absorption of bile into the system. Gall 
stones, sometimes make the obstruction ; known by acute 
intermitting pains in the right side near the pit of the 
stomach. 

Treatment. —For mild cases, use the stomach pills sev- 
eral times a day, with some form of bitters at meal time ; 
and the bitter root and cayenne at night. The insippisa- 
tedjuce of dandelion mav also be used freely. Where 
there are symptoms of gallstones, thorough, relaxing 
courses of medicine, are required, in order to favor the es- 
cape of these impediments from the gall bladder and 
ducts. Two baths, and two enemas, may be given, con- 
taining lobelia, to each course. 



256 JAUNDICE 

Coursesof medicine, steaming, and bathing the lurfase 
with liniment, are useful at any stage. 



-00- 



FALSE MEMBRANE. 

"This is a substance that covers the mucous membrane 
ofthestomach and bowels, both in acute and chronic dis- 
eases, and is detached by the administration of courses of 
medicine, or any rquivalcnt mode of treatmrnt. whi^h 
lends to exalt the vital powers, and thoroughly renovate 
the system. It i? of a greyish, or whitish color, and pass- 
es considerable firmness. There is every reason to sup- 
pose that, in many cases, it lines the whole extent of the 
intestinal canal, together wiih the stomach ; for I have 
known it to pass of by stool, for weeks in succession, a- 
mounting in aggregate to several quarts. It is usualy 
discharged in shreds, or patches, but sometimes passes in 
a tubular form, exactly resembling an intestine. It is 
thick, firm, and tough, but evidently unorganized, appear- 
ing to be wholly destitute of blood vessels^'and nerves. It 
is similar to the membrane coughed up by children in 
croup, and is no doubt an efliision of lymph, which is soft 
at fir.4, but gradually hardens, and assumes tl?e form of a 
membrane * ** A thorough knowledge of this morbid 
substance, is of great practical importance in the treatment 
of disease, for it plays a conspicuous part in many of the 
\disorders to which the human system is liable. When it 
coats the internal surface of the stomach and bowels, it in- 
teferes with the digestive process, and prevrnis, to 'a cer- 
tain extent the absorption of chyle from the int( stinal canal, 
without which the body cannot be adequately nourished! 
This will account for the lean and cadaverous apprarance 
of many people afflicted with chronic disorders * * * |n 
all chronic diseases there is a discharge of f.,Ise membrane 
by stool before a cure is cfTected; and this occurs also in 
some . f the acute disease,-, in wnich there has been suffi- 
cient time for its formation. The period at which it is 
detached, after the treatment has been commenced, varies 
according to circumstaoces ; it may be a few days, or a 



FALSE MEMBRANES. 257 

aumber of weeks ; and the membrane may be discharged 
in two or three copious stools, or it may continue to make 
its appearance for a fortnight or a month. In some in- 
stances it is ejected from the stomach in shreds or patches, 
during the operation of an emetic." — M. Mattson, T. P. 

" The first that I ever saw of this membrane, was in 
the summer of '34. I had administered a course of med- 
icine to a patient, and accidentally discovered that a large 
quantity of skinny like substance had passed from his 
bowels. This fact struck my attention at the time, and 
from that period to the present time — 1843, 1 have found 
it to be universally present in all cases of disease, at least 
with few exceptions ; and as a general rule, disease be- 
gins to yield as this false membrane passes away. 

"There is no plan of treatment that can be adopted, 
that would prove as effectual in removing this coating of 
morbid matter from the stomach and bowels, as courses 
of medicine, and a free use of cayenne and bayberry. — 
This subject, though of great importance in a medical 
point of view, has not to my knowledge ever engaged 
the attention of the medical profession in this country. 
Dr. S. Thomson, in using the term 'canker' [He claimed 
it as his discovery, and justly too ; for the regular prac- 
tice created it, while his removed it] has allusion to mor- 
bid secretions, coating the stomach and bowels ; and 
through his discoveries, we are furnished with the knowl- 
edge of the best means to effect their Removal."— J. W. 
Comfort, M. D. . ' 

Within a few years, "false membrane" has been criti- 
cally noticed, and well attested by the Medical Faculties 
of Europe. In the cases reported, it seems not to have 
been removed by their medicines, but the efforts of na- 
ture—attacks of fever, cholic, or some other acute disease; 
after which the patient, frequently, very soon recovered. 

_ 00 

GRAVEL AND STONE. 

Symptoms.— Of gravel in the kidnies— fixed pain in 
the loins— numbness of the thigh on the side affected— 

33 



258 STONE AND GRAVEL. 

retraction of the testicle, frequent desire to pass water, 
nausea and vomiting. When the gravel moves from the 
Ividnies into the bladder, it is attended with acute, and 
often excruciating pain. Of stone in the bladder — a fre- 
quent desire to pass water and evacuate the rectum — an 
uneasy sensation in the head of the penis — severe pain 
in the lower part of the bowels, retching and vomiting, 
and urine sometimes bloody — its passage is frequently 
interrupted, and the pain is greatest immediately after the 
discharge. 

Causes. — The gravel are little earthy concretions, like 
sand. Their formation is attributed to an acid state of 
the urine. The stone is of the same nature, but the bod- 
ies are larger. They are found in both the kidnies and 
bladder. Gravel seldom terminates in stone. This kind 
of disease is most common in childhood or old age. There 
is much similarity between the morbid matter formed in 
gout, and in stone ; and the same habits of life have been 
known to produce each disease. 

Treatment. — Take cleavers, strawberry, and partridge 
vine, two oz. of each ; boil in two quarts of water ; add 
honey, flaxseed jelly, and gin to preserve it. Take a 
wine-glass full from three to six times a day, adding to 
each dose a tea-spoonful of cough balsam. After taking 
this a few days, accompanied with a dose of cayenne in 
a cup of alkaline water three or four times a day, then 
take an injection\of strong, soft-soap suds containing a 
tea-spoonful of brown lobelia, followed by a protracted use 
of the vapor bath, steaming below the hips for a time at 
first; then give a thorough emetic, followed by a bath 
and injection like the first. Soda water should be given 
with the emetic, and no astringents employed. This 
course if5 designed to relax the system so as to allow the 
^"escape of the gravel from the uterus or uretha. The 
juice of the common raddish is recommended as having 
the power to dissolve gravel and stone. Metheglin has 
been known to produce a free discharge of gravel. A 
decoction of the honey bee will be a powerful diuretic 
in this case. Smartweed tea has been successful, &c. 

Example. — "I visited a patient who had symptoms of 
gravel in the kidneys, under ^Jtie care of Dr, Fonerden. 



CHLOROSIS. 259 

The patient had taken two or three courses of medicine, 
and at the time I saw him the system was very much 
relaxed under the influence of lobelia, and he had what 
are termed the alarming symptoms. The family of the 
patient, being unacquainted with the effects of the med- 
icine, were much alarmed. During the relaxation, the 
patient in voiding urine, passed a calculous, gravel stone 
about three-fourths of an inch in length, as thick as a com- 
mon goose quill, and was immediately relieved.—/. W. 
Comfort, M. D. 



-00- 



CHLOROSIS. 

Symptoms. — Paleness of countenance — weakness-lan- 
guor — palpitation of the heart — pains in the back, loins, 
and hips — 'costiveness — flatulence and acidity of the stom- 
ach — and a preternatural appetite for chalk, charcoal, 
clay, pickles, &c. As the disease advances, the counte- 
nance assumes a vellowish hue, verginof upon frreen, 
which has given it the name of the green sickness. The 
eyes are encircled with a livid colored segment — the feet 
are affected with dropsical swellings. There are hyster- 
ical symptoms — the pulse is quick and weak, and bleed- 
ing from the nose, stomach, bowels, or uterus often occurs; 
the blood having a pale watery appearance. It often ter- 
minates in dropsy or consumption. 

Causes. — Sedentary habits, want of pure air, luxurious 
living, cold, and any thing which causes a permanent re- 
tention of the menses, which is its proximate cause. It 
is peculiar to young unmarried females. 

Treatment. — Commence with a course of medicine 
No. I., making a free use of the composition and nerve 
powder combined. Either the hip or foot bath should be 
used every night, followed by rubbing with the stimula- 
ting liniment. The bowels should be moved every eve- 
nin'T^ with a stimulating injection ; a stimulating plaster 
be put on the back ; a half a teaspoonful of cayenne, in 
milk or molasses, be taken at bed time ; and the female 
restorative, or woman's friend, should be used three times 



260 CHLOROSIS. 

e day. The following is a valuable preparation to restore 
uterine action : 

Take black cohosh, unicorn, black cherry, quassia- 
wood, prickly-ash, and myrrh, each a table-spoonful ; a 
lump of lime half the size of a hen's egg, to which add 
three pints of boiling water, and sweeten : Dose half a 
tea-cupful from three to five times a day. The courses 
of medicine should be repeated as often as it seems need- 
ed. Perseverence is very necessary in this case. 

Regimen. — Exercise, is of the highest importance, par- 
ticularly riding on horseback. Besides, use healthy and 
nourishing diet, and associate in cheerful company. 



CHAP. xvn. 
FLUXES, 



DIARRHEA. 

Symptoms. — Unnatural looseness of the bowels, at- 
tended with a sense of languor; rumbling; griping pains. 
Sometimes undigested food frequently passes; at others, 
quantities of slime, or mucous; at other times, vitiated 
bile, resembling the washings of flesh; and in some 
cases a white chyle-like fluid passes ofT. It is attended 
with emaciation, and a dry and rigid surface. 

Causes. — A transient kind is frequently produced by 
cathartics, and any thing that irritates the bowels. A 
profuse diarrhea occurs in the last stages of consump- 
tion and other diseases; in these cases the discharge is 
watery, and unnatural. In some diseases, it occurs as a 
favorable crisis, when it is always characterized by the 
appearance of bile ; or by yellowness of the feces. Diar- 
rhea frequently arises during the time of teething in 
children. The causes of the common chronic form, are 
various ; as an improper diet, excessive venery, exposure 
to cold, mercury and poisons generally. 

Treatment.- — The two prominent indications in this 
disease, are, to restore the functions of the skin by the 
use of the vapor bath and stimulating liniments, and to 
remove the false membrane from the stomach and bow- 
els by the use of emetics, stimulants and astringents. — 
These must be used with persevtrence. The dysentery 



262 CATARRH. 

syrup may be very advantageously employed in diarrhea, 
whether chronic or acute. A light but nourishing diet 
should be used ; and flannel be worn next the skin. 

00 



CATARRH IN THE HEAD. 

Symptoms. — Commonly commencing with sneezing 
and a thin watery discharge from the nose, which finally 
becomes thick, yellowish, greenish, and at length has a 
purulent quality; attended with a sensation of a peculiar 
smell, pain in the brow, and occasional coughing. It 
may last for years. One variety extends to the lungs, 
and causes consumption. 

Cause. — Neglect of colds. 

Treatment. — The vapor bath should be often used. — 
The vapor of tar breaihed into the nostrils will be very 
good. Besides, take the following snuff': bayberry, bit- 
ter-root, blood-root, gum arable, and gum myrrh, equal 
parts ; pulverized, and sifted. 

00 



DIABETES. 

Symptoms. — Unusual flow of urine; sometimes the 
quantity is prodigious — great thirst — craving appetite — 
dry, harsh state of the skin — dyspeptic symptoms — and 
wasting of the flesh. In one species the urine has a 
sweet taste, and contains a quantity of sugar. It is re- 
markable, that, notwithstanding the exhausted state of 
the system, it sometimes ends in apoplexy. It may also 
terminate in consumption and dropsy. 

Causes. — The immediate, are a relaxed, deranged state 
of the kidnies, and a deficient action in the skin. The 
remote causes, are exposure to cold; excessive indulgen- 
ces; injuries of the spine, &c. 

Treatment. — Courses of medicine ; frequent use of the 
vapor bath ; bathing and rubbing the surface with stim- 
ulating applications. 

Deershorn burned to a coal, and pulverized, we have 



LEUCORRHEA. gg?; 

found very effectual in curing this disease. It is very 
difficult to cure when it has continued some time. 



-00- 



LEUCORRHEA. 

Symptoms. — This disease, sometimes called flour aj- 
bus, or whites, consists in a morbid discharge from :h e 
vagina ; sometimes like common mucous ; in worse cases 
it is white, resembling pulverized starch mixed with a 
mucilaginous fluid ; in more violent cases the discharge 
has the appearance of pus, and possesses an acrid corro- 
ding quality. It is attended with pallid countenance ; 
cold feet and hands; dyspeptic symptoms ; pain in the 
loins and lower extremities ; debility and dejection of 
spirits. 

Causes. — Sedentary habits; luxurious living; excess- 
ive sensuality ; difficult parturition ; and any thing that 
weakens the genital organs. 

Treatment. — If this disease is of long standing, we 
should commence with a protracted course of medicine. 
Give two or three stomach pills wiih a dose of composi- 
tion every two hours for ten or twelve hours ; keeping 
the feet warm. Then give a common injection, and a 
bath, wipe the surface dry, and rub the stimulating lini- 
ment thoroughly upon the back, bowels and limbs. Af- 
ter this, give from one to three doses of lobelia at suitable 
intervals; with a free use of composition, or canker tea. 
After the emetic has done operating give a dose of spice 
or wine bitters, and a little toast. Then apply the vapor 
bath, and rub with liniment as before. This operation 
should be repeated as often as circumstances seem to re- 
quire. The secret of curing this complaint consists most- 
ly in restoring a due action to the skin. The female 
restorative, or some other tonic preparation, should be 
given as often as three or five times a day. The bow- 
els should be daily moved by astringent, tonic, and stimu- 
lating injections ; and the female injection, in particular, 
should be used several times a day. A large plaster may 
be put on the back ; and the stimulating liniment, the 



564 GONORRHEA. 

composition and the stomach pills daily used. The gel- 
atin capsules, or balsam copavia in some form is very ef- 
fectual in this complaint ; in its stead the cough balsam, 
or balsam of fir dropped in sugar, will be very good. 

■♦ 

GONORRHOEA. 

Symptoms. — There are several varieties of disease un- 
der this head, one of which is contagious, for which see 
syphilis ; but the kind we intend here, is the involuntary 
emission of the semen during sleep. It is generally ac- 
companied by a dream of corresponding nature ; and re- 
sults often in extreme emaciation and debility of mind and 
body — a predisposing cause to every disease. 

Cause. — Precocious sexual desires ; and self pollution, 
•'This subject, from the nature of it, is not generally 
treated of by writers on health. But none is more im- 
portant, as it involves consequences of the most serious 
kind. The semen is the most subtle, vital, and ethereal 
part of the body. It contributes to the support of the 
nerves as well as the reproduction of the human species ; 
and its evaciation is by no means necessary, and when 
retained, adds greater strength to the system. It is found 
on the observations of the ablest physiologists, that 
the greater part of this refined fluid is reabsorbed and 
mixed wi'.h the blood, of which it constitues the most 
rarified and volatile part; imparts to the body, peculiar 
sprightliness, vivacity, and vigor. These beneficial ef- 
fects cannot he produced if the semen be wantonly and 
imprudently wasted. Besides the emission of it is accom- 
panied with lassitude and relaxation, often with greatner- 
vous depression. It therefore should never be evacuated 
only in a state of superfluity, and even then never unnat- 
urally."— IT. Beach, M. D. 

Much more might be said. See Deslandes' and Gra- 
ham's work on this subject. 

Treatment. — The first means for the removal of this 
morbid habit, lies in will. Resolutions of the most con- 
slant and energetic kind must be adopted to prevent ic ; 
so mu«h so as to extend through the deepest sleep. Be- 
sides this, the patient should sleep on a hard bed with as 
littl« clothing as possible ; eat light Auppers ; retire late, 



ULCERS. 265 

and rise early. Some of the tonic bitters and the shower 
bath at night will assist. Camphor dissolved in nitrous 
ether and sweet oil, and applied to the genitals, will 
assist to abate their morbid activity. The principal in- 
dication is to stop the emission by care and watchfulness^ 
which is at once restoring strength to the body, and ban- 
ishing the habit. 



CHAP. XVIII. 

ULCERATION. 



ULCERS IN GENERAL. 

Wounds many times, when properly treated, unite 
without any discharge ; this is called healing by the fir.Mt 
intention. In other cases previous to healing, they se- 
crete a white cream like fluid, called pus. This some- 
times degenerates into an acrid, corroding liquid, attended 
with an absorption of the surrounding tissues ; the latter 
is more properly ulceration. 

Healthy Ulcers. — These secrete pus, which without 
any other dressing, forms a scab, beneath which the 
<ibraded, or absorbed parts, are reproduced in little points 
called granulations. 

Irritable Ulcers. — These occur in an unheathly state 
of the body have no distinct granulations, but only a 
white spongy substance, covered with watery liquid. — 
They easily inflame, and retrograde from improper 
treatment. 

Indolent Ulcers. — In these, the edges of the surroun- 
ding skin are smooth, rounded and prominent; the 
granulations are smooth, weak and apt to be reabsorbed ; 
the pas is imperfectly formed, and adheres ; and the 
whole appears like a detached portion of skin, without an 
efljirt to restore it. Sometimes the surrounding skin has 
a dark, malignant appearance. This species of ulcer ia 



266 PROUD FLESH. 

often found on the legs of old people, sailors, inebriates, 
and those whose blood is in a bad state. 

Treatment. — A healthy ulcer seldom needs more than 
poulticing with with slippery elm, followed by a dressing 
of the healing salve ; often only the latter. The other 
species should be thoroughly washed and bathed in weak 
ley, followed with a wash of bayberry, or raspberry, and 
a little No. 6. ; after which the slippery elm and ginger 
poultice may be applied. This is to be daily repeated. 
Where the patient is about, the poultice may be applied 
only at night, and the healing salve during the day. In 
many cases the general health requires courses of medi- 
cine, tonics, and the sarsaparilla syrup. Indolent ulcers 
have been greatly benefitted by sprinkling them with 
pulverized blood root ; occasionally washing with soap 
suds. A stimulating poultice containing cayenne and 
lobelia, often has a good effect. 8d preparation is a good 
wash for indolent ulcers. 



PROUD FLESH. 
This is an excresence of a fleshy looking substance, 
that arises from wounds and sores. 

Treatment. — The powder, or the inspissated juice of 
the blood root is the best thing known to remove it. It 
may be applied frequently. 

^ 

GANGRENE. 

When an injured part turns soft, dark, and loses its 
sensibility, though retaining some degree of circulation it 
is called gangrene, or the first stage of mortification. 

When a part becomes blackish, fibrous, insensible, 
without circulation, sometimes covered with blisters, and 
crackling from pressure, it is called a sphacelus, or the 
last stage of mortification. When the patient recovers, 
the living and dead parts separate by a distinct line. A 
species of mortification sometimes attacks the limbs of 
old people without previous injury. Hiccough is almost 
aqjiivariable attendant of mortification. 
^Treatment. — The two preceding cases require a most 
tnSrough application of stimulants and antiseptics, — 
Tincture of myrrh and cayenne, made strong, should be 



ABSCESSES. 267 

faithfully applied, internally and externally. Afterward, 
put on a poultice of charcoal and yeast. The charcoal 
should be previously calcined. The gastrin juice from 
the stomachs of animals, has been applied with success. 
Water of tar, vinegar, chloride of lime, bitter herbs.— 
Wild indigo, smart weed, peruvian bark and other repu- 
ted antiseptics, may be employed. 

ABSCESSES. 

These are an inflammation and swelling of the skin,'or 
some glandular part, followed by suppuration, as in- 
stanced in breasts of females, and boils. Suppuration 
is known by lancinating pains, and chills ; by the 
swelling gathering into a point, which softens, ap- 
pears purple, or whitish, and around which the walls of 
the abscess may be felt, which now assume an increased 
redness ; and by the abatement of pain, and the sensible 
fluctuation of a fluid from touch. 

Treatmerit. — Give composition and stomach pills free- 
ly ; apply a slippery elm and ginger poultice to the part; 
steam, and endeavor to disperse the swelling. If sup- 
puration cannot be prevented, it seems to be very kindly 
aided by a poultice of bruised carrots. When pus has 
been formed several days, it is advisable to open them 
with a lancet ; but it should be done with care, where 
there are large vessels ; and in the female breast, the 
pus had better approach near the surface first, for fear of 
wounding the milk vessels, which would be troublesome. 

♦^ 

FELONS. 

These are deep seated al^scesses that arise from the 
membrane that covers the bones of the hands ; and are 
extremely painful. 

Treatment. — Slack quick lime with soft soap ; fill a 
thimble with the same, set it on the felon, and hold it 
there as long as the pain will permit ; then immerce the 
hand in cold water; and again apply the soap and lime, 
and so continue. When the pain is subdued, apply the 
slippery elm poultice. This course will either arrest 
the suppuration, or soon terminate it with a very sm^J 
amount. 



263 POLYPUS— PILES— FISTULA. 

POLYPUS. 

This is a fleshy excretion that arises from the raucous 
membrane of the nose and uterus. 

Treatment. — The latter may sometimes be removed 
by a ligature. That of the nose, may be removed in the 
beginning by snuffing up the nostril No. 6, and blood 
root. When it has grown large, apply the vegetable 
caustic which will kill the surface ; cut this off, and ap- 
ply the caustic again ; and so continue until it is all cut 
away ; afterward, apply the blood root. 

-♦ 

PILES. 

These are tumors in the lower part of the rectum, 
which are often very painful and troublesome ; partica- 
larly on going to stool. The tumors when bad, from be- 
ing immediately connected with the veins of the rectum, 
often bleed considerably ; these are called bleeding, and 
the other blind piles. 

Cause. — Sedentary habits ; drastic, and particularly 
aloetic purges ; habitual costiveness above all others. 

Treatment. — The first thing is to keep the bowels 
loose by the use of the unbolted wheat bread ; we have 
been informed of two cases where this ha*? cured alone. 
Besides the patient should take an injection of poplar and 
bayberry, at night, and retain it till morning ; using a 
tea spoonful of golden seal 3 tinnes a day ; which has 
been known to cure of itself. The pile salve should al- 
so be used night and morning. When the tumors are so 
large as to descend, they may be removed by passing a 
ligature around them, and tightening daily ; or they may 
be destroyed by repeatedly touching them with caustive 
potash. 

— ♦— 

FISTULA. 

This is a deep seated abscess or ulcer that occurs most 
frequently about the anus, and opens by a callous duct 
or sinus. Sometimes they form a communication with 
the rectum ; and sometimes with the urethra. Thej 
rarely heal of themselves ; and are difficult to cure. 

Treatmeyit. — Dr. Beach, recommends to steam the 
pirts thoroughly over bitter herbs ; and enlarging the 
sinus by introducing tents, which are to be rubbed with 



TETTERS. 269 

a powder made by boiling down liickory ley ; besides 
syringing them with ley as strong as it can be borne. 
His object is to keep open the fistula, promote an active 
suppuration, and at the same time soften the callous 
walls of the sinus; for which latter, apply the stimulating 
liniment and nerve ointment. 

This process is followed after a suitable time by spon- 
taneous healinor. 



TETTERS. 
There are various species of eruptions, seeming 
to have their origin in a vitiated state of the blood, 
which we will include under this head. Small pimples 
and blisters arising, which break and corrode the skin, 
followed by a scabbing, icthing, a ndinflammation, which, 
when healed in one place appear in another, being most 
frequently on the hand, difficult to cure, and apparently 
constitutional, are called salt rheum. 

Another appears in little ulcers, which enlarge, unite 
together, and are attended with erysipelatous inflamma- 
tion, called corroding tetter. 

Another appears about the head and neck of children 
in hot weather, in little rash like pimples, that seldom 
break, called prickly heat. A similar eruption appears 
on infants, called red gum. 

Some people are subject to an eruption which appears 
ia the form of scales, called dry tetters. 

A peculiar eruption in the form of flattened lumps, that 
appear and disappear suddenly, coming out mostly in the 
evening, and attended with heat and itching, is called 
nettle rash. 

A kind of vesicle, appearing about the breast and 
•ther parts where there is the most warmth and moist- 
ure, attended with a considerable fever and other impor- 
tant constitutional symptoms, is called the miliary tetter, 
or miliary fever, from the resemblance of the eruption to 
a millet seed. In the latter affection there is an unusual 
acidity of the sweat. Other eruptions have with some 
reason been ascribed to an acid state of the system. 

Treatment. — An emetic or a course of medicme will 
be very serviceable in many of these cases : the patient 



270 CORNS— RICKETS. 

taking pretty freely of soda, or oyster shell lime water. 
The parts should be bathed in weak ley, daily followed 
by a wash of 3d preparation and sumac decoction ; after- 
ward applying a poultice made of the bark of green 
osier, and the bruised root of the yellow dock; or the 
tetter ointment. The alterative, or the sarsaparilla syrup 
should be used for a lenjrth of time. 



CORNS. 

Hardened lumps of cuticle, caused by tight boots. 

Treatment. — Bathe them a long time with weak ley, 
shave them down, and apply a piece of bladder moistened 
with nerve ointment. Wear larger boots. 



CHAP. XIX. 

DEFORMITIES. 



RICKETS. 



Symptoms. — Uncommon size of the head — swelling of 
the joints — flattening of the ribs — bending of the back — 
protuberance of the belly — general emaciation, and soft- 
ness and inability of the bones to support the body. 

Causes. — The proximate cause, is a weakness, softness 
and yielding of the bones. It commences in infancy, 
generally about the last period of nursing ; and it is sup- 
posed to arise from a want of phosphate of lime in the 
nurses milk. 

Treatment. — This requires a tonic and strengthening 
course. The patient should be induced to drink freely 
of a tea of poplar and bayberry and a little cayenne. — 
His skin should be frequently rubbed with suds of castile 
soap, and afterward dashed over with cold salt water. — 
Oyster shell lime water should be given three or four 
limes a day, taking care not to have it too strong. On- 
ions should be much used as a diet. A soup made by 
boiling: the bones of veal or beef a long time will be ver\r 



GOITRE— WHITE SWELLING. 271 

good. But perhaps a new nurse with a fresh breast of 
milk will be the most effectual remedy that can be de- 
vised. 

^ 

GOITRE. 

Symptoms. — This is an enlargement of the thyroid 
gland upon the fore part of the neck, and though not 
dangerous, is unsightly, and often troublesome from press- 
ing on the wind pipe and impeding respiration. 

Cause. — From the fact that this defect most frequently 
appears in certain sections of country, it is supposed to 
arise from some peculiarity in the climate, or water 

Treatment. — Stimulating applications, friction, and 
pressure. These will excite the absorbents to remove 
the tumor. We have known the pressure of an ordina- 
ry stock succeed in curing. The ashes of burnt sponge, 
and 3d preparation may be applied. 

WHITE SWELLING. 

Symptoms. — A swelling of the knee, ankle, or wrist, 
which, frequently increases to a large size without the 
color being much altered, excepting, that they are some- 
times more white and shining, hence their name. After 
some time they frequently suppurate and discharge. 

They are divided into two kinds the scrofulous, and 
rheumatic. 

The first is known by the pain commencing before the 
swelling, confined to one point, and abating as the swell- 
ing increases: Whereas in the latter, the pain arises af- 
ter the swelling, extends over the whole joint, and in- 
creases with its size. The constitution often suffers gen- 
erally, and sometimes, if not cured, they prove fatal. 

Treatment. — Courses of medicine, and the spice bit- 
ters are often required to restore the general health ; be- 
sides the joint should be steamed several times a day, 
over a strong decoction of wormwood, tanzy, and hops, 
with a pint of soft soap. Hot stone? may be put into the 
liquid, the joint placed over it, and covered with a blank- 
et. This operation has a most decided effect, in remov- 
ing the pain, dispersing the swelling, or hurrvingon sup- 
puration, and thus bringing the disease to a crisis. After 



272 HERNIA OR RUPTURE. 

the steamings, bathe thoroughly with the stimulating lin- 
iment — sometimes with the nerve ointment ; then bind 
it up tightly with a piece of open cloth ; and apply over 
this, the stimulating poultice. When it breaks, the open- 
ing should be well syringed with weak ley, afterward, 
with astringents. The alterative syrup should not be 
neglected. This complaint is slow to cure, and require* 
perseverance. 



CHAP. XX. 

DISPLACEMENTS. 



HERNIA OR RUPTURE. 

This is an obtrusion of the bowels, and the membrane 
that covers them, through an opening in the walls of the 
abdomen. It most commonly occurs at the groin, and is 
then called inguinal hernia ; when it descends into the 
scrotum, it is called scrotal hernia ; above the groin, it is 
called femoral hernia ; when at the navel — umbilical 
hernia. When the obtruding organs can readily be put 
back it is said to be reducible ; when they have formed 
an adhesion to the external parts, it is called irreducible. 
When the bowel is compressed by its contents, and the 
narrowness of the opening, it is said to be strangulated. 
It is from the latter circumstance that the greatest danger 
of hernia arises. When it is strangulated, pain, inflam- 
mation, and sometimes mortification are the result. 

Causes. — Straining the abdomen by violent exertions ; 
excessive crying in children, and hereditary tendency. 

Treatment. — In infancy a rupture may often be cured 
by the use of compresses or trusses, and applications to 
contract and strengthen the parts, Perhaps the most suc- 
cessful is a plaster of the extract of white oak bark- 
Whenever this is taken off, the part should be well 
rubbed with the white of eggs and No. 6. It happens 



PROLAPSUS ANI AND UTERI. 273 

someiimes that the bowel comes down, and becomes 
strangulated so that it cannot be pushed back. Surgeons 
are in the habit of operating for this ; but it is a danger- 
ous practice, and has destroyed hundreds. Strangulated 
hernia, where there is no adhesion, may almost univer- 
sally be reduced, by bathing in warm, weak ley, steam- 
ing the patient, and relaxing him with lobelia" When 
these applications have been made a sufficient length of 
time, let the patient lie so that the rupture shall be up- 
permost, at the same time bending the body forward : 
then grasping the hernial sack, pressing the hernia so as 
to make its base as small as possible, and with the other 
hand press on its top. It often requires some time and 
perseverance. 

♦■ 

PROLAPSUS ANI. 

This is a protrusion of the rectum through the anus, 
which sometimes becomes habitual, and very trouble- 
some. It occurs mostly in infancy and old age ; and is 
caused by weakness, purging, costiveness, and straining 
at stool. A degree of it is sometimes caused by piles. 

Treatment. — In common the part should be immedi- 
ately returned with the hand, the fingers being oiled ; af- 
ter which strong astringent injections should be used— a 
decoction of white oak bark, or cranes-bill and myrrh, 
and tiie bowels be kept loose by the use of the unbolted 
wheat bread. When inflammation makes it difficult to 
return the intestine, it may be previously well bathed in 
a warm suds of castile soap, to which the tincture of lo- 
belia may be added. 

♦- 

PROLAPSUS UTERI. 

This is a descent of the uterus into the vagina ; some- 
times so much as to extend beyond the external pans ; 
and is attended with pains in the lovver part of the back, 
groins, and thighs ; uneasiness about the hips, and a 
sense of fulness, and bearing down, increased by walk- 
ing. A discharge like flour albus commonly occurs ; 
there is difficulty of passing urine and feces ; and the gen- 
eral health is frequently impaired. It is caused by de- 
bility, and excited by too much walking, dancing, diffi- 
cult parturition, &c. 

34 



274 EPILEPSY. 

Treatment. — Give occasionally a light course of med- 
icine, with a liberal use of the female restorative. The 
uterus may be supported in its place by a suitable piece 
of sponge well saturated with some strong astrmgent de- 
coction. A piece of ribbon may be attached to the sponge 
for its removal. Whenever it is withdrawn, the female 
injections should be used. A strengthening plaster 
should be put on the back. The abdominal supporters 
found in the medical markets, are sometimes very useful. 



[NERVOUS DISEASES-CHRONIC] 

CHAP. XXI. 

SPASMODICS-CHRONIC. 



EPILEPSY, 



Symptoms. — In this disease the patient often falls down 
suddenly, and becomes convulsed and insensible, the 
eyes roll wildly — the tongue is protruded — the teeth 
g'nash together — the mouth foams — the countenance ia 
horribly distorted, and the body often whirls rapidly about. 
Sometimes the face is pale ; sometimes purple. Some 
patients return suddenly to consciousness ; and others 
remain drowsy and stupid several hours. It is periodical 
ill some, occurring in various times, fiom every day to sev- 
eral months. It usually attacks during sleep, and happens 
the oftenest when the patient is most debilitated. It is 
found in a variety of degrees and symptoms. 

Causes. — Worms ; disorded state of the stomach and 
bowels; poisons; alcoholic drinks; excessive venereal in- 
dulgence ; violent emotions ; but most commonly some 
organic affection of the brain or spinal column. 

Treatment. — The paroxysms can generally be very 
much alleviated by a prompt use of 3d preparation. — 
When the cause is in the bowels, courses of medicine; or 



ST. VITUS DANCE. 275 

when it is caused by worms, courses of medicine, and ver- 
mifuges, as given under the head of worms will often 
cure. The same treatment has also been known to les- 
sen the frequency of its attack, in cases that were obsti- 
nate. There is generally a determination to the head, 
resembling apoplexy, which requires the foot or hip bath, 
and rubbing the lower extremeties with vinegar tincture 
of cayenne, or stimulating liniment ; and cold applications 
to the head. Care must be taken to prevent the patient 
from injuring himself during the paroxysms. An invio-- 
orating regimen should be employed. 

-♦ 

ST. VITUS DANCE. 

Symptoms. — An involuntary action of the muscles, 
most generally confined to one side, and most frequently 
appearing on the attempt of some voluntary motion. — 
Sometimes some one or more of the limbs are constantly 
in motion ; yet on some attentive effort, like levelling a 
gun, they are perfectly steady. It is remarkable that the 
sound of the violin, or some other music, generally com- 
poses the patient. In some cases the spasmodic motions 
are so constant and perplexing, that the patient cannot 
feed himself, or even v/alk. The countenance often be- 
comes pale and unexpressive ; the muscles are flaccid and 
weak ; and the bowels costive. 

Causes. — Excessive sensual indulgences, and nervous 
excitements ; exposure to cold ; poor living ; and any de- 
bilitating thing. This singular disease has been commu- 
nicated by sympathy. 

Treatment. — Courses of medicine ; relying much on 
injections containing lobelia. The nerve powder, and 
spice, or wine bitters should be constantly employed. — 
The shower bath should be used after steaming. 

"The success of the Thomsonian practice in thia dis- 
ease has been unbounded. Probably there never has 
been a case of St. Vitus Dance in the hands of a judi- 
cious practitioner — one upon whom a thorough treatment 
has been put in requisition, without either experiencing 
great benefit, or a radical cure. The writer of this no- 
tice has seen one case of seven years standing", perraa- 



276 ASTHMA AND PALSY. 

nently cured by one course of medicine.'* — A, N. Wof 
thy, M. D. 

♦ 

ASTHMA. 

Symptoms. — A spasmodic affection of the lungs, atten- 
ded with frequent, difficult, and short respiration, togeth- 
er with a wheezing noise, tightness across the chest, and 
a cough. It comes on, in paroxysms, mostly at night ; 
and the symptoms are much increased when the patient 
lies down. Dyspeptic symptoms usually attend it. When 
it has once taken place it is apt to occur periodically, par- 
ticularly upon changes of the atmosphere, obstructions 
of perspiration, inhalation of dust, &c. 

Treatment. — Lobelia is now acknowledged by the au- 
thors of every school, as the most sovereign remedy for 
asthma. In mild cases, or what is commonly called 
phthisic, a few doses of tincture of lobelia in composition 
at suitable intervals, may effectually relieve it. In worse 
rases, courses of medicine should be given, using the 
cough drops, or cough balsam, and putting a stimulating 
plaster on the chest. Inhaling the smoke of burning pa- 
per, previously wet in saltpetre water has been found to 
jjive immediate relief. 



PALSY. 

Symptoms. — A sudden loss of sensibility and motion 
in one or more of the muscles ; frequently one half of 
the body is affected from above downward, and some- 
limes only the lower extremities. It is often attended 
with drowsiness, and is sometimes preceded by numb- 
ness, coldness, paleness, and slight convulsive twitches. 
When the head is much affected, the face is drawn to 
one side, and the memory and judgment are much im- 
paired. In some cases the motion is lost and not the 
feelings, and vice versa. 

Causes. — Sedentary and luxurious living ; excessive 
mental application ; lead ; mercury, and other poisons ; 
apoplexy, and injuries of the head and spine. 

Treatment. — When this disease attacks violenty, its 
character is closely related to apoplexy, and requires a 
similar treatment. Friction with vinegar tincture of cay- 



NIGHT MARE. 277 

enne along the spine and on the extremities is very bene- 
ficial. Stimulting injections are often necessary, on ac- 
count of the inactive state of the bowels, and the catheter 
is sometimes required to be used to draw off the urine. — 
Tonics should be plentifully taken, with a large portion 
of cayenne, prickly ash, or other stimulants. Frequent 
steaming, or bathing the feet, should be employed. Elec- 
tricity is a valuable application, judiciously applied, but 
it should always be followed by the vapor bath and cold 
dash. 



NIGHT MARE. 

Symptoms. — The most remarkable of these occur du- 
ring sleep. In mild cases it may be nothing more than 
a frightful dream, with a distressing sense of inability to 
escape the peril ; or the patient fancies he is in danger 
of suffocation. In worse cases, there is a sense of weight 
and oppression of the chest, which he imagines is caused 
by some animal resting there, inspiring terror, impeding 
respiration, paralyzing voluntary motions ; and in this sit- 
uation he sometimes awakes, but is unable to move a 
limb, until relieved by a sudden crisis, or aroused by 
some person. It mostly occurs while lying on the back. 

Causes. — Dyspepsia, wind and indigestible food in the 
stomach. 

Treatment. — Many of the means required for remov- 
ing dyspepsia will be necessary. Besides, a cup of com- 
position and nerve powder, with a tea-spoonful of No. (5 
should be taken at bed time. The patient should take 
light suppers, lie on his right side, be covered with light 
clothing, and if badly affected, have some watchful bed- 
fellow so that he may be aroused, whenever his groans 
or breathing indicate an attack. 



CHAP. XXII. 

MENTAL DISEASES. 



HYPOCHONDRIA. 

Symptoms. — This is the lowest degree of mental dis- 
ease, or more properly speaking, nervous disorder of the 
brain. It is characterized by gloomy and unhappy feel- 
ings — unfounded fears — various fancied diseases, and 
ridiculous vagaries with regard to the state of the body. 
The patient often has a melancholy fear of death — fan- 
cies he is dying, or even dead, and obstinately persists 
in the reality of his imaginations. It is generally at- 
tended with dyspectic symptoms. But real dyspepsia is 
more common to middle age, with some degree of hypo- 
chondria as a system, and hypochondria, to the decline of 
life, with some degree of dyspepsia as a symptom. 

Treatment. — Courses of medicine with the hip, or foot 
bath, and a tonic treatment, will do much good ; but j^g 
the disease has orignated through the medium of the 
mind, to that must the curative means be mainly dj. 
rected. The patient should be stimulated with unboun- 
ded faith in the medicine he takes ; and here, even the 
use of chicanery will be justifiable. But probably the 
most successful thing is to thoroughly convince the pa- 
tient of his mental errors, and inspire him with a pas- 
sionate resolution not to become the victim of morbid 
thoughts. The disease is generally attended with cost- 
iveness, for which the bile pills, and extract of dandelion 
should be used. 

Regimen. — The unbolted wheat bread should by no 
means be neglected in this disease. Exercise too, is often 
superior to any medicine. Travelling, will in many ca- 
ses be beneficial ; particular effort must me made to en- 



INSANITY. 279 

gage the patient's mind in interesting, prosperous, and 
prospective business. 

♦■ 

INSANITY. 

Symptoms. — This kind of mental disease exhibits it- 
self by various morbid feelings, and sentiments, which 
control the patient to the utter disregard of truth or rea- 
son. As hypochondria is a disease of the intellect, or 
forntal portion of the brain, to which the feelings act in 
subservience ; so insanity is a disease of the feelings, or 
posterior portion of the brain, that controls the intellect. 
Insanity will exhibit as many characters as there are or- 
gans, or combinations of organs to be affected. The fu- 
rious mania, springs from the excitementof corabativeness 
and destructiveness ; conceit and vanity, from that of 
self-esteem and approbativeness ; melancholy, and lisl- 
lessness, from that of ideality and sadness, &;c. 

Treatment. — A lobelia emetic has the most decided 
influence over the mind of a maniac, of any medicine 
known , often making them entirely sane during its op- 
eration. Thorough courses of medicine have repeatedly 
cured insanity, permanently. Much attention should be 
paid to the bowels ; for they are generally torpid. The 
probability of cure will be much increased by the recent- 
ness of the attack ; or by its having arisen consequent to 
some physical disorder; or by the patient being young, 
or from its having arisen from fear, or misfortunes. Those 
who treat the insane should secure both their affection 
and their reverence; use them with the utmost kindness, 
but firmly persist in their obedience. Travelling, and 
active interesting labor are among the best moral means 
of cure. According to the reasoning, and experiments of 
Sunderland, pathetism is the most effectual agent known 
for the cure of this malady, whenever the patient can be 
affected by it ; and we expect that means will yet be 
found, by vvhich the strongest may be pathetised; and 
thereby the whole class of nervous diseases be found 
among the easiest to cure. 

•* 

DELIRIUM TREMENS. 

Symptoms.— This peculiar kind of insanity, partak- 



280 DELIRIUM TREMENS, 

ing both of the nature of ordinar\' mania atid hj-po' 
chondria, is caused by the excessive and long continued 
use of spirituous liquors and opium. The wretched 
victim is sleepless ; restless, and impelled with urgent 
motives to move from place to place. His hands tremble. 
He is sometimes boisterous and raving, perhaps fancies 
some one is going to rob or murder him. He is always 
haunted with the most disagreeable spectral illusions ; 
sees snakes ; disgusting insects, that torment him ; and 
particularly devils. We knew a drunkard, who, in this 
disease, fancied that he was covered with hundreds of 
little insects, and every insect was a devil ; this circum- 
stance has given it the common name of blue devils. 

Treatment. — Active lobelia emetics and injections, 
with the strongest astringents, using the foot and hip 
bath, vvijl generally cure it. The patient should be in- 
dulged as much as possible, for there is much debility 
attending it, and when forcibly confined, his struggling 
has proved fatal. Several drunkards have been known 
10 break themselves of their habits by using some of the 
Thomsonian compounds containing cayenne, as a sub- 
stitute for spirits. Bitters, and cayenne, or the bread of 
life should be used a long time after delirium tremens ; 
and if their benefit w'ere generally known, the way to 
temperance would be much easier. 



PROPOGATED DISEASES— CHRONIC] 

CHAP. XXIII. 

CONTAGIONS-CHRONIC 



SYPHILLIS. 



SvMPTOMs. — This horrible disease exhibits itself by a 
disposition to ulceration in various ways. Very frequently 
with a discharge from the urethra or vagina, called clap; 
this in males is sometimes attended with an inelastic 



SYPHILLIS. £81 

state of the urethra, from inflammation or the deposition 
of lymph, which, when erections take place, which fre- 
quently happens during sleep, draws the penis downward, 
in an arch, causinjr severe pain — called a cAor^ee. Some- 
times ulcers of different aspects, appear on the gentinals ; 
and either slowly or rapidly, tend to inflame, corrode and 
destroy them — called chancres. In other cases, the lym- 
phatic glands of the groin swell and suppurate — called 
iuboes. On some occasions there are enlargements of 
ihe bones, called nodes. In other cases the whole sys- 
tem becomes affected, attended with ulceration of the 
throat and nose ; copper colored spots, pimples, and 
ulcers in various parts ; which if not arrested, the victim 
dies a mass of corruption — called constitutional syphillis. 
These effects are often produced or aggravated by the 
use of mercury. 

Treatment. — In its first stages stomach pills, or lobelia 
in broken doses will often effect a cure. The oyster 
shell lime water, and the gelatin capsules, or copavia baU 
sam, should also be used — while lobelia rallies the pow- 
ers of life, these destroy the poisonous virus. The 
sarsaparilla, or alterative syrup may be used with good 
effect. In bad cases, besides these articles, courses of 
medicine are very necessary and effectual. The chan-" 
cres &c., will require a treatment similar to what is found 
under ulceration ; such as washing with vveak ley, and 
astringents ; sprinkling with bloodroot; and poulticing.. 

♦ 

ITCH. 

Symptoms. — Commencing by the appearance of wat- 
ery pimples between the fingers, and extending over the 
body, attended with severe itching, particularly on tak-> 
ing off' the clothes at night. In bad and neglpcted cases 
there is pretty extensive ulceration, and scabbing, and 
the appearance of biles. A species of a more malignant 
character prevails in the Western States, called prairio 

itch. J J I- 1 

Treatment.— Wix sulphur with hard soap, add a little 
spirits turpentine, and rub it over the surface of the body 
on going to bed, and be rolled in a sheet for the purpose. 
In the morning, wash it all off' with warm water. A few 



282 RING WORM— SCALD HEAD. 

applications is an effectual cure, and has the advantage 
of taking a greater effect on the skin, and of avoiding 
the smell attending the use of the common sulphur and 
lard oitment. Where there is ulceration, the meadow- 
fern ointment should be applied several times during the 
day. 

♦ 

RING WORM. 

Symptoms. — Red circular patches on the skin, filled 
with little pustules, which turn to brownish scales in the 
center, while new pustules continue to enlarge the circle 
on its margin, attended with itching and stinging. It 
seems to have several varieties ; some are transient, while 
others continually reappear, and trouble the patient a 
long time. It occurs most frequently on the face, neck, 
and breast of children. 

Treatment. — Apply the anti-scorbutic, meadow-fern, or 
itch ointment, use freely of the sarsaparilla, or alterative 
syrup, — The tincture of garden celandine is recom- 
mended by Dr. Beach for this and other eruptions. 

♦ 

SCALD HEAD. 

Symptoms. — A chronic inflammation of the scalp, com- 
mencing in spots of a brownish appearance, from which 
arises an ofTensive matter that mats the hair together, 
and forms into thick scales. It sometimes spreads over 
the whole head, affects the lymphatic glands of the neck, 
and causes a discharge from the ears. 

Treatment. — The scabs should be taken off with soap 
suds, and the head well washed with a strong decoc- 
tion of sumac, afterward apply the antiscorbutic ointment 
and cover the head with a light cap of oiled silk, or blad- 
der. The meadow-fern ointment, itch ointment, or an 
ointment of tar and lard will all, or either of them be 
useful. The alterative syrup will always be advisable ; 
and in aome cases, courses of medicine will be indispen- 
sable. 



CHAP. XXIV. 

HEEEDITARIES, 



SCROFULA. 

Symptoms. — Swelling and ulceration of the lymphatic 
glands, particularly those of the neck and breast. Some- 
times there is only an enlargement of the glands which 
may not change for years. At other times they inflame, 
and at length commence a protracted discharge of a 
whitish curdled fluid that is sometimes very corroding. 
The general health often suffers materially, and the eyes 
are inflamed. The tubercles of consumption, diseased 
mesenteric glands, and the white dwelling, are supposed 
to be of the same nature as scrofula. 

Treatment. — Occasional courses of medicine; with 
composition and the alterative syrup in the intervals; and 
an occasional use of the bile pills. The vapor bath may 
often be employed. The constant use of agrimony as a 
tea has been said to cure. But the best medicines are 
temperance, and an invigorating regimen. 

CANCER. 
Symptoms. — These commence with a scirrus or hard 
lump on some glandular, or soft part, most commonly 
about the face or breast ; which is the result of some pre- 
vious inflammation. At length it begins to inflame, at- 
tended at times, with twinges, or sharp lancinating pains, 
like needles or slivers running through the part. Final- 
ly ulceration succeeds, discharging a corroding fetid fluid. 
The edges of the ulcer are ragged, elevated, and often 
very painful. The disease often rapidly destroys the sur- 
rounding parts, and the miserable patient is consumed 
alive. 



284 CANCER— WORMS. 

Treatment. — A caustic plaster made by boiling the ley 
of hickory wood, or red oak bark, has cured a number. 
Much advantage will be had by washing or syringing ihera 
with ley as strong as can be borne. The inspissated 
juice of the wood sorrel is very effectual. Thomson found 
much benefit from the extract of the tops of red clover. 
Poultices of grated yellow dock roots, with a free 
use of the tea to drink, has also cured. A decoction of 
green osier, or red willow, drank and applied, is thought 
very serviceable. The oyster shell lime water, and the 
alterative syrup should be used. The use of lobelia, and 
courses will do their part. The bile pills should be fre- 
quently used. Before the tumor has ulcerated, it should 
be steamed frequently over an infusion of bitter herbs, 
and strong soap suds; and the medicines freely taken. 
Thomson recommends burning spunk on the tumor to in- 
duce suppuration. After ulceration has taken place, ap- 
ply the sorrel plaster, until it becomes painful ; then wash 
it well with ley ; then with a strong decoction of sumac; 
then apply a salve of beefs gall and blood root ; and so 
alternate. 



WORMS. 

Symptoms. — Variable appetite — fetid breath — acrid 
eructations, and pains in the stomach — grinding of the 
teeth during sleep — picking at the nose — paleness of the 
countenance — hardness, and fulness of the belly — slimy 
stools — occasional griping pains — short dry cough — slow 
irregular fever — emaciation of the body — irregular pulse, 
and sometimes, convulsions. The most certain symptom 
of the tape worm, is the passage of portion.s of the ani- 
mal in the stool. The pin worm is known by tickling 
heat, and itching of the rectum. 

Treatment. — For mild cases, give a teaspoonful pul- 
verized balmony and skunk's cabbage, equal parts, 
cayenne a tenth part, in milk or molasses, 3 limes a day, 
together with from 1 to 3 stomach pills. In urgent cases 
the wormseed oak of Jerusalem, or its oil, may be added 
to the above ; Dose from a half to a teaspoonful of the 
seed ; of the oil, from 4 to 10 drops on sugar. 



PART IV. 

MATERIA MEDICA 

CHAP. I. 

THOMSON'S NUMBERS. 

No. 1, Emetics. — "To cleanse the stomach, overporver 
the cold and promote a free perspiration.^^ 
LOBELIA INFLATA. 

\st Preparation. — The plant pulverized. The leaves 
and pods thus prepared, are called green lobelia, and the 
seeds, brown lobelia. These are the forms commonly 
employed for an emetic. The brown has about twice 
the strength of the green. 

2d Preparation. — The green herb bruised and tinc- 
tured with spirits, or vinegar. Used for bathing — for 
coughs — a good emetic for children. 

3rd Preparation. — Brown lobelia tinctured in No. 6, 
to which is added, according to judgment, cayenne, nerve 
powder, and soda. The most prompt emetic known. 
Valuable for spasms, poisons, and suspended animation. 

Blue vervain, and boneset, are good emetics. Blood 
root is an emetic that has a special action on the throat. 
It is harsh alone, but its addition to lobelia is an iraprove- 
raent for croup, bronchitis, &c. 

No. 2. Stimulants.— "To retain the irtternal vital 
heat of the system, and cause a free perspiration." 



286 MATERIA MEDICA. 

CAYENNE— CAPSICUM BACCATUM. 

It is prepared by pulverizing the pods or tincturing 
them in spirits, or vinegar. The oil may be obtained by 
making a tincture with ether, and evaporating it. 

The garden pepper, ginger, black pepper, and pepper- 
mint plant belong to this class. 

No. 3. Astringents. — "To scour the stomach, and 
bowels, and remove the canker.'''' 

The Bayberry root bark, white pond lily root, in- 
ner BARK OF HEMLOCK, RED RASPBERRY, WITCH HAZLE, AND 
SUBIAC, ARE THE MOST USED OF THIS CLASS. Take the 

berries of sumac, (Rhus glabrum) dried in an oven, and 
rub off the dust through a sieve. This powder, mixed 
with Bayberry, is valuable for cankered sore mouths, ul- 
cers, and all cases of canker. Astringents are generally 
prepared by decoction. See Therapeutics, and false 
membrane, p. 121 — 256. 

No. 4. Tonics. — "Bitters to connect the bile, and re' 
store digestion^ 

Golden seal, balmony, poplar, and unicorn, are 
among the best of this class. See the bitter compounds 
in the 11 Chap, and Tonics, p. 122. 

No. 5. Stomachics. — "Syrup for the dysentery, to 
strengthen the stomach, and bowels, and restore weak 
patients.''^ 

Take poplar, and bayberry, 1 pound each, boil in 2 
gallons of water, strain and add 7 pounds of sugar, scald 
and skim ; then add half a pound of pulverized peach, or 
cherry stone bieats ; and when cold, a gallon of good 
brandy. 

Bitter almonds, or wild cherry bark may be used as 
a substitute for peach meats. See p. 134. 

No. 6. Antiseptics. — "Rheumatic drops, to remove 
pain, prevent mortificatioji, and promote a natural heat.'''' 

Take one gallon of fovrth proof brandy, or alcohol, 
pulverized myrrh, one pound, cayenne, two oz. Put them 
into a stone jug, and boil a few minutes in a kettle of 
water, leaving the jug unstopped. It may be prepared 
without boiling, by standing in a warm place several days. 



MATERIA MEDICA. 287 

This is often called hot drops. Bayerry, golden seal, &c. 
is sometimes added. Balm of gilead buds, area pretty 
good substitute for myrrh. 



CHAP. II. 

ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICINES. 



EMETICS. 



Previous to an emetic the system should be well pre- 
pared by letting the patient drink freely of composi- 
tion, and two or three stomach pills every twenty minutes 
lor two or three hours. In some chronic cases, these 
medicines may be used several days previously, but not 
so often. 

Put into a tea-cupful of strong bayberry, or soma other 
astringent decoction, a tea-spoonful of the green lobelia, 
or half the quantity of brown. Let the patient take one 
third of this every ten minutes, one half every fifteen 
minutes, or the whole every half hour, as may be advisa- 
ble. This quantity is generally taken three times. But 
if it does not then act sufficiently, it may be repeated to 
the fourth, fifth, or even the sixth time. If vomiting lin- 
gers give No. 2 and saleratus water. A change of posi- 
tion will often assist vomiting. This is attributed by Dr. 
Mattocks to the propulsion of the medicine upon the py- 
lorus, or lower opening of the stomach, which is very 
sensitive. For this reason he directs the patient to lie 
on the right side when they wish to favor the operation 
of an emetic or cathartic, and vice versa. After every 
spell of vomiting, the patient should drink freely of bone- 
set, or pennyroyal tea. In chronic cases, bayberry or 
some other strong astringent should be used freely during 
the operation. Composition is not advisable at this time, 
as it disgusts the patient against it afterward. Toward 
the close of vomiting, milk porridge or water gruel should 
be drank. When it is wished to produce considerable 



288 MATERIA MEDICA. 

relaxation, the brown emetic should be used in tea-spoon- 
ful doses, and also given by injection. For a quick emet- 
ic, give the vinegar tincture, soon followed by a cup of 
saleratus water. If mixed together and given while foam- 
ing, patients who refuse the medicine may be deceived. 
A variety of unusual symptoms occasionally take place 
during the operation of an emetic. Some are apt to have 
a severe pain in the stomach and bowels, like cholic. — 
No. 6 and the vapor bath are good to relieve these. — 
( Sometimes great nervous agitations occur, or even delir- 
ium and spasams. These are the effect of taking opium, 
or some serious nervous disease. Give No. 2, and ner- 
vines. In other cases, which have received the name of 
alarming symptoms, the patient becomes relaxed or pros- 
trated, lies he\pless, pants or sobs, and in some cases be- 
comes entirely insensible to surrounding objects. These 
occur most frequently in chronic disease, after the patient 
has had several courses of medicine. The results have 
shown them to be a favorable crisis ; therefore their 
name is a ' false alarm.' In these cases, rub the extrem- 
ities with vinegar tincture of cayenne ; give cayenne, 
and wine bitters. 



THE VAPOR BATH. 

The apparatus for giving this bath may be constructed 
in various ways. The following is a very convenient 
method. To a hoop about 3 feet in diameter, suspend a 
curtain of tight cloth, 6 feet long, and enclosed excepting 
a space in one of the seams large enough for a person to 
put out his head, and a smaller one near the bottom to 
insert the steam pipe. Cover the top of the whoop with 
the cloth in such a manner that there may be a hole in 
the centre, large enough to admit a persons body ; and 
<made so that it may be drawn together with a string like 
a work bag. Have a tin pipe made, 5 or 6 feet long, so 
as to be put together in joints, with an elbow at one end, 
having the mouth of the pipe expanded so as to slip over 
the mouth of any teakettle ; and at the other end a cup to 
catch the water that may be condensed, with a cover full 
of holes to spread the steam. A handful of aromatic 



MATERIA MEDICA. 98© 

herbs may be put into the cup, tbus constituting tbe med- 
icated vapor bath. 

To operate with this, suspend tbe curtain to the wall 
overhead at a suitable distance from the fire. Fill the 
tea-kettle with water up to the spout, but not above it. 
Lay under the cover, a peice of cloth, or paper, so as to. 
make it steam tight. The pipe at the spout may then be 
put on, and fastened with similar packing, the other end 
being inserted into the curtain. A chair should be put, 
within, for the patient to sit on. He should be stripped 
^►f his clothes, and furnished with a pail of hot water to 
bathe his feet, and a piece of castile soap and a sponge, to 
•wash his surface ; especially for the first bath in a course 
of medicine. If there is much obstruction, the steam 
should be raised gradually, and continued from half to 
three quarters of an hour. While in the bath, the patient 
should drink freely of composition. If faintness occur, 
which is neither uncommon, nor alarming, give him a 
sponge wet with cold water to rub over his face and 
breast. Patients often ask for cold water while going 
through a course of medicine. If it be given in small 
quantities at a time, and a free perspiration kept up, it 
will do no harm at any time, but have a very fine effect, 
and promotes sweating. When the patient cornes out 
of the bath, wet his body and limbs uniformly with cold 
water ; or if this be objected, warm salt and vinegar and 
water may be substituted. It tones the skin, preserves 
the heat, and prevents taking cold. It may be omitted 
after the first bath in a course of medicine. 

In order to take the hip lath, ail that is necessary is, 
to open the top of the curtain, and bring it down to the 
waist, and fasten it there by drawing the string. This 
application of the vapor bath has the advantage of being 
applicable a much longer time, without producing famt- 
ness, than the other way; and is also highly useful in 
determinations to the hea'd, female obstructions, and d»8- 
eases of the urinary organs. 

When such an apparatus is not at hand, there is a very 
simple and not inconvenient method of steaming, which 
was commonly practised by Thomson and the early prac- 
titioners. Place the patient in a chair ; cover him with 



290 MATERIA MEDICA. 

two thick blankets, pinned around his neck, or drawit 
over his head, as the case may require; under the chair 
])ni a shallow vessel of hot water ; and having heated 
several stones of difTerenl sizes, proceed with the opera- 
tion bv putting the largest into the water first. 

When a patient cannot sit up he may be steamed in 
bed. Take several barrel hoops, cut ofT a few inches of 
eacii end, and nail across them several strips of wood, so 
as to make a frame to cover the patient, over which the 
bedding is to be thrown. Having heated two or three 
stones, hold them in water till done hissing, then wrap 
them in wet cloths, afterward in dry ones, and place them 
to the patients feet, and sides. 

While the patient is in the bath ventilate the room, by 
iricieasing the fire, and opening the doors and windows. 



-♦- 



ENEMAS, OR INJECTIONS. 

For an injection to 7nove the boicels. — Take composi- 
tion and nerve powder, a teaspoonful each, a half a pint 
of boiling water, settle, or strain, and add molasses, and 
a little sweet oil, or melted lard. 

For a relaxing ivjedion. — Take brown lobelia, nerve 
powder, and No. 6, a teaspoonful each, composition tea, 
a sufficient quantity. 

For a stimulating injection, a teaspoonful of cayenne 
should be added, and the lobelia, in some cases left out. 

For a dysenlcTTj. — Use a strong decoction of sumac, 
tar water, and slippery elm mucilage. 

F'or piles. — Use a strong decoction of cranesbill, or 
wilch hazle, and retain them over night. 

To administer them. — Fill the syringe, and smear the 
tube with lard or tallow ; elevate the pipe, and push the 
piston, till the liquid flows out, so as to exclude the air. 
The patient may generally perform the operation him- 
self, except discharging the syringe, without uncovering. 
And if provided with one havmg a bent tube, he may per- 
form the operation wholly alone. Sometimes they pass 
soon, with little efiect, and should be repeated. Some- 
times they are retained an unusal time, in which case 
several may be administered. In bad cases, where it is. 



MATERIA MEDIC A. 291 

desirable they should be retained, they may be held up 
with a cloth. 



COURSES OF MEDICINE. 

These consist in the application of the means just de- 
sajribed, in a regular series ; designed to cleanse the whole 
alimentary canal, equalize the circulation, and restore the 
secretions ; and are therefore applicable to all diseases; 
without an exception. 

A light course. — No. 1. — Give the patient freely of 
composition, cayenne and bayberry, or some other astrin- 
gent and stomach pills ; bathing his feet at thesame time 
in hot water, adding to the temperature, as fast as the 
feet will bear it. Then put him in bed, and give an 
emetic as before described. 

A full course. — No. 2. — Commence with the prepara- 
tory medicines and bathing the feet ; then give an injec- 
tion ; then the emetic ; and as soon as this is done 
operating, no matter if a little before, give the vapor bath. 

A thorough course. — No 3. — This consists in the ad- 
ministration of the preparatories, of an injection of brown 
lobelia, a bath, the emetic, and then another injection, 
and bath. If the lobelia has made sufficient impression 
it may be left out of the last injection. The cold dash, 
also, will not be necessary after the first bath. 

A long course. — This consists simply in prolonging the 
emetic, by giving frequent nauseating doses of lobelia, 
and then increasing the quantity, so as to produce vom- 
iting every hour. It may be applied to either of theother 
courses ; thus a long light course, a long full course &c. 
Highly successful, where there is much inflammation, or 
obstruction. 



CHAP. in. 

COMPOUNDS. 



COMPOSITION. 

The Tkomsonian Pa7iacea. — Take Bayberry 2 lbs., of 
f^inger 1 lb., Cayenne 2 oz., cloves 2 oz., finely pulrer- 
ized and mixed. This is a highly valuable and pleasant 
medicine in colds, head-ache, or pains in any part, bowel 
complaints, cold hands and feet, female complaints caus- 
ed by cold. In fine it is almost universally applicable is 
disease. Directions, 1 teaspoonful in a cup of hot water, 
witfa milk and sugar, repeated at discretion. 

• ♦ 

TONIC COMPOSITION. 

Take bayberry 4 lbs., poplar 2 lbs., inner bark of hem- 
lock 2 lbs., black birch 1 lb., cayenne 1-2 lb., cloves 1-2 
lb., sassafras 1-2 lb., pulverized and mixed. We hav« 
found this formula very efiectual for debilitated patients, 
and chronic diseases. 



DIAPHORETIC COMPOSITION. 
Take bayberry 1 lb., ginger 1 lb., pleurisy root 1 lb., 
peppermint plant 2 oz., cayenne 2 oz., pulverized aod 
mixed. Valuable in fevers, inflammations, colic &c. 

ANTI-DYSPEPTIC CONSERVE, OR BREAD OF LIFE. 
Take poplar, goldenseal, bayberry, ginger, lady's- 
8lip|)er, cinnamon, and cloves, each 2 oz., loaf-sugar 4 
lbs, all finely pulverized. Mix these articles into a stiff 
dough with slippery elm mucilage, or some other similar 
substance ; adding an ounce each of the oils of penny- 
royal and spearmint. Form into cakes to suit the fangy. 
and dry in a gentle heal. This preparation may be car- 



MATERIA MEDICA. 293 

ried in ihe pocket, and eaten freely. It is beneficial in 
coughs, consumptions, faintness at the stomach, dyspep- 
sia, jaundice, loss of appetite, sore throat, mercurial sali- 
ration, and scrofulous affections. 

It warms and invigorates the system, in cold weather, 
and dissipates the languid or drowsy feelings which are 
so often experienced on the return of spring. Travelers, 
who are nuich exposed to a changeable climate would 
find it a valuable preventive of disease. It is a valuable 
substitute for tobacco, alcoholic drink, of all kinds. 

♦ 

DYSPEPTIC POWDERS. 

Take poplar 2 lbs., goldenseal 4 oz., cayenne 2 oz., 
brown sugar 4 lbs. ; add 1-2 an ounce of essence penny- 
royal, mix thoroughly. Useful in dyspepsia, costiveness, 
affections of the liver, and general debility. 

They are a superior remedy for distress" occasioned by 
food, loss of appetite, faintness at the stomach, general 
debility, and a sovereign remedy for dyspepsia, if perse- 
vered in. 

Dose. — A teaspoonful may be taken in wine, warm 
water, or, if more convenient, a glass of cold water, from 
three to five times a day. 

-*■ 

SPICE BITTERS. 

Take poplar 2 lbs., goldenseal, balmony black cherry, 
4oz. each, gmger, prickly ash, cloves, the young plant of 
the spicy vvintergreen and cayenne 2 oz. each, sugar 4 
lbs., mix. 

Dose. — A teaspoonful in hot water with milk. 
2nd Formula. — Take poplar, bayberry, and goldenseal 
1 lb. each, cayenne and cloves 4 oz. each, sugar 3 1-2 
lbs. These bitters are a superior remedy for weak stom- 
achs, pains of the head, stomach, or bowels, inactive cir- 
(wlation, coldness of hands and feet, loss of appetite, im- 
purities of the blood, etc. 

Directions. — Tea-spoonful in warm water, sweetened 
with sugar, before each meal. Or put two ounces into a 
pint of hot water, and add 4 oz., of loaf sugar and a quart 
of good wine. Take a half wine glass, as often as direc- 
ted for the powder. 



294 MATERIA MEDICA. 

WINE BITTERS. 

Take poplar 2 lbs., bayberry 1 lb., goldenseal, balmo- 
ny, unicorn, quassia chips, and scull-cap 4 oz., cayenno 
2 oz. Put into water and boil in a covered vessel to 2 
quarts. Strain, add 8 lbs. of sugar, scald and skim. — 
Then steep by a gentle heat, prickly ash berries, cin- 
namon and all-spice, 2 oz. each, in a gallon of sweet mal- 
aga wine, strain, and add to the above when cold. 

Dose. — A wine-glassful 2 or 3 times a day. 

2nd Formula. — Take balmony, bayberry, cassia buds, 
and bitter-root 8 oz., golden seal 12 oz., anise seed 4 oz., 
cloves 2 oz., cayenne 1 oz., brown sugar 3 lbs., pulverized 
and mi.xed; put 1 oz. of the powder steeped in hot water 
to a quart of wine. These are said to be the celebrated 
wine bitters prepared by Dr. John Thomson. The wine 
bitters are a very pleasant restorative for debilitated peo- 
ple and convalescents. Very useful in dyspepsia, sick- 
headache, heart-burn, sinking, torpid feelings, and when- 
ever a tonic is required, 

^. 

FEMALE RESTORATIVE. 

Take poplar 2 lbs., unicorn 1 lb., beth root and nerve 
powder S oz., golden seal, balmony, boxwood flowers, 
and myrrh, 4 oz. each, cinnamon, cloves and cayenne, 2 
oz. each — well pulverized, mixed and sifted — to which 
add loaf sugar, pulverized, 4 lbs. 

Dose. — 1 tea-spoonful in warm water, with milk and 
sugar. This is a valuable article for flour albus, prolap- 
sus uteri, and any female weakness. It is a good tonie 
in any case; useful for pulmonary consumption, dyspepsia; 
for coughs, and bleeding at the lungs. Or 2 oz. of the 
powder may be steeped in a pint of water, when cool, add 
1 qt. of wine, and 4oz. sugar. Dose, a wineglass, thre© 

limes a day. 

^ 

NERVE POWDER. 
Take the root of the Lady's slipper, and the leaves 
and stalk of skull-cap, pulverized, equal parts. Or either 
may be used separately. This medicine is highly valued 
for nervous afTections, wind in the stomach, irritation ai>d 
agitation of the nervous system. They strengthen th« 
oe^'ves, compose the mind, and promote a calm and iva(* 



MATERIA MEDICA. 29-5 

ural slepp. These powders are far preferable to opium 
and are perfectly safe. 

Directions.— Fwm a half to a tea-spoonful in warm 
water, or they can be taken in a tea of the vegetable 
composition, from one to three times a day. 

♦ 

COUGH OR FEVER POWDER. 
Take skunk-cabbage and white-root, 4 parts each; 
horehound and wake-robin 2 parts each, lobelia, cayenne, 
bayberry, bitter-root, and nerve powder, 1 part each; pul- 
verized and mixed. 

Pose. — 1 tea-spoonful in hot water or composition tea, 
with sugar and milk ; or it may be taken cold in molas- 
ses or milk. Very good to loosen a cough ; and a good 
medicine in fevers and inflammations. 

♦ 

AGUE POWDER. 
Take yellow peruvian bark, prickly ash berries, cloves, 
black pepper, and cream of tartar, 1 oz. each ; cayenne 
pepper half an oz.; infuse in a little hot water, and add 
2 quarts of brandy or wine. Dose.— A wine-glassfull 
several times a day before the paroxym. This prepara- 
tion will almost infallibly arrest the ague and fever. 
^ 

STIMULATING TEA. 

Take cayenne, bayberry, ginger, white-root, and scull- 
^ap, 1 tea-spoonful each ; green lobelia half a tea-spoon- 
ful.' Steep in a bowl, and keep warm by the fire. 

Dose.— 2 or 3 swallows every 15 or 20 minutes. Ve- 
ry effectual in acute attacks. 

DYSENTERY POWDER. 

Take bayberry, inner bark of hemlock, white oak bark, 
black cherry bark, witchhazel leaves, poplar bark, golden 
seal, blackberry root, cranesbill, black pepper, all-spice, 
cinnamon, and myrrh, 4 oz. each ; cayenne and cloves. 
2 oz. each. Steep 2 oz. of the powder in 1 quart of hot 
water. Dose.— I tea-cupfuU every 2 hours, sweetened 
with loaf sugar. Directions.— Fat these powders into o 
pints of water boil and strain, add loaf sugar sufficient to 
sweeten it sweet, also one pint of good brandy. 

This powder is a $ov«reign remed; in diarrhea mi 



296 MATERIA MEDICA. 

the forming stages of dysentery and cholera. From half 
to a wine glass full may be taken at a dose, repeating it 
every hour and a half until a cure is effected, or if the 
case is severe a full dose of composition and No. 6, should 
be taken once in two hours. 



WORM POWDER. 
Take 1 oz. of wormseed, (oak of Jerusalem) bitter roof, 
balmony, skunk-cabbage 1-2 oz. each. Pulverize, and 
give a teaspoonful from three to five times a day in mo- 
lasses, or milk. Very safe and good to destroy worms, 
and restore the appetite. 

♦ 

CATARRH SNUFF. 
Take bayberry 3 oz., bitter root 1 oz., colts-foot, snake- 
root, leaves and roots, myrrh, gum arabic,and blood root, 
]-2 an ounce each. All very finely pulverized and mix- 
ed. Good for catarrh, obstruction of the nose from cold, 
polypus &c. 

•*• 

SMELLING SALTS— HARTSHORN. 
Take sal-ammonia 1 part, quick lime 2 parts, pulver- 
ize separately, put them in a vial, add a little essence of 
golden rod, and keep corked tight. Good to hold to the 
nose for faintness, suspended animation, and headache. 

♦ 

COUGH BALSAM. 
Take fir balsam 2 oz., honey 2 oz., alcohol 1 pint. 
Let these stand in a close corked bottle 10 days, shaking 
it frequently. Then filter, and add 1 pint of the tincture 
of lobelia. Dose, from 1-2 to a tea-spoonful, several times 
a day. A valuable medicine in coughs, asthma, pain in 
the breast, croup, gravel, dropsy, gonorrhea, flour albus, 
and nervous affections. 

♦ 

IMPROVED RHEUMATIC DROPS, OR NO. 6. 
Take hemlock bark, and poplar, each 4 oz., black cher- 
ries mashed, 1 lb, steep in 3 pints of brandy ; strain and 
add 12 oz. of myrrh, 2 oz, of cayenne, steep 2 hours, and 
stir constantly. Add 1 gallon of 4th proof brandy, shake 
it occasionally for a few days ; then settle, and pour off". 
Alcohol may be used instead of the brandy, in which 



MATERIA MEDICA. 297 

case the compound must be boiled again, so that it may 
not be milky, and filtered. Besides the other additions, 
Ihis formula has the advantage of extracting all the qual- 
ities of the myrrh, whic-h is a gum resin, °and requires 
both water, and alcohol to dissolve it. This medicine is 
universally applicable for pain, and soreness, internally 
and externally. It is an antiseptic, and good to prevent 
mortification. 



RHEUMATIC OR STIMULATING LINIMENT. 
Take white soap 5 lbs., dissolve it in 3 quarts of soft 
water, by boiling. Next dissolve camphor, oils of origa- 
num, and rosemary, 4 oz. each, in 1 gallon of alcohol. 
Then boil 6 oz. of cayenne, in 1 quart of water 15 min- 
Btes. Add the ingredients together, and shake well. 
To be bathed on the surface for pain, inflammation, and 
swelling of every kind. Good to restore an action to the 
surface in congestion, cold feet and hands, &c. 

INDIA RUBBER, OR GUM-ELASTIC LINIMENT. 
Dissolve a suitable quantity of India rubber in 1 quart 
of linseed oil, made sufficiently hot. When cold, add 
1-2 an ounce ot oil of wormwood ; the dust sifted from 
hops, cayenne, and myrrh fine, 1-2 an oz. each. Good 
for bruises, swellings, neuralgia, &c. 

♦■ 

STRENGTHENING, AND ADHESIVE PLASTER. 
Take common resin 1 lb., beeswax 4 oz., burgundy 
pitch 8 oz., mutton tallow 2 oz. Melt these together, 
and add sweet oil 2 oz., sassafras oil 1-2 an oz., cayenne, 
1 ounce. Stir till cold, and work it in the hands like, 
wax. To be spread on cloth, or soft leather. Good to 
be applied over almost any seat of pain ; for sprains 
fractures, rheumatism, &c. 

-* 

MOTHERS RELIEF. 
Take patridge-berry-vlne I lb., high-cranberry-barfe, 
red-rhaspberry and unicorn 1-2 lb., each ; boil in 2 gaj- 
loBS of water, to 3 quarts. Infuse in a qt. of warm brandy 
1-2 pound of nerve power. Strain, mix and add 3 lbs. of 
sugar. Dose, from 1-2 to a wine glass full, from 1 to 3 
limes a day. This medicine should be used by every 



298 MATERIA MEDICA. 

pregnant female, 2 or 3 weeks previous to her confine* 

ment, ' 
« 

RHEUMATIC DECOCTION. 
Take black cohosh, Prickly ash, and cocash roots, 1 
oz, each, cayenne, 1 tea-spoonful. Steep in a quart of 
water. Dose, 2-3 of a cupful every 3 hours. Very eflec- 
tual in rheumatism. 

♦ 

EYE WATER. 
Take green osier bark, and rose leaves 1 oz. each ; 
make a slronjr decoction, and filter well. Make it slight- 
ly alkaline, with castile soap, and add a litile No. 6. 

♦■ 

CHOLERA SYRUP. 
Take poplar, black birch, bayberry, and blackberry 
root, 1 lb. each, golden seal, and balmony, 1-2 lb. each. 
Boil in 5 gallons of water 1-2 an hour, strain : add 15 
lbs. of sugar ; scald and skim. Take nerve powder, and 
peach meats, ] lb. each, tincture ihem in a gallon of No. 
6 ; strain and mi.v. Very good for cholera morbus, dys- 
entery, diarrhea, &c. 

^ 

PULMONARY BALSAM. 

Take spikenard, elecampane, comfrey, skunks cabbage 
roots, and hoarhound tops 8 oz.each ; wild turnip, blood-root, 
liquorice-ball 4 oz. each ; boil in 2 gallons of water down to 1. 
Strain and add 4 lbs. of sugar, 1 quart of Jamaica rum, 2 oz. 
tincture of lobelia, and 1-3 of an oz. essence of wintergreen. 

Dose, a table-spoonful 5 times a day. Good in affections of 
(iLe lungs and chest. 



DIURETIC CORDIAL. 
Take queen of the meadow, parsley root, sweet elder bark, 
1 lb. each ; cleavers, juniper berries, pipsissewa, and spear- 
mint herb, 8 oz each. Bruised, and boiled in 3 gallons of 
■water down to 2 ; strain and add 7 lbs. of sugar, and 1 gallon 
of metheglin, or gin. Dose, a wine-glass full as often as ne- 
cessary, till the desired effect is produced. Very useful ia 
gravel, stranguary, and dropsy. 

* 

ALTERATIVE, OR SARSAPARILLA SYRUP. 
Take american or foreign sarsaparilla, 6 lbs., guaiacum sha- 
Tings 3 lbs, sassafras, yellow dock root, elder flowers, bur- 
dock seed, green osier bark, and meadow fern burrs 1 lb, eark. 
Add 1 galioB of cheap spirits^ and 1 gallon of water, boii »Bd 



MATERIA MEDICA. 299 

pour off ; then add water repeatedly, and boil till the strenglk 
is obtained ; reduce to 4 gallons, and add 25 lbs. of clarified 
tjugar ; settle and pour off. Dose, a wine-glass full 4 times a 
day. Used in eruptive disease, syphillis, scrofula, and rbei- 
matism. To clarify sugar, add 1-2 its weight of water, a few 
eggs, boil and skim. 



NERVE OINTMENT. 
Take burdock seed, seed of the buckhorn brake, wormwood, 
rtie, camomile, nnd bitter sweet bark of the root, each 4 
ounces; put them in a convenient vessel, cover with the oil of 
the common turtle, or neats-foot oil. Simmer them over a 
slow fire 12 hours ; then strain, settle, and bottle for use. 
Very eflfectual for swelled breasts, bruises, sprains, contrac- 
ted sinews, callous, sore-throat. Stc. 



HEALING SALVE. 
Take beeswax, salt butter, 1 lb. each, white turpentine 1-2 
lb. balsam-fir 12 oz ., myrrh 4 ounces ; melt and simmer them 
together. Strain and add 2 oz. of finely sifted oyster-shell 
lime. Very healing and cleansing for burns, and ulcers of ail 
kinds. 



MEADOW-FERN OINTMENT. 
Take meadow-fern burrs, and simmer them in fresh buUer. 
Or make an extract, by boiling the leaves and twigs of the 
shrub, add an equal part of lard, and unite them with strong 
ley. 



ITCH OINTMENT. 
Bruise the roots of yellow dock ; simmer them in fresh but- 
ter at less than a scalding heat. To this add an equal part ef 
meadow-fern ointment, and a little No. 6, and spirits of tur- 
pentine. 

■*■ 

PILE OINTMENT. 
Take finely pulverized nut-galls, and myrrh, 1 oz. ea«b; 
mutton tallow 7 oz., oil of spearmint 1-2 an ounce. Use fr©«- 
ly at bed time. 

♦ 

STIMULATING POULTICE. 
Take warm yeast, 1 pint, salt and brown lobelia 1 tabU- 
«poonful each, cayenne, 2 table-spoonfuls, soft soap, 1 t»a- 
cnpfull. Thicken with slippery elm and Indian meal. — Dr. 
John Thomson. Very successful in inflammatory rheumatiem, 
and other inflammations. 



VEGETABLE CAUSTIC. 
Take a quantity of wood sorrel, brui.«e it in a mortal', pre.'i 
<iBl t^ juice,, and dry it on shallow plate« is tbe fkb — fc fc« 



3Qi> MATERIA MEDICA. 

spread on cloth and used as a plaster to remove cancer* and 
Himors. 

2nd Formula. — Take the ley of Hickory ashes, evaporate it 
to dryness, and pulverize — Good to remove fungou* flesh, fii- 
tules, cancers, &c. 



STOMACH PILLS. 

Take brown lobelia, 4 oz., cayenne and nerve powder, I ot. 
each, soda or saleratus, ] oz., Castile soap shaved fine, and 
moistened, a sufficient quanuty to work the mass into pills. 
Dose from 1 to 5. Good in dyspepsia, liver complaint, head- 
ache, cough, and inflammation. 

^ 

BILE OR PERISTALTIC PILLS. 

Take ox-gall, evaporate it in a shallow vessel, by a gent|« 
heat to the consistence of tar. Add pulverized culvers-physic 
or black-root suflicient to work into pills. Dose from 1 to 8. 
To be used in costiveness, dyspepsia, jaundice, and ill case* 
where the bowels require aid to move. 

Remark. — An investtgalion has been lately'going on by some 
of the medical men of Europe, into the nature of ox-gall, which 
places it in a very favorable light as a medicine. It prevents 
milk from coajulaling, and dissolves it when it is coajulated. 
Dissolves hardened feces by a chemical action, and is proved to 
be, as Thomson says, the ' natural physic of the body.' It cor- 
rects the ascidity of the stomach ; has a general soothing efl'eel 
and mitigates the pain of cancers ^c. It may be used alone, 
but we have thought proper to unite it with the black-root 
(Leptandra Virginia) generally acknowledged as one of tb« 
most natural cathartics in the vegetable kingdom. 

♦ 

CATHARTIC OR BRANDRETH'S PILLS. 

Take aloes 2 lbs., gamboge 1 lb., Colocynth 4 oz., castil« 
soap 8 oz., shaved thin and softened in water, oil of cinnamon 
1 drachm, oil of pepermint 2 drachms. Mix and form into pills. 
Dose from 2 to 4 generally preceded by the stomach pills. — 
These are said to be genuine Brandreth pills, If they are not 
they are equally as good or rather, as bad. Such cathartics 
are not useful, excepting in obstinate obstructions of th« bow. 
•Is. 



CHAP. IV. 

MEDICAL BOTANY. 

JXCLWiKQ SUCH PtANTS AS HAVI KOT B£EN~HINTIOK£I>, OK 
SUFKICIXNTLY DESCRIBED IN THE WORK. 

Instead of the usual descriptions of plants, we merely give 
their systematic names. This saves much useless labor, for 
many may know most of them; and if not, few would trust to 
a common description alone. To take these botanic names to 
a botanic work, or an experienced botanist, is the surest meth- 
od to become acquainted with plants, that we can point out to 
the reader. But their medical properties are too little known; 
these we give. 

White-root, or Pletjrisy-root — Ascleyias tuberoxa. — Pro- 
motes sweating, the flow of urine, raising from the lungs, and 
relieves colic. 

May-weed — jlnthemis cotula. — Stimulates, sweats, allays 
pain, and vomits. 

Black CoHosu-iJffflcro/j/s racemosa. — Relieves spasms, rhen- 
inalism, and actively promotes the menses. A decoction, 0/ 
tincture of the root. 

Canada Snake-root — Asarum Canadense. — The root is ar- 
omatic and stimulating ; loosens the lungs and vomits. Tb« 
leaves are bitter, and cause sneezing. 

Spikenard — Aralia racemosa. — Healing, purifying, good for 
the lungs. Root and berries. 

Milk weed — Asclcpias syriaca. — Promotes perspiration and 
urine. Good in gravel, dropsy, fevers and inflammations. 

Barberry — Barberis Vulgaris. — A good bitter. Strength- 
eos, and prevents putrefaction. The berries are acid, and good 
in fevers. 

Wild Indigo — Baptista Tinctoria.-M&\(.es an excellent poul- 
tice to prevent mortification, and for ulcers. The bark of tb« 
root. 

Box-wooD or DoG-wooD-Cornizs Florida.-Tomc or strength- 
ening, a substitute for Peruvian bark. Valuable in female 
weakness. The bark or flowers. 

Grkkn-Osier or Rose- Willow — CornmCericea. Healing and 
parifying ; good for sore eye ; stops vomiting. The bark. 



SOS MEDICAL BOTANY. 

SoLOMOffs-SEAL — Cofivallarta multijlora. — Strengthening.— 
Excellent in female weakness. The root. 

Lady's-Slipper — Cypripedium pubescens. — The nerve pow- 
der. Prevents spasms, promotes natural sleep, much better 
than opium. The root. 

Crank's-Bill — Geranium maculatum. — An active astringent. 
Stops bleeding from wounds, or from the lungs, or uterus. 
The powder of the root applied, or the tea drank. 

Golden-Seal — Hydrastis Canadensis. — A good bitter tonic, 
slightly laxative ; found in the Western Slates. The root. 

Skunk Cabbage — Jctodes fetida. — Good for coughs, asth- 
ma, spasms, and worms. 

White- Wood — Liriodendron tulipifera. — An active tonic 
Good for Hysteria. The bark. 

Bitter-sweet — Celastrus scandens. — The bark of the root 
makes a very valuable ointment for swellings. 

Scull-cap — Scutellaria lateriflora. — Tonic nervine, anti- 
spasmodic. Formerly used to cure hydrophobia. 

Dragons Claw. — Pelrospora andromeda. — Promotes sweat- 
ing, and the secretions generally, good in fevers — nervine, and 
antispasmodic — the whole plant. 

Crawley Root. — A plant with a general resemblance to the 
preceding, with very similar properties — and much more com- 
mon. The roots with white root, cayenne and lobelia, make 
an excellent fever powder. 

Coc.vsH — ^ster hyssoperf alius. — Aromatic — stimulant — and 
astringent. Good for rheumatism — consumption — and chron- 
ic disease generally. A tea of the roots and tops is good for 
bleeding at the lungs, or flooding. 

Meadow-fern — Myrica gale. — Healing, and purifying. An 
ointment made from the burrs cures itch, salt-rheum, and tet- 
ters. The decoction may be drank. 

Prickly Ash — Xanthoxylon fraxineum. — A fine diffusible 
stimulant, without producing much heat — sweating, quieting, 
and purifying. The bark or berries. 

Cleavers — Galium aparine. — An active diuretic Very 
good in strangury, gravel, and dropsy. 

Vervain — Verbena hastala. — Tonic, and emetic. Good in 
ague, and fever, and coughs. 

BoNESET — Eupatorium perfoliatum. — Emetic and restora- 
tive. A valuable universal medicine. An infusion of the- 
leaves, taken hot, sweats, and vomits ; taken cold it is laxa- 
tive. \ 

Blood-root — Sanguinaria Canadensis. — Emetic, expector- 
ant, and eraenagogue. Should not be given much in pregnancy. 
Very good for cough and croup ; removes proud flesh. 

Beth Root — Trillium latifolium. — A good astringent and 
tonic. Useful for debility, coughs, flour albus, ^-c. The root. 

Oak op Jerusalem, or Worm-sekd — Chenopodium antheU 
minticum. — The flowers, and seeds, or the oil> destroy warms. 



MEDICAL BOTANY. SOI^ 

Partridge B^nur— Mitchell a repens.— Highly recommended 
to proraote parturition. 

PiPSissEWA — Chtmajihilla umbcllata. — Useful for diseases of 
the urinary organs, dropsy, cancer«, and scrofula. The whol« 
plant. 

HiGH-CRANBEUtiET Cramp-bark — Vibimum oxcconu5.— Re- 
laxes spasms. 

Indian-hemp — Jpocynum canabinum. — Diuretic, slightly las- 
alive, and antispasmodic. Good in dropsy. The extract i.s 
said to cure fits, and promote the absorption of tumors. Re- 
laxing and quieting to the sysiem. 

Virginia Sn^^ke-root — Aristolochia serpentaria. — Sweating 
and strengthening. 

Celandine — Chelodonmm inajus. — The juice is recommend- 
ed for tetters, and to promote the secretions of the liver. 

Gold-thread — Coptis trifolia. — A valuable tonic and astrin- 
gent. Good to restore the appetite, remove canker. The 

root. 

Elecampane — Inula hclcjiium.— Tome and expectorant; very 
good in consumption. The root. 

Dandelion — Leontodon taraxacum. — Promotes the secre- 
tions oenerally, particularly that of the liver. Good in drop- 
sy, jaundice, hypochondria, and complaints of the liver. The 
inspissated juice. . , . :,,..- 

Sassafras— Zawrws sassafras. — Stimulating and alterative. 
Good for rheumatic, scrofulous, and eruptive diseases. The 
bark of the root. The pith infused in rose water makes a 

fine eye water. ^ , . • , . j- ,• 

Spearmint— i»fen</ia viridis .—Biffusihlz stimulant, diuretic 
and aromatic. Makes a good drink in colds, and inflammatory 
diseases. The oil relieves piles. 

Peppermint— iT/e7i//ia piperita.— Stimulant, and aromatic 
Makes a fine stimulating drink for cold. A few drops of the 
essence on sugar relieves pain in the stomach and bowels. 

Pennyroyal— i/fidfowia pulegoides.—Slimulant, aromatic, 
and emenagogue— promoting the menses. An infusion makes 
a very fine drink while taking a course of medicine. All 
emenagogues should be avoided during pregnancy. 

Catnip— jVepe^a Cafarta.— Produces sweating, and expel* 
wind. A valuable medicine for children 

Golden-rod— 5o/t(iago odora.— The tea, or essence is «ele- 

brated for headache. „ . . . • r> j 

GiNG-sHANG-Panax quinqefolia.-T^ervme, and tonic. Good 
ia dyspepsia, debility, and irritability of the nerves. 

SaiART-wEED— Po/ygonwni punctatwn.—SUmalales, equali- 
ses the circulation, and prevents mortification. Makes an ef- 
fectual formeniation for bruises, and inflammations. 

^C^ilndex—See page I37.],a] 



S04 ERRATA. 

Page. Line. 
57,-38, for "fonrlh," read "fifth". 
82,-26, for "shin," read "skin." 
83,-25, for "revoltitioa," read 'evolution.*' 
84,-21, for "causing," read "curing." 
104,-36, for "supposed," read "suppressed." 
134,-24, for "New York," read "York." 
286,-22, for "11 Chap." read "3 Chap." 
There are a number of typographical errors, hut the reader 
can correct them. 



THOMSONIAN DEPOT,* 

EAST BENNINGTON, VT., 
Main street, three doors West of the Methodist Church. 

DR. SILAS* WILCOX, 

Keeps constantly for sale, wholesale and retail, an cxtensiTe 
assortment of pure Thomsonian Medicines, both Simple asd 
Compound. Among which are thi: following : 

Composition, Spice Bitters, Bread of Life, 

Tonic do. Wine do. Catarrh Snuff, 

Diaphoretic do. Anli-Dyspeptic do Red Raspberry, 

Cough Powder, Witch Hazle, Stomach Pills 

Nerve do. Cough Baisann, Cathartic or Brac- 

Worm do. Pulmonary do. dreth's do. 

Dysentery do. Tinct. of Lobelia, Rheumatic Linam't 

Fever do. Cleavers, Volatile do. 

Th'd Preparation, Bl'k Cherry Baric, Extract Dandelion, 

Elder Flowers, Scull Cap, Black Birch, 

Nerve Ointment, Bayberry, Balmony, 

Valerian Root, Slippery Elm, Cayenne, African, 

Pleurisy do. Golden Seal, Poplar, 

Unicorn do. Cough Drops, Ginger, 

Beih do. No. 6, orRheuraat- Myrrh, 

Elecampane do. ic do. Oilsof Tarioosk'di. 



\-jt^L^mm